The Tokugawa dynasty faced declining agricultural productivity, crop failures, and harsh taxation that led to economic hardship and even starvation at the end of the 19th cent. Due to this, Japan experienced peasant protest and rebellion. In response, the bakufu tried reforms that ultimately failed. Another problem was foreign pressures from other countries demanding diplomatic and commercial relations. Japan had succeeded for a long time at keeping more foreigners out, but changed when Commodore Perry threatened to destroy Edo. Japan acquiesced and was forced into unequal treaties. The humiliation of this stirred strong opposition to the Tokugawa bakufu, even in the daimyo and emperor. In a small civil war with repeated defeats, the shogun retired and boy emperor Mutsuhito took office (regal name Meiji- Enlightened Rule) and reigned from 1852-1912, most eventful period in Japan's history. The Meiji restoration ended the milt. governments and brought power back to the emperor, and a coalition of daimyo, princes, and nobles formed a new government dedicated to "rich country, strong army." Inspired by Europe and U.S., sent students to study abroad from everything in technology to industrialization, and also hired foreigners to facilitate economic development and an indigenous enterprise. (reforms- abolish old social order, fixed-money instead of grain tax, constitutional government, and newly modeled economy).