APEC Timeline


Lollards and Hussites

1300 - 1450

-led by John Wyclif
-pope should be stripped of authority

-led by John Hus
-called for reform of papacy
-burned at stake
-Hussite wars caused by ^


1350 - 1550

age of rebirth
-started in italy

-clergy, noble, serf social structure
-slavery BIG
-women managed house
-lower class women maids/wet nurses


1350 - 1450

-Petrarch: Father of Humanism
-focus on the classic humanities
-civic humanism: helping state with knowledge
(civil duties)

Italian States

1400 - 1500

Italy split into different city-states
-often at war
-PEACE OF LODI: ended war


France and Spain tried to take over
Valois vs. Hapsburg
Charles I and Francis I
-sack of Rome

Medici banking

1400 - 1494

Greatest bank in Europe
-bank of pope
-decline b/c of bad leadership and sketchy loans
-expelled from France in 1494



-Marsilio Ficino

Moveable type/ Printing press




-occult sciences
-humans were divine beings that could recover their divinity through purification of the soul

New Monarchies

1450 - 1500

France, Spain, England
-unified nations under a monarch
-stable, centralized govs.
-many wars


1473 - 1543

"On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres"
-heliocentric universe

Ignatius Loyola

1491 - 1556

-Leader of Jesuits
-main educators in Europe
-converted thousands in the east (Asia) to Christianity

European Exploration

1500 - 1800
  • "God, Glory, Gold"
  • new developments in ships, maps, compasses
  • Portuguese leaders in exploration in Africa, India

-Spanish conquerors collect tribute from the Indians and can use them as slaves and in return must provide protection for them

-Natives treated harshly and many died from foreign disease

TRIANGULAR TRADE/ Columbian Exchange
-Goods -> Africa
-Slaves -> America
-Foreign goods -> Europe
-caused major increase in population in Europe and use of luxury goods
-VIEW OF NATIVES: inhuman and a lower race, but should be converted to Christianity

-put cottage industry workers out of business in Europe and increased production of manufactured goods

Hanseatic League


North German coastal towns
-took over when Italian trade failed
-decline when unable to compete with larger territorial states

Christian Renaissance Humanism

1500 - 1517

-emphasis on education for reform
-beginning of reformation


Price Revolution

1500 - 1600

-wages went down and prices went up
- good thing for entrepreneurs and aristocrats

-growing population
-influx of precious metals from new world

Joint-Stock Companies
- no longer family banking

-bullion = prosperity
-value of exported goods should be greater than that of imported
-place high tariffs on foreign goods

Social Life in the Reformation

1500 - 1560

Man head of house and women child producer
-both should read bible
-some girl schools, but only to teach about bible

Wider education- not just to nobility

John Calvin

1509 - 1564




The Prince
-Feared rather than loved, but not hated

Luther and the Indulgence Controversy


-95 theses

Leipzig Debate/ Address to the German Nobility

  • Luther denies authority of pope

-asks German princes for support

Edict of Worms


Luther's works to be burned and him to be captured and delivered to the emperor

Hapsburg-Valois wars

1521 - 1544

Charles V (originally Charles I of Spain) vs. Francis I
-disputes over territories
- prevented Charles from focusing on reformation

Peasant's war

1524 - 1525

-inflamed by Thomas Muntzer
-Luther responded by supporting the German princes instead

Marburg Colloquy


Luther vs. Zwingli on the Lord's Supper and Transubstantiation

Henry VIII gets divorce (annulment) from Catherine of Aragon


-married Anne Boleyn (had her beheaded)
-daughter: Elizabeth
-got son from Jane Seymour
-died after five wives

Ivan IV The Terrible

1533 - 1584

First Tsar
-crushed power of Russian Nobility

Act of Supremecy/ Treason Act


King Henry VIII was supreme head of church and if you denied it, he would kill you

Anabaptists at Munster


-"end of the world"
- had to purge world for the coming of Jesus

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

-Compromises to make Protestants return to Catholicism
-keep all 7 sacraments
-Purgatory= yes
-against Protestantism

Schmalkaldic Wars

1546 - 1555

German Princes form Schmalkaldic League
-ally with King Henry II of France to win Schmalkaldic Wars


1546 - 1601

Provided most reliable data of his time
-very accurate charts

Mary's reign

1553 - 1558

-staunch catholic
-married Phillip II of Spain
-murdered thousands of protestants "Bloody Mary"
-ended up spreading protestantism instead of ending it

Peace of Augsburg


Each German Prince can choose the religion of his territory

Queen Elizabeth I Reign

1558 - 1603

-VERY intelligent and educated
-kept England war free and running efficiently
-unofficially told seamen to raid Spanish ships and colonies
-Spanish armada failed at overthrowing England

The French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Huguenots vs Guise Family

-French Calvinists - ultra catholics

-staunch Catholics
-until Catherine de Medici (realpolitic)


1564 - 1642

-Sunspots, moons of Jupiter, rings of Saturn, surface of Moon
-Planets made of the same substances as Earth
-laws describing movement of of bodies on Earth
-excommunicated b/c his discoveries went against church teachings

