Byzantine Empire was the successor of the Roman Empire in the Greek-speaking, eastern part of the Mediterranean. Christian in nature, it was perennially at war with the Muslims, Flourishing during the reign of the Macedonian emperors, its demise was the consequence of attacks by Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, and Ottoman Turks. First began as a town called Byzantium on the Bosphorus straight, and was an important city between the Persian and Greek empires, which was soon incorporated into the Roman Empire, but after it split, the eastern half continued, becoming the Byzantine empire.
Second great Muslim dynasty to rule under the title of Caliph, in a line of four. First headed by Abu Sufyan, the Sufyanids ruled the first half of the empire (successors of Sufyan) and were followed by Marwanids, successors of Marwān ibn al-Hakam. Capital was at Damascus and empires stretched from western Africa across Saudi Arabia into part of southwestern Asia. Marked by territorial expansion and kinder to Muslim/ Arab subjects.
The Swahili states first emerged in the 8th century with the movement of African peoples to the coast and engaged in overseas trade, developing into distinctive, mercantile communities that served as economic and cultural intermediaries between their mainland neighbors and overseas visitors. They became increasingly wealthy, developed into prosperous complex city-states in the 15th century before they were displaced by the Portuguese in the 16th and 17th centuries. Yet these towns are again inhabited today by African peoples who all share a common language, culture, and Muslim religion, seen as a product from Portuguese and Arab influences. In sum, these societies formed from complex interactions between Africans and merchants in the Indian Ocean.
Carolingian Empire is used almost as a historiographical term to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty. This dynasty is seen as the founders of France and Germany, and also part of the later history of the Franks. Begins with the crowning of Charlemagne (Charles the Great) by Pope Leo III and ends with the death of Charles the Fat. Coronation did not actually constitute a new empire as his grandfather had essentially created the empire. Area that it covered referred to as Frankish Realm or Kingdoms.
The Holy Roman Empire was a loosely joined union of smaller kingdoms which held power in western and central Europe between 962 and 1806. It was ruled by a Holy Roman Emperor who oversaw local regions controlled by a variety of kings, dukes, and other officials. The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to resurrect the Western empire of Rome, but didn't succeed at that and was noted for being neither holy or roman.
The Delhi Sultanate are the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in northern India from 1210–1526. It was founded after Muslim Muhammad of Ghor defeated Indian Prithvi Raj and captured Delhi in 1192. In 1206, Qutb ud-Din, one of his generals, proclaimed himself sultan of Delhi and founded a line of rulers called the Slave dynasty, because he and several of the sultans who claimed succession from him were originally military slaves. Ended in 1290, and began succession of Muslim empires: Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), then the Mughul empire, at which the sultanate was at its greatest; the Tughluq dynasty (1325–98), which spread Muslim infl. to even south India, but provoked revolts, notably by Hindu Vijayanagar kingdom in the south and led to loss of Muslim territory. Hindu south recovered its independence, Tughluq ended and Bahmani kingdom emerged. After Tughluq, the sultanate began to disintegrate into several small states. Began with the sack of Delhi by Timur in 1398, some although local rulers stayed at Delhi until the invasion of Babur and the Mughal conquest.
At its peak, the Mongol empire was (and in all of history has been) the largest contiguous empire in the world. Began by Chinggis Khan (real name Temujin), a Mongol who served as a vassal to powerful Mongol leader Toghril, Chinggis's victories in battle earned him power and respect and soon overtook Toghril, and from there unified the tribes of Mongolia, Turkish and Mongolian peoples into one supra-tribe. He abolished old tribal alliances by grouping people into new ranks based on military skill. From there, Ghinggis and his successor's overtook much of the Eurasian landscape and changed it both politically and in terms of human geography. A Mongolian writing system was also made in this time, and greatly influenced trade in that era. Mongols were shamanistic, some gradually converted to Islam.
Aztecs were a people that first came from northern Mexico, migrating into Mesoamerica in search for better farmland. When they found that it had all been taken, were forced to retreat on a swampy island in Lake Texcoco, but to get the land they wanted, became vicious warriors. Built there empire through conquest, but also early on with alliances. By 1500 had the largest empire in Mesoamerica and attracted trade from all around. Also extracted tribute from their subjects, and capital was at Tenochtitlan, centered in Lake Texcoco in 1325. Size of empire only surpassed in the Americas by the Incas. In 1521, Aztec empire ended with the arrival of Spanish conquistadors and rebellions by their subjects who allied with them.
Pre-Inca civilization began to develop in what is now Peru with the development of four major cultures who built some of S. America's first cities. The early Incas began as a small tribe in the Andes and their ruler named Pachacuti
led the Incas to expand their territory through agreements with, or conquests of, other tribes. Later Inca rulers continued to expand their territory. By the 1500s the Inca Empire was huge and had 12 million people. Administered through taking conquered leaders and making them live in the capital (Cuzco), made Quechua the official language, made subjects pay tax with labor, and distributed goods themselves rather than through major markets. They were defeated in 1537 by Pizarro and his Spanish conquistadors. Left behind legacy of architecture, oral literate, and art. (Perfectly cut stone blocks, extensive roads, gold/ silver artwork.) No official religions or written tradition, used quipu system to keep numerical records.
The Muslim religion first began with the prophet Muhammad, who was born in 570, and died in 632. After his death, the Muslim community came into conflict over lines of succession. The split occurred when the Shia's (who today make up only 10-15% of Muslim population) believed that succession lines should stay within the heirs of Muhammad, while the Sunni's believed that it should be chosen by the elites of the community to whoever is best suited. Sunni's put Abu Bakr in power, and although Ali (the Shiia's choice) did come into power years later, was assassinated and divide became set in stone.
Was a dispute over the use of religious images/ icons in the Byzantine empire in the 8th/ 9th centuries. Conflicts between the Byzantium church and state resulted in the destruction of many of the church's paintings, images, statues, etc. Caused by a debate on appropriate use of religious icons and the emperors ideas to usurp the church's power and authority by taking away idols.
Also called East-West Schism, was event that divided the E. Christian church (led by Constantinople's patriarch) and the W. Church (led by Pope Leo IX that time.) Later they became the Roman Catholic church and the Eastern Orthodox church. Split was caused along theological, doctrinal, and political lines, but main two reasons include that idea of caesaropapism promoted by the western church and the fundamental dispute over a line in the Nicene Creed.
A series of holy wars began by European Christians, waged against Muslims in order to reclaim "their" holy land in Jerusalem. Started with Pope Urban the II's call to start this war, Christians did succeed in taking Jerusalem in 1099. These Crusades continued into 1291 but had little to no success after the first. Faced humiliating defeats by the Muslims and soon retreated entirely by the 16th centurion.
Series of wars between England and France fought in naval battles, raids, and sieges. Started when King Philip II of England sought to take the duchy of Aquitaine in SW France. England ended up winning.
The bubonic plague, which was said to have originated in Asia in 1348, quickly spread to Europe, hitting 6 times after 1350 and killing anywhere from 75-200 million people (varies from source to source.) Had large demographic and social toll on Europe- wiped out population which took nearly 200 years to recover and badly hurt economy, led to peasant rebellions.