Adity Choudhury-CRIM 404 Victimology Timeline

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1765

1765

William Blackstone-Marital Unity Doctrine-added that man is entrusted by law to treat wife and child equally

1827

1827

1.Bradley v. Mississippi- was the first case to overtly condone domestic violence; the right to chastisement, valuing the right to marital privacy was the basis of all domestic violent action until the 1960s

  1. James Kent's commentaries on American Law

1828

1828

Delaware court rules against striking pregnant wives

1832

1832

New York Court found the right to chastisement or moral corruption

1864

1864

State v. Black in North Carolina found that the law will not invade domestic forum or go behind the curtain without permanent injury or excess violence

1871

1871
  1. Knight v. Knight in Iowa found that one can't divorce for reasons of cruelty; belief was that it was "brought upon herself."

  2. Commonwealth v. Mcafee in Massachusetts: wife was hit and killed by intoxicated husband-court ruled that it is still not allowed.

  3. Fulgham in Alabama allowed in prosecution: equal protection of a woman as to man

1885

1885

Chicago Protective Agency for women and children

1889

1889

Ended 1984: 58/60 men who were arrested for domestic violence in Charleston, SC were black; reconstruction after civil war. (many slaves turned to violence after slavery ended)

Early 1900s

1900

Divorce laws were liberalized; divorce because of cruelty permitted, allowed women to seek divorce on these grounds.

1910

1910

35/46 states by now had passed liberalized divorce laws like these; number of cases increased; developed domestic relation courts. Turning something minimal into civil-boutique civil court.

1915

1915

Ended 1920: 25 cities adopted Chicago's Protective Agency

1931

1931

FBI started the Uniform Crime Report (UCR)

1940s

1940
  1. Women's bureaus disappeared (end of social work era)

  2. 1940s-1950s: rise of psychology and treatment of individuals-people were no longer criminals or victims but instead clients (re-conceptualized)

1948

1948

Von Henting wrote "The Criminal and His Victim"

1956

1956

Mendelsohn wrote "6 Degrees of Victim Blame"

1957

1957

Margaret Fry- compensation in England, not adopted in England

1958

1958

Ended 1969: Amir was published in 1971

1960s

1960
  1. Compensation and restitution focus began

  2. Protection added to victims of rape and domestic violence

1961

1961

Mapp v. Ohio found that evidence from illegitimate searches are not permitted

1963

1963

New Zealand adopted/passed first compensation legislation

1965

1965
  1. First act to protect victim's rights was passed

  2. California initiates first victim compensation in America; by 1979 we had 28 others

  3. Schafer wrotte "Victim and his Criminal" precipitation

1966

1966

The Miranda rights were established-calling of offenders; already shown in court to not be required when reason to believe that suspect knows his/her rights

1967

1967

Victim's issues became main focus of President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (established methods for compensating crime victims)

1970s

1970
  1. Women's movement, children's movement, continued civil rights movement

  2. Government started funding in-house prosecutor based victim and witness projects

1972

1972
  1. London opened first domestic violence shelter focused on services

  2. First 3 victim assistance programs open in US, 2 are rape crisis centers (DC & SF)

  3. National Crime Victim Survey began in which 12 thousand households were interviewed every 6 months for 3 years

1973

1973
  1. LEAA conference started; funding was established in 1974 by first local victim/witness programs and in 1975 the National Office of Victim Assistance was founded

  2. Canada ruled that in post-conviction, victims are voluntary, offenders maybe not in Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM).

1978

1978
  1. First National Victim Resource Center funded by LEAA block grants

  2. National Coalition Against DV was founded

1978

1978

Steinmetz came up with elder abuse- been fed the myth that the young must respect elders by elders themselves

1979

1979

Crime victims' book: made info available to serve victims, identifying and meeting victims'needs

1980s

1980
  1. TRO (temporary restraining orders) became available

  2. Rape shield laws

1980

1980
  1. NIBRS starts recording all crime that occurs at single event

  2. MADD formed (mothers against drunk driving); started by mothers who lost children; became a strong voting block

  3. First victims bill of rights passed in Wisconsin

  4. National campaign for Victim's Rights Founded

1981

1981
  1. First victims week (established by Reagan)

  2. 1981-82: Minneapolis experiment-turning point in domestic violence cases-led to change in practice nationwide

1982

1982
  1. National Victim and Witness protection act was founded- it set out protection during case processing; Victim impact statements had matching federal act: Omnibus Victim/Witness Protection Act

  2. Founding of President's task force for victims of crime (VOCA resulted)

1983

1983
  1. National conference on judiciary & victim rights

  2. Office of victims of crime opens within Department of Justice (DOJ)

  3. USAG creates guidelines for treatment of federal victims and witnesses

1984

1984
  1. Family Violence Prevention and Treatment act made abuse and neglect illegal

