In the early 1750s, France’s expansion into the Ohio River valley repeatedly brought it into conflict with the claims of the British colonies, especially Virginia. The French repeatedly beat Britain on the battle field, especially with their indigenous allies that the British couldn't seem to persuade. Tide turned as a new British leader took hold and dealt France large defeats, and France lost its last foothold in Canada in 1760. For the rest of the war, Britain fought for other French/ Spanish colonies in the Americas. At the peace treaty in 1762, got Canada from France and Florida from Spain.
War caused by a mix of commercial rivalries and political differences. Was a global conflict that took place in Europe, India, Caribbean, and North America that involved both European settlers and the indigenous Asians and Americans. Had deep implications as it set the foundation for 150 years of British imperial hegemony. In Europe, it was Britain/ Prussia vs. France, Austria, and Russia for hegemony in the Indian Ocean. In the Caribbean, Spanish/ French vs. British to limit British expansion in the western hemisphere. In N. America, it merged with French and Indian War were British vs. French allied with Native Americans to outmaneuver the other.
The American Revolution was a war fought by American colonists against their homeland Britain. The war started as the colonists became much more independent and were repeatedly given heavy taxation by the British (Sugar, Stamp, Townshend, and Tea Act.) Gave the colonists there famous motto "No taxation without representation." The war of independence waged by the American colonies against Britain influenced political ideas and revolutions around the globe, as America, a small, disconnected nation won its freedom from the greatest military force of its time.
Europeans only became seriously interested in Australia after James Cook had first visited there, charting the eastern coast near Botany Bay and reported that it was "suitable for habitation." British ships then first arrived there in Sydney carrying 1,000 passengers (800 of whom were convicts) and established the first European settlement there as a penal colony. Free migrants didn't outnumber the criminals until the 1830's. The continuing stream of migrants in the 19th/20th centuries directly connected Australia to the larger world. First reconnoitered by Dutch exploratory voyages in the 1550's, they surveyed the northern, western, and southern coasts, finding nothing of value and saw the people as "wretched savages." Due to little incentive of trade or valuable resources, there was no attempt to colonize until James Cook's voyages.
Ottoman empire declined for several reasons:
-Ottoman armies no longer innovative and didn't even have latest weapons. Continued to loose wars and territory.
-Subject peoples in the Ottoman empires continued to seek autonomy and independence, starting campaigns or wars or of independence.
-Suffered major territorial losses as Ottomans were forced to recognize new countries, and only kept true heartland: Anatolia and Iraq.
-Newer and cheaper European products placed pressure on the Ottoman economy, which began to increasingly take foreign loans until in 1882 was no longer able to pay those debts, accept foreign administration.
-End of WWI and defeat of Central Powers saw the dissolution of Ottomans.
Rather than tear Canada apart, it actually helped bring it closer together. Ethnic and political divisions before had been separating Canada's two major groups: the R. Catholic, French Canadians and Protestant, British Canadians. But the war gave a sense of unity against an external threat, their neighbor the U.S. who had declared war on Britain for encroachment on U.S. rights during the Napoleonic wars. The U.S. thought they they would easily invade Canada and put some pressure on Britain, but Canada came out victorious and anti-U.S. sentiments helped to cover the ethnic difference.
The Congress of Vienna was an assembly in 1814–15 that reorganized Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. The settlement was the most comprehensive treaty that Europe had ever seen. It was mostly organized by Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain, the four powers chiefly instrumental in the overthrow of Napoleon.
France was also added two months in to the Congress, and the five did the real decision making. Main goal was to restore prerevolutionary political and social order by making a diplomatic order based on a balance of power to prevent any one state from dominating.
Trade in opium was illegal in China, but officials never stopped it because they could benefit personally from it. But in China it was beginning to become painfully clear that China had a trade and a drug problem. Drained silver from China and created serious social problems. In 1839, Lin Zexu was charged with destroying the opium trade and destroyed 20,000 chests of opium which in turn caused British merchants to begin to lose money and ignited a war that ended in a humiliating defeat for China: the British government ignited a military retaliation designed to reopen the opium trade in China. The British had much more advanced technology and well equipped troops, but the Chinese still did not sue for peace until the British took gunboats and decided to attack the life of China- the Grand Canal. China quickly sued for peace, was forced into unequal treaties, and the opium trade was reopened.
Westward expansion caused tensions between the U.S. and Mexico, who then controlled Texas, New Mexico, and California. In 1836, Texas declared independence from Mexico, mostly because many U.S. citizens already lived there and wanted to run their own affairs. In 1845, the U.S. accepted Texas as a state and moved to consolidate it, which provoked Mexico and quickly ignited into war. In Mexico it is known as the North American Intervention of the War of 1847. The U.S. instigated the war and quickly defeated Mexico, and in return only paid 15 million dollars for half of Mexico's territory, fueling Mexican nationalism and disdain for the U.S.
