Casa di San Giorgio, one of the first public banks, founded in Genoa.
Henry V defeats French at Agincourt. Jan Hus, Bohemian preacher and follower of Wycliffe, burned at stake in Constance as heretic.
Portugal's Prince Henry the Navigator sponsors exploration of Africa's coast.
Brunelleschi begins work on the Duomo in Florence
Joan of Arc leads French against English, captured by Burgundians (1430) and turned over to the English, burned at the stake as a witch after ecclesiastical trial (1431).
First black slaves in America brought to Spanish colony of Santo Domingo.
St. Peter's Church started in Rome; designed and decorated by such artists and architects as Bramante, Michelangelo, da Vinci, Raphael, and Bernini before its completion in 1626.
Verrazano, sailing under the French flag, explores the New England coast and New York Bay
Pizarro marches from Panama to Peru, kills the Inca chieftain, Atahualpa, of Peru (1533). Machiavelli's The Prince published posthumously.
Henry VIII executes second wife, Anne Boleyn. John Calvin establishes Reformed and Presbyterian form of Protestantism in Switzerland, writes Institutes of the Christian Religion. Danish and Norwegian Reformations. Michelangelo's Last Judgment.
Turks conquer Constantinople, end of the Byzantine empire, beginning of the Ottoman empire.
The Wars of the Roses, civil wars between rival noble factions, begin in England (to 1485). Having invented printing with movable type at Mainz, Germany, Johann Gutenberg completes first Bible.
Turks conquer Egypt, control Arabia. Martin Luther posts his 95 theses denouncing church abuses on church door in Wittenberg—start of the Reformation in Germany.
Troops of the Holy Roman Empire attack Rome, imprison Pope Clement VII—the end of the Italian Renaissance. Castiglione writes The Courtier. The Medici family expelled from Florence.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada by English. Henry, King of Navarre and Protestant leader, recognized as Henry IV, first Bourbon king of France. Converts to Roman Catholicism in 1593 in attempt to end religious wars.
Martin Luther (1483-1546) was an Augustinian monk and university lecturer in Wittenberg when he composed his “95 Theses,” which protested the pope’s sale of reprieves from penance, or indulgences.
Ferdinand Magellan claims the Philippines for Spain, first mass and subsequent
conversion to Catholicism, first in East Asia
Tyndale's NT, English NT translation from 1516 Greek text of Erasmus, first
printed edition, used as a vehicle by Tyndale for bitter attacks on Catholicism, reflects
influence of Luther's NT in rejecting priest for elder, church for congregation, banned in
1546 by Henry VIII
Marburg Colloquy, Luther defends doctrine of Real Presence in discussion with
Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico According to tradition, when the roses fell from
it the icon of the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared imprinted on the cactus cloth. The
sudden, extraordinary success of the evangelizing of ten million Indians in the decade of
1531–1541, which constitutes the most successful evangelization ever.
The Anglo population in the English colonies in America reaches 275,000, with Boston (pop. 7000) as the largest city, followed by New York (pop. 5000).
In June, Massachusetts passes a law ordering all Roman Catholic priests to leave the colony within three months, upon penalty of life imprisonment or execution. New York then passes a similar law.
In March, Queen Anne ascends the English throne. In May, England declares war on France after the death of the King of Spain, Charles II, to stop the union of France and Spain. This War of the Spanish Succession is called Queen Anne's War in the colonies, where the English and American colonists will battle the French, their Native American allies, and the Spanish for the next eleven years.
Hostilities break out between Native Americans and settlers in North Carolina after the massacre of settlers there. The conflict, known as the Tuscarora Indian War will last two years.
England declares war on Spain. As a result, in America, hostilities break out between Florida Spaniards and Georgia and South Carolina colonists. Also in 1739, three separate violent uprisings by black slaves occur in South Carolina.
Ohio outlaws slavery -- September. James Callender makes the accusation that Thomas Jefferson has "for many years past kept, as his concubine, one of his own slaves," Sally Hemings. It is published in the Richmond Recorder that month, and the story is soon picked up by Federalist presses around the country. Callender, a Republican, has previously been an avid investigator of Federalist scandals. In 1798, Jefferson had helped pay for the publication of Callender's pamphlet The Prospect Before Us, which claimed to expose John Adams as a monarchist. However, when Jefferson, now president, fails to reward Callender with the office of postmaster in Richmond, Virginia, Callender turns on him.
Louisiana Purchase January 18. Jefferson asks Congress for funds for an expedition to explore the Mississippi River and beyond in search of a route to the Pacific. Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson's private secretary, begins planning the expedition, which forms late in 1803.
Alabama admitted as slave state, bringing the number of slave states and free states to equal numbers.
July 4. Jefferson dies shortly after 12 noon, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. He is eighty-three years old. Several hours later John Adams, aged 90, dies in Massachusetts, and the nation is struck by this remarkable coincidence.
Free Soilers establish government banning slavery and blacks from Kansas; David Livingstone discovers Victoria Falls; Walt Whitman publishes "Leaves of Grass."
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 - Karl Marx publishes Communist Manifesto
Oregon organized as territory.
America and Mexico sign Gadsden Treaty; Vice President William King dies; Arctic explorer Elisha Kane ventures farther north than any man has before.
Henry Bessemer invents process that allows mass production of steel; adventurer William Walker conquers Nicaragua; five slavery supporters are killed in a Kansas raid led by John Brown.
KKK members tried and convicted by federal courts in Mississippi. Grant suspends habeas corpus and declared martial law in 9 So. Carolina counties. Many Blacks elected to political office.
December, Battle of Wounded Knee – 200 Native American women and children massacred by U.S. troops.