  2. Older Americans Act- states to assess

  3. Federal government enacted legislation for federal crime victims

  4. VOCA by Reagan:
    -funded with taxes, offender fines, rainy day backup
    -4 million crime victims per year
    -DV, sexual assault, child abuse, elder abuse, drunk driving, survivors of homicide
    -federal victim notification system
    -emergency relief to victims of terrorism & mass violence
    -child abuse prevention & treatment programs
    -prosecutors, law enforcement agencies & victims advocates
    -DV & sexual assault victims make up half of those receiving services-shelter crisis centers, child abuse treatment programs

  5. USAG task force

  6. Thurman v. Torrington police in Connecticut- 200yrs after marital unity doctrine

  7. Victims of Crime Act launched

1987

1987

Booth v. Maryland:
-prohibited the use of victim impact statements during sentencing
-encouraged jury to focus on victim instead of defendant
-showed that decision should not rest on ability to describe
-created more subjectivity, giving the defendant little opportunity to rebut

1989

1989

Gathers v. SC:
-found that statements about victim character by prosecution are not allowed
-violated the 8th amendment (cruel and unusual punishment)

1989

1989

New Zealand allowed victims, their family, and stakeholders to be allowed in Victim-offender Mediation (VOM)

1990s

1990
  1. By 1990: 48 states made restitution a punishment unto itself-kept people from being unnecessarily taken out

  2. Police Academies added DV training into curricula

1990

1990
  1. Crime control act created victims bill of rights

  2. The Clery Act passed, requiring universities to accurately report crime on campuses; woman's daughter wasn't aware and she was raped and murdered

  3. Victims' Rights and Restitution Act launched; established federal bill of rights for crime victims

1991

1991

Payne v. TN: held that victim impact evidence will not be considered during sentencing, does not violate the 8th amendment as decision should be case by case.

1992

1992
  1. Family violence and prevention services act was passed

  2. Hate crimes statistics act

1993

1993
  1. Older Americans Act reauthorized to create protections:
  2. mandatory reporting
  3. social services more commonly involves- especially in self-neglect
  4. need more research

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Registry Act-established a national database and registry on child sex offenders

1994

1994
  1. VAWA violence against women act - $1.2 billion to be spent between 1995-2000
    -improve CJ responses to violence against women
    -services in community
    -public safety measures
    -education on health and data services
    -STOP (services & training for officers & prosecutors); DV (about catching them up, not about giving women more, somewhat like Cancer research)

  2. Model code on domestic & family violence by national council of juvenile and family court justices

  3. Child abuse registry launched- doctor can call other ERs to check for suspicious injuries on child in emergency room

1996

1996
  1. Implementation of national domestic violence hotline

  2. Community notification act (Megan's Law) which created the sex offender registry

1997

1997

Victims Rights Clarification Act was created as a result of the Oklahoma City bombing

1998

1998
  1. Crime Victims with Disabilities Awareness Act enacted

  2. New Directions Report- most recommendations to prosecutors, other recommendations went to police & judiciary (need non-state response-manipulative)

  3. Office of Victims of Crime sent out recommendations to improve civil suits and litigation to victims)

  4. Child Protection & Sexual Predator Punishment Act- established enhanced penalties for sex crimes against children & addressed use of internet by child sex predators

  5. Identity Theft & Deterrence Act- criminalized identity theft & permitted those whose identities are stolen to be considered as victims

2000

2000
  1. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) reauthorized; $3.3 billion over five more years:
    --renewal required cross-jurisdictional honor of TRO
    --demanded efficacy for continued funding of
    existing programs
    --expanded original STOP programs

  2. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act (uniform nationally)

2001

2001
  1. special federal victim compensation for 9/11 victims (qualified if you were at the world trade center or the pentagon on 9/11/2001)

  2. Air Transportation Safety & System Stabilization Act

2002

2002

By 2002, 2/3 states added the constitutional right to compensation

2003

2003
  1. Amber alert went national

  2. National Office on Violence Against Women was established by the DOJ

  3. Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act

2004

2004
  1. January became stalking awareness month-funded by office of violence against women

  2. Justice for All Act

2005

2005
  1. National online sex offender registry is commissioned

  2. Combating Trafficking programs started

2006

2006

Adam Walsh child protection and safety act- standards of information

2007

2007

Crime Victims Rights Rules Act created-guaranteed victim rights and guidance in federal court

2008

2008
  1. Trafficking victims protection reauthorized, giving government more tools to comeback trafficking nationally and worldwide

  2. Protect Our Children Act-improved ability of law enforcement to prosecute child predators

2010

2010

National survey of white collar crime shows 24% of households and 17% of individuals experienced white collar crime in the last 12 months

2013

2013

VAWA reauthorized-expanded stalking definitions (internet stalking added), teen violence in relationships and education on teen violence, & barriers were removed for LGBT definitions--big victory for sexual rights & rights in relationships

2014

2014
  1. January 13th, the Office of Victims of Crime (OVC) gave $8.3 million of support for Boston marathon bombing victims

  2. Interstate Compact- ICAOS- for adult offender supervision

  3. Sexual assault kit backlog reduction law- 6 states and federal; 12 states have laws pending on this--sponsored by Office of Violence Against Women