The world's first atomic bomb test. This started the eventual US/Soviet Arms Race. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_(nuclear_test)
Could travel 6,000 miles, accurate to within one mile of target
A Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty between the USA and USSR. The US did not ratify the treaty due to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
First Soviet atomic bomb test. Known as Joe-1 to the West, referencing Joseph Stalin, it was called "First Lightning"
The "King of Bombs," a nickname for the Soviet AN602 hydrogen bomb, the most powerful weapon ever detonated.
the first American satellite to reach orbit, is launched. It carried scientific equipment that lead to the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt.
begin a 10 day mission to study the new spacecraft.
touching down just 600 feet from the Surveyor 3 probe that arrived two years earlier.
A space-based defense proposal for the US
Small dog Laika into orbit
spends a day in space aboard Vostok 2
data about the atmosphere of Venus