Untitled timeline

1400s

1407

1407

Casa di San Giorgio, one of the first public banks, founded in Genoa.

Henry V

1415

Henry V defeats French at Agincourt. Jan Hus, Bohemian preacher and follower of Wycliffe, burned at stake in Constance as heretic.

Henry the Navigator

1418 - 1460

Portugal's Prince Henry the Navigator sponsors exploration of Africa's coast.

Brunelleschi

1420

Brunelleschi begins work on the Duomo in Florence

Joan of Arc

1428

Joan of Arc leads French against English, captured by Burgundians (1430) and turned over to the English, burned at the stake as a witch after ecclesiastical trial (1431).

1500s

Slaves

1501

First black slaves in America brought to Spanish colony of Santo Domingo.

Church

1506

St. Peter's Church started in Rome; designed and decorated by such artists and architects as Bramante, Michelangelo, da Vinci, Raphael, and Bernini before its completion in 1626.

Verranzo

1524

Verrazano, sailing under the French flag, explores the New England coast and New York Bay

Pizarro

1532

Pizarro marches from Panama to Peru, kills the Inca chieftain, Atahualpa, of Peru (1533). Machiavelli's The Prince published posthumously.

Henry VII

1536

Henry VIII executes second wife, Anne Boleyn. John Calvin establishes Reformed and Presbyterian form of Protestantism in Switzerland, writes Institutes of the Christian Religion. Danish and Norwegian Reformations. Michelangelo's Last Judgment.

Wars

Constantinople

1453

Turks conquer Constantinople, end of the Byzantine empire, beginning of the Ottoman empire.

Roses

1455

The Wars of the Roses, civil wars between rival noble factions, begin in England (to 1485). Having invented printing with movable type at Mainz, Germany, Johann Gutenberg completes first Bible.

Turks

1517

Turks conquer Egypt, control Arabia. Martin Luther posts his 95 theses denouncing church abuses on church door in Wittenberg—start of the Reformation in Germany.

Roman

1527

Troops of the Holy Roman Empire attack Rome, imprison Pope Clement VII—the end of the Italian Renaissance. Castiglione writes The Courtier. The Medici family expelled from Florence.

Spanish Armada

1588

Defeat of the Spanish Armada by English. Henry, King of Navarre and Protestant leader, recognized as Henry IV, first Bourbon king of France. Converts to Roman Catholicism in 1593 in attempt to end religious wars.

Reformation

Luther's 95 theses

1517

Martin Luther (1483-1546) was an Augustinian monk and university lecturer in Wittenberg when he composed his “95 Theses,” which protested the pope’s sale of reprieves from penance, or indulgences.

Ferdinand

1521

Ferdinand Magellan claims the Philippines for Spain, first mass and subsequent
conversion to Catholicism, first in East Asia

Tyndale's NT

1526

Tyndale's NT, English NT translation from 1516 Greek text of Erasmus, first
printed edition, used as a vehicle by Tyndale for bitter attacks on Catholicism, reflects
influence of Luther's NT in rejecting priest for elder, church for congregation, banned in
1546 by Henry VIII

Marburg

1529

Marburg Colloquy, Luther defends doctrine of Real Presence in discussion with
Zwingli.

Guadalupe

1531

Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico According to tradition, when the roses fell from
it the icon of the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared imprinted on the cactus cloth. The
sudden, extraordinary success of the evangelizing of ten million Indians in the decade of
1531–1541, which constitutes the most successful evangelization ever.

1700s

Anglo

1700

The Anglo population in the English colonies in America reaches 275,000, with Boston (pop. 7000) as the largest city, followed by New York (pop. 5000).

Massachusetts

1700

In June, Massachusetts passes a law ordering all Roman Catholic priests to leave the colony within three months, upon penalty of life imprisonment or execution. New York then passes a similar law.

Queen Anne

1702

In March, Queen Anne ascends the English throne. In May, England declares war on France after the death of the King of Spain, Charles II, to stop the union of France and Spain. This War of the Spanish Succession is called Queen Anne's War in the colonies, where the English and American colonists will battle the French, their Native American allies, and the Spanish for the next eleven years.

Hostiles

1711

Hostilities break out between Native Americans and settlers in North Carolina after the massacre of settlers there. The conflict, known as the Tuscarora Indian War will last two years.

England

1739

England declares war on Spain. As a result, in America, hostilities break out between Florida Spaniards and Georgia and South Carolina colonists. Also in 1739, three separate violent uprisings by black slaves occur in South Carolina.

1800s

Ohio

1802

Ohio outlaws slavery -- September. James Callender makes the accusation that Thomas Jefferson has "for many years past kept, as his concubine, one of his own slaves," Sally Hemings. It is published in the Richmond Recorder that month, and the story is soon picked up by Federalist presses around the country. Callender, a Republican, has previously been an avid investigator of Federalist scandals. In 1798, Jefferson had helped pay for the publication of Callender's pamphlet The Prospect Before Us, which claimed to expose John Adams as a monarchist. However, when Jefferson, now president, fails to reward Callender with the office of postmaster in Richmond, Virginia, Callender turns on him.

Jefferson

1803

Louisiana Purchase January 18. Jefferson asks Congress for funds for an expedition to explore the Mississippi River and beyond in search of a route to the Pacific. Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson's private secretary, begins planning the expedition, which forms late in 1803.

Alabama

1819

Alabama admitted as slave state, bringing the number of slave states and free states to equal numbers.

Jefferson Dies

1826

July 4. Jefferson dies shortly after 12 noon, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. He is eighty-three years old. Several hours later John Adams, aged 90, dies in Massachusetts, and the nation is struck by this remarkable coincidence.

Soilers

1855

Free Soilers establish government banning slavery and blacks from Kansas; David Livingstone discovers Victoria Falls; Walt Whitman publishes "Leaves of Grass."

'Murica

Hidalgo

1848

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 - Karl Marx publishes Communist Manifesto
Oregon organized as territory.

Treaty

1853

America and Mexico sign Gadsden Treaty; Vice President William King dies; Arctic explorer Elisha Kane ventures farther north than any man has before.

Bessemer

1856

Henry Bessemer invents process that allows mass production of steel; adventurer William Walker conquers Nicaragua; five slavery supporters are killed in a Kansas raid led by John Brown.

KKK

1871

KKK members tried and convicted by federal courts in Mississippi. Grant suspends habeas corpus and declared martial law in 9 So. Carolina counties. Many Blacks elected to political office.

Wounded Knee

1890

December, Battle of Wounded Knee – 200 Native American women and children massacred by U.S. troops.