Crim 404 Victimology Timeline

Main

Code of Hammurabi

1760 B.C.E.

Retribution and Restitution. "Eye for an Eye"

Puritan Laws against wife beating

1600

Puritans made laws against wife beating however they were rarely enforced.

William Blackstone - Marital Unity Doctrine

1765

Man responsible for wife's behavior as when married wife's legal identity is "merged" into husband's. Wife cannot do anything legally without husband.

James Kent's Commentaries on American Law

1826

Summary of American law at the time.

Bradley v States (Mississippi)

1827

Mississippi.
First Case overt condone domestic violence.
The right to chastisement.

Delaware Court

1828

Do not strike pregnant wife

Printing Press developed

1830

Printing press developed and quickened the pace of the media and how the news was delievered

Found the Opposite in NY

1832

New York courts disagrees with Delware
Right to chastisement or moral corruption.

State (NC) v. Black

1864

North Carolina.
Will not go behind the curtain without permanent injury or excess violence.
Husband can use force as long as there is no permanent injury or excess violence.

Knight v. Knight (IA)

1871

Iowa.
No divorce for women because of husband cruelty, brought it in on herself.

Commonwealth v. McAfee (Mass)

1871

Killed because hit while drunk -- court says No
Husband cannot strike woman even if woman is drunk

Fulgham (Alabama) Case

1871

Allowed prosecution of DV offenders -- equal protection of woman as to man.
Rescinded legal right of man to hit woman

Jim Crow Laws

1876 - 1965

Maryland makes wife beating illegal

1882

First state to make wife beating ilegal

Chicago Protective Agency for Women and Children

1885

Provided legal and personal aid to women who were abused

58 of 60 men arrested for DV in Charleston, SC were black

1889 - 1894

Inequality
Unwillingness to arrest white males

Harris v. State (Mississippi)

1894

Right to conduct moderate chastisement is overruled in Mississippi

State v. Dowell

1899

Husband participating in rape by third party is condemned.

Early 1