Foreign Policy

WJEC GCSE UNIT 1 SPECIFICATION

Policies

Isolationism

1918 - 1941

End of WWI,
Cut down of immigrants,
Not part of League of Nations,
Stopped importing Foreign Goods,
Cash and Carry system

Containment

March 1947 - 1971

Truman Doctrine,
Claimed USA had to support free peoples of the World,
Aimed to stop the spread of Communism,
Domino Theory

Detente

1971 - December 1979

To improve relations with Russia and China,
Arms Race unsustainable,
If China and USSR allied, USA would be in trouble

Detente

February 1989 - 1990

Turning Points

Pearl Harbour

12/07/1941

USA fleet attacked by Japanese Air Force,
183 bomber planes from Japan,
Destroyed 177 USA planes and 21 war ships,
2000 soldiers dead

Cuban Missile Crisis

10/15/1962 - 10/28/1962

Before, USA controlled Cuba,
Fiedel Castro takes over and establishes communism,
Castro allies with Khrushchev,
Bay of Pigs invasion with Cuban exiles fails,
Mutually Assured Destruction,
U2 Flight planes take pictures of missiles in Cuba,
USA blockade the island,
USA and USSR sign a treaty after they realise how close they were to M.A.D,
USSR agree to withdraw missiles in Cuba if USA withdraw missiles in Turkey and do not invade Cuba,
A hotline is installed between the Kremlin and the Whitehouse to prevent further confrontation

SALT I

May 1972

Limited missile production and usage

Helsinki Talks

1975

Looked at how both countries could aid international issues in;
Security,
Human Rights and
Co-operation

SALT II

1979

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty,
Banned Arms Race

Events

Arms Race

1941 - 1991

Mutually Assured Destruction,
USA and USSR tried to create new and more destructive weapons

WWII

12/08/1941 - 09/08/1945

Lent $28billion to allies,
Defeated Italy,
D-Day landings, Omaha and Utah,
War in the Pacific,
Lost 26,000 at Battle of Midway,
Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Berlin Blockade

06/24/1948 - 05/12/1949

Attempted starvtion of 2.5 million people in West Berlin by USSR,
USA flew in supplies for 11 months

Brain Drain

1949 - 1964

1 million attempted to cross the border from East to West Berlin

Berlin Wall

08/13/1961 - 11/09/1989

Khrushchev ordered the construction of the Wall to separate East from West Berlin,
Sinatra Doctrine allowed countries could change laws,
Wall is torn down

Vietnam War

1964 - 1975

China, Korea and North Vietnam were already communist,
USA didn't want Russia to have support in Far East,
Pres. Kennedy assasinated, Johnsorn commits to the War,
Gulf of Tonkin attack,
Vietcong fought clever guerilla war,
US GI's were not as good as Vietcong,
USA's modern weapons were ineffective,
Vietcong supplied by Ho Chi Minh trail.

USA Scheme

Marshall Plan

June 1947

General George Marshall's plan to prevent countries becoming Communist,
Offered billions to allies made poor by war,
USSR didn't receive money

NATO Set Up

September 1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation,

USSR Scheme

Warsaw Pact

1955 - 1991

USSR Treaty