During the 19th century, Russia expanded in 3 directions- e. into Manchuria, s. into the Caucasus, and sw. into the Balkans. Their intervention into the Balkans was also into the provinces of the Ottoman empire, whom they defeated in a one year war. After, they tried to establish a protectorate over the empire, but this upset the balance of power and were met with a war from a coalition of Britain, France, Sardinia, and the Ottomans. Showed the weakness of Russian against the industrialized powers of western Europe. The coalition moved in Crimea and immobilized Russia's Black Sea Fleet, suffering a humiliating loss on their own territory. This defeat compelled Russian tsars' to reevaluate Russian social order and undertake an extensive restructuring program.
In 1894, conflict erupted over the status of Korea between Japan and China. An anti-foreign rebellion had broken out in Korea, and both Japan and China feared it would be an inviting target for colonizing powers. So the Qing dynasty sent troops to restore order and assert authority there, but Japan had interests there and declared war on China. Japan came out victorious and startled European powers. Resulted in Japan's power over Korea, as well as three more territories ceded by China and Japan's rights to unequal treaties in China.
Supported by Chinese empress dowager Cixi, the Boxer Rebellion was a violent, antiforeign movement spearheaded by militia units known as the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Referred to as "Boxers" by the foreign press, they organized to rid China of "foreign devils" and their influences. Went on a rampage in northern China and killed foreigners and Chinese Christians, as well as any Chinese that had ties to foreigners. This resulted in a coalition of U.S., French, British, German, and Japanese forces who quickly crushed the rebellion.
This war was a conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. Began with Cuba's struggle for independence from Spain, which began in February 1895. The growing popular demand for U.S. intervention became an insistent chorus after the unexplained sinking in Havana of the US's battleship Maine. US leaders declared sabotage and declared war on Spain and quickly won, taking possession of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and also Guam and the Philippines.
When British came to South Africa in the 1800's, they disrupted Afrikaner society (Dutch settlers that had moved there in the 1600's.) Chafing under British laws and rule, they moved in the "Great Trek" further inward into the interior of South Africa. They created several independent republics that the British was lenient towards, until they found large mineral deposits on there land- gold and diamonds. The influx of thousands of more British led to the Boer War (normally called South African War) it which whites fought against whites, but also took a large toll on the Africans who took sides. Afrikaners conceded defeat, British consolidated the four republics into one large one known as the Union of South Africa, and to make amends gave the white Afrikaners privileges and domination of the blacks.
The Russo-Japanese war was caused by a rivalry between Russia and Japan for dominance in Korea and Manchuria. Russia's increased intrusion into that region led military conflict in which Japan (the victor) forced Russia to abandon its expansionist policy in the east. In this war, Japan became the first Asian country in modern times to defeat a European power.
The Young Turk (also known as the Ottoman Society for Union and Progress) was most active dissident organization. Many members were neither young nor Turkish, founded by exiled Ottomans in Paris. In 1908 they formed an army coup that dethroned the old ruler and placed their own, a puppet sultan. The era was 10 years where sultans reigned but no longer ruled and the reformers pushed for change within the Ottoman empire, such as universal suffrage and freedom of religion, but also to establish Turkish hegemony, which further aggravated tensions, and despite efforts, Ottoman empire continued to wane.
The Tokugawa dynasty faced declining agricultural productivity, crop failures, and harsh taxation that led to economic hardship and even starvation at the end of the 19th cent. Due to this, Japan experienced peasant protest and rebellion. In response, the bakufu tried reforms that ultimately failed. Another problem was foreign pressures from other countries demanding diplomatic and commercial relations. Japan had succeeded for a long time at keeping more foreigners out, but changed when Commodore Perry threatened to destroy Edo. Japan acquiesced and was forced into unequal treaties. The humiliation of this stirred strong opposition to the Tokugawa bakufu, even in the daimyo and emperor. In a small civil war with repeated defeats, the shogun retired and boy emperor Mutsuhito took office (regal name Meiji- Enlightened Rule) and reigned from 1852-1912, most eventful period in Japan's history. The Meiji restoration ended the milt. governments and brought power back to the emperor, and a coalition of daimyo, princes, and nobles formed a new government dedicated to "rich country, strong army." Inspired by Europe and U.S., sent students to study abroad from everything in technology to industrialization, and also hired foreigners to facilitate economic development and an indigenous enterprise. (reforms- abolish old social order, fixed-money instead of grain tax, constitutional government, and newly modeled economy).