Revolt of the Netherlands

1566 - 1609

Protestant Netherlands didn't like their tax money going to Spain and Phillip II
-Nobility wanted power

William of Orange
-wanted to unite all 17 provinces
-united 5 and made Dutch Republic

War ended with twelve year truce and independence of North Provinces

Golden Age of Netherlands
-center of trade
-protestantism popular


1571 - 1630

Brahe's assistant

-Discovered elliptical orbit
-Three Laws of Planetary Motion

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


-3,000 Huguenots murdered in France

Time of Troubles in Russia

1584 - 1613

War of the Three Henries

1588 - 1589

-result: Henry of Navarre became Henry IV of France

Decline in Population

1600 - 1650

Economic Contraction from inflation from Price Revolution
-imports declined

Little Ice Age
-climate down
-war, famine, plague

Witchcraft Craze
-witches scapegoated for decline
-religious uncertainty

Thirty Year's war

1618 - 1648

Northern states of Netherlands make Protestant Union (Calvinism)
Southern States Catholic League

-North wanted to be recognized-> went to countries against Spain
-South went for help-> to Spain

TY'W Bohemian Phase

1618 - 1625

Bohemian King (Ferdinand) strong Catholic
-wanted to re Catholicize Bohemia
-German princes in Bohemia were protestant

Defecation of Prague
-Hapsburg govs/ secretary out window

Took over Bohemia and replaced Ferdinand with protestant king
-Ferdinand just got chosen as Holy Roman Emperor and refuses to accept this

Spanish re take Bohemia and reestablish Ferdinand as king

Cardinal Richelieu

1624 - 1642

Eliminated political/military rights of Huguenots while leaving their religious rights

Developed system of spies to keep tabs on the nobility

-royal officials that executed orders of central gov

Raised taille

TY'W Danish Phase

1625 - 1629

King of Denmark allies with Protestants and invades north Germany

King Ferdinand has Wallenstein as imperial commander
-Wallenstein beats king of Denmark

King Ferdinand issues Edict of Restitution
-No Calvinism allowed
-gave Catholic church land

-German princes forced him to dismiss Wallenstein

TY'W Swedish Phase

1630 - 1635

King of Sweden joins Protestants and invades North Germany
-Won and moved German/Spanish forces out of North Germany
-King Ferdinand calls Wallenstein back
-Swedish win again, but King killed
-Wallenstein assassinated
-Germans/Spanish beat Swedish

King Ferdinand wants to appease German Princes
-annuls Edict of Restitution

TY'W Franco-Swedish Pahse

1635 - 1648

Catholic French with Protestant Swedes
Catholic Germany/Spain

-French beat Spanish

Peace of Westphalia
-all German states, including Calvinist, could decide own religion
-France gained land

-religion beginning to be personal thing and separate from politics

Frederick William the Great Elector

1640 - 1688

-Ruling class
-controlled Brandenburg (inside HRE)
-controlled Prussia (outside HRE)

Built up military
-heavy taxes to support military
-started/ formed Prussia

Cardinal Mazarin

1642 - 1661

Carried on Richelieu's policies

Nobles joined with Parliament of Paris and masses against centralized gov.
-Nobles of the Robe
-Fronde wars


1642 - 1727

-color is a property of light, not an object
-3 laws of motion

Reign of Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"Sun King"

Court of Versailles
-kept nobles/ princes out of political affairs by keeping them busy with court life
-cost A LOT

Completely controlled foreign policy, but wasn't very "absolute" at home

-brought in a lot of money, but Louis spent it all

Louis' first war

1667 - 1668

invaded Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comte
-triple alliance of Dutch, English and Swedes forced him to sue for peace
-never forgave Dutch for making triple alliance

Louis' Second War

1672 - 1678

Invaded united Provinces (Dutch) again
-Brandenburg, Spain, Holy Roman Empire teamed up and made him stop
-got Franche-Comte

Edict of Fontainebleau


-Revoked Edict of Nantes
-Called for destruction of Huguenot churches and closing of Protestant schools

Many skilled artisans left France- hurt economy

Peter I "The Great"

1689 - 1725

Expansion/ Westernization
-Saw Western European advancements and modernized his army and taxed heavily

Wanted a port on the Baltic Sea

Louis' Third War

1689 - 1697

The League Of Augsburg (Spain, HRE, United Provinces, Sweden, and England)

-caused economic depression and famine in France
-land gained hardly worth the losses

Frederick I

1698 - 1713

War of Spanish Succession
-Prussia got involved

Treaty of Utrecht
-became king of Prussia

Great Northern War

1701 - 1720

Peter I of Russia wanted warm water port
-Sweden VS Russia
-Russia won
-Russian tactic: Scorched Earth policy
-won because Russian Winter
Treaty of Nystad

Louis Fourth War

1702 - 1713

-Austrian king left throne to Louis XIV's grandson who was king of Spain

England, United Provinces, Hapsburg/Austria, German States all worried about a Spanish/French/Austrian gang up with too much power

Treaty of Utrecht
-Louis' grandson remains ruler of Spain, but French and Spanish thrones can never be joined

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Loved/supported military
-Prussia built upon army
-used army as threat, but didn't use it