Jared's History Timeline 1400-1899.

Main

Petrarch

1321 - 1401

An Italian writer that started the humanist movement. He revived the ancient writings of Greece and Rome so they could be continued in history.

John Hess

1369

Started a huge reform and challenged citizens to oppose the worldliness of the church. They promised to protect him but later imprisoned him. He spread the word to all.

War of Roses

1455 - 1487

A fight for the throne of England between the Lancasters and the Yorks. The final victory was won by Henry Tudor V who took the throne in 1485.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

He was really against the Catholic church and really started the movement against its ignorance and empty rituals. Wrote a book making fun of the church.

Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Showed the corruption of politics in Europe and wanted to change them. He really influenced the government and the people on how they should rule.

The Spanish Inquistion

1478

It brought fear and death to protestants all over spain. They believed they could scare people back to the Catholic Church. They would torture them until they recanted.

Castiglione

1478 - 1529

He made the stage on how to act proper from his book The Courtier. He taught the ways people should act from the battlefield to normal life.

More

1478 - 1535

Wrote a book about what it would be like if men ruled with Christian standards and community. He drove the idea that rulers should be men of God.

Martin Luther's Birth

1483

The main reformer, helped many go against the Catholic Church. He challenged the whole Catholic system and gained many supporters to start new religions.

Cross Staff for navigation

1514

Helped with all the new world exploring and helped navigate all the seas to find the trade routes. without this many would have got lost.

The sale of indulgences

1514

To get the money to rebuild the Basilica in Rome, Pope Leo sold indulgences. This stated a huge controversy that people could pay for their sins they had committed, this started more rebellions.

The Diet of Worms

1521

Luther was asked to recant all of his writings and he refused. This set Luther as an outlaw of the empire and condemned him to death as a heretic.

The Act of Supremacy

1534

This made the King the head of all the Church in England. It broke off England completely from the Roman Catholic Church.

The council of Trent

1545

Here they condemned all the principles on which protestants based their faith. They also rejected doctrines of faith alone.

Cervantes

1547 - 1616

Shows what chivalry should be like and how to act. He showed how silly the old ways were and he put a social standard out there.

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Started the huge movement of plays. He set the standard for great theaters and changed the world of entertainment for everyone.

Flint lock pistol

1610

Made by Marin le Bourgeois for King Louis XIII of France. Moving on in gun advancements and set the pace for earlier guns and technology.

30 years war

1618 - 1648

Started out as a religious war between protestants and catholics but later just turned into country rivalries. This broke up Germany.

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Wanting to be an absolute ruler, parliament wouldn't let him. This all led to the English revolution. Charles continued to fight against parliament but got caught and later killed.

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Charles I demisses parliament and starts the civil war. Parliament wins and captures Charles and have him killed. Says Monarchs can't rule without parliament.

reign of Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Known as the sun king, he made France the most powerful nation in Europe. He built Versailles and spent most of his money on it.

Oliver Cromwell

1649 - 1660

After the war Cromwell took over and tried to make a republic. He forced everyone to live very religious lives and after he died they asked to get the kings back.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Wanted to westernize all of Russia. Traveled all of Europe to learn western ways and forced the on his people. Got a lot of territory for Russia.

Reflecting Telescope

1688

Made by Newton, it was innovative for exploring the stars and finding out more about the universe. It really changed the way people looked at it.

William and Mary

1689

They were the first people to co-rule the country together. They were the first to rule under the Bill of Rights, that limited the power of the Royals.

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

The Russians defeated Sweden and gained more territory by the Baltic Sea for themselves. Russia will establish herself as a world power after this war.

War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Fearing the joining of Spain and France, England and the Netherlands formed the Great Alliance. They then went to war and after England won the Treaty of Utrecht was signed.

Reign of Fredrick II

1740 - 1786

One of Prussia's greatest military rules. Prussia tripled its size while he was ruling. He started the silk trade for Prussia and grew their economy.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Prussia wanted to gain more territory from Austria. Fearing that they would get too powerful, France sided with Austria to stop them. Meanwhile Britain destroyed France in America.

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Encouraged education in Russia and finished the westernization of Russia. It was under her rule that the people finally over threw the czars.

Steam engine

1764

This obviously powered the trains that took any americans west and helped unite the country together, without this many towns wouldn't have developed.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

Because Britain made the colonists pay taxes but failed to give them rights in Parliament, the colonists revolted and won, starting a new world power.

Morphine in Germany

1804

A huge advancement in the medicine field that helped ease the pain for anyone getting surgery or in pain from other health problems.

Friction Matches

1826

Made by John Walker this is very important for everyone at this time. it helped warm homes and bring fire instantly to all who needed it.

Telephone

1876

The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell. This is the most important communication tool ever made. obviously this led to the cell phone that we use all the time.