The US Rise to Power

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Since 19th century: Monroe Doctrine

1900

US would not get involved in European internal and colonies' affairs, and all European attempts to colonize America (North and South) would be considered aggressions.

1904: Roosevelt Corollary

1904

Added by Theodore Roosevelt to Monroe Doctrine. Said that US could intervene in Latin American countries if one was involved in "flagrant and chronic wrongdoing"

1917: Interception of the Zimmerman Telegram

1917

February. The Telegram was a German attempt to seek alliance with Mexico in case the US entered WWI
April: US enter WWI

1918: Wilson's 14 Points

1918

US war aims: free trade, open agreements, democracy and self-determination in Europe, economic globalization and free navigation at sea. Also re-organization of territories.

1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

1918

Peace between Russia and Central Powers, ended Russian participation in WWI

1924: Dawes Plan

1924

The US would lend money to Germany to pay reparations to Europe that would then be able to pay their war debt payments to the US.

1928: Kellogg-Briand Pact

1928

War may not be used to solve problems between the 65 signatory states.

1929: Great Depression

1929

1930: Smoot Hawley Tariff Act

1930

US rose tariffs on imported goods. Counterproductive, reduced exports/imports.

1930: Young Plan

1930

reduced German reparations

1931: Stimson Doctrine

1931

No recognition of land taken by force (initially addressed to Japan and China)

1933: American Recognition of the USSR

1933

1933: Good Neighbor Policy

1933

Non-intervention in Latin American domestic affairs.US hoped it would bring more trade agreements and US influence with them.

1935-39: Neutrality Acts

1935 - 1939

To ensure US would not have to get involved in another war like WWI.

1939-46: Manhattan Project

1939 - 1946

Research and development of atomic bomb.

1939: Cash and Carry

1939

US would sell goods and arms to Europe if they arranged the transportation and pre-payed.

1941: Atlantic Charter

1941

First issued by Churchill + FDR. Definition of Allies' post-war goals: states should chose their own governments (except for the colonies); self-determination.

1941: Lend-Lease Act

1941

US would supply Allies during WWII but expected the money back eventually. (American industry throve)

1941 US enter WWII after Pearl Harbor

12/07/1941

1944: Bretton Woods Conference

1944

All currencies pegged to the dollar and creation of IMF and World Bank

1945: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

1945

February 1945: Yalta Conference

02/1945

FDR, Churchill, Stalin: post-war re-organization of Europe, re-establishment of nations. Very controversial during Cold War.

April 1945: meeting between Churchill, Molotov, Truman

04/1945

Molotov was chastised for violating Yalta accords (Russia occupied Poland and many parts of Central and East Europe).

August 1945: Potsdam Conference

08/1945

Decisions on post-war order, peace treaties, punishment of Nazi Germany and effects of war.

1945: UN founded

10/24/1945

1947: creation of GATT

1947

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(later became WTO). Purpose: reduce tariffs and some trade barriers to everyone's advantage.

1947: National Security Act

1947

Restructuring of US military and intelligence agencies. Creation of the CIA

1947: Truman Doctrine

1947

Support of Greece and Turkey to keep them out of Soviet sphere. It began a policy of containment after an era of détente.

1948-52: Marshall Plan

1948 - 1952

"rescue" of post-WWII Europe: economic support to rebuild and modernize.

1948-49: Berlin blockade and airlift

06/24/1948 - 12/05/1949

USSR's attempt to block Allies' access to their parts of Berlin, but the Allies supplied city by air so USSR gave up.

1949: creation of NATO

1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organization: collective defence agreement between North America and many European countries.

1950-53: Korean War

1950 - 1953

1950: NSC-68

04/01/1950

National Security Council Report 68: statements of American poicy in Cold War. Helping allies and harming enemies' capacities.

1954-75: Vietnam War

1954 - 1975

1956: Suez Crisis

1956

Nasser began to nationalize Canal and would not let US and GB fund building of Aswan Dam. Israel attecked Egypt and France+GB bombed Cairo (some say it was planned by the 3 powers). 1957: Canal reopened.

1961: Bay of Pigs Invasion

1961

CIA failure to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro.

1962: Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Khrushchev placed Soviet missiles in Cuba because US had some in Turkey and Italy (aimed at Moscow). US blockade of area. Agreements and Removal of missiles by USSR.

1969: Nixon Doctrine

1969

US would still assist Allies and others in development and in moments of need but would not undertake all of the defense.