The US Rise to Power


Since 19th century: Monroe Doctrine


US would not get involved in European internal and colonies' affairs, and all European attempts to colonize America (North and South) would be considered aggressions.

1904: Roosevelt Corollary


Added by Theodore Roosevelt to Monroe Doctrine. Said that US could intervene in Latin American countries if one was involved in "flagrant and chronic wrongdoing"

1917: Interception of the Zimmerman Telegram


February. The Telegram was a German attempt to seek alliance with Mexico in case the US entered WWI
April: US enter WWI

1918: Wilson's 14 Points


US war aims: free trade, open agreements, democracy and self-determination in Europe, economic globalization and free navigation at sea. Also re-organization of territories.

1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk


Peace between Russia and Central Powers, ended Russian participation in WWI

1924: Dawes Plan


The US would lend money to Germany to pay reparations to Europe that would then be able to pay their war debt payments to the US.

1928: Kellogg-Briand Pact


War may not be used to solve problems between the 65 signatory states.

1929: Great Depression


1930: Smoot Hawley Tariff Act


US rose tariffs on imported goods. Counterproductive, reduced exports/imports.

1930: Young Plan


reduced German reparations

1931: Stimson Doctrine


No recognition of land taken by force (initially addressed to Japan and China)

1933: American Recognition of the USSR


1933: Good Neighbor Policy


Non-intervention in Latin American domestic affairs.US hoped it would bring more trade agreements and US influence with them.

1935-39: Neutrality Acts

1935 - 1939

To ensure US would not have to get involved in another war like WWI.

1939-46: Manhattan Project

1939 - 1946

Research and development of atomic bomb.

1939: Cash and Carry


US would sell goods and arms to Europe if they arranged the transportation and pre-payed.

1941: Atlantic Charter


First issued by Churchill + FDR. Definition of Allies' post-war goals: states should chose their own governments (except for the colonies); self-determination.

1941: Lend-Lease Act


US would supply Allies during WWII but expected the money back eventually. (American industry throve)

1941 US enter WWII after Pearl Harbor


1944: Bretton Woods Conference


All currencies pegged to the dollar and creation of IMF and World Bank

1945: Hiroshima and Nagasaki


February 1945: Yalta Conference


FDR, Churchill, Stalin: post-war re-organization of Europe, re-establishment of nations. Very controversial during Cold War.

April 1945: meeting between Churchill, Molotov, Truman


Molotov was chastised for violating Yalta accords (Russia occupied Poland and many parts of Central and East Europe).

August 1945: Potsdam Conference


Decisions on post-war order, peace treaties, punishment of Nazi Germany and effects of war.

1945: UN founded


1947: creation of GATT


General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(later became WTO). Purpose: reduce tariffs and some trade barriers to everyone's advantage.

1947: National Security Act


Restructuring of US military and intelligence agencies. Creation of the CIA

1947: Truman Doctrine


Support of Greece and Turkey to keep them out of Soviet sphere. It began a policy of containment after an era of détente.

1948-52: Marshall Plan

1948 - 1952

"rescue" of post-WWII Europe: economic support to rebuild and modernize.

1948-49: Berlin blockade and airlift

06/24/1948 - 12/05/1949

USSR's attempt to block Allies' access to their parts of Berlin, but the Allies supplied city by air so USSR gave up.

1949: creation of NATO


North Atlantic Treaty Organization: collective defence agreement between North America and many European countries.

1950-53: Korean War

1950 - 1953

1950: NSC-68


National Security Council Report 68: statements of American poicy in Cold War. Helping allies and harming enemies' capacities.

1954-75: Vietnam War

1954 - 1975

1956: Suez Crisis


Nasser began to nationalize Canal and would not let US and GB fund building of Aswan Dam. Israel attecked Egypt and France+GB bombed Cairo (some say it was planned by the 3 powers). 1957: Canal reopened.

1961: Bay of Pigs Invasion


CIA failure to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro.

1962: Cuban Missile Crisis


Khrushchev placed Soviet missiles in Cuba because US had some in Turkey and Italy (aimed at Moscow). US blockade of area. Agreements and Removal of missiles by USSR.

1969: Nixon Doctrine


US would still assist Allies and others in development and in moments of need but would not undertake all of the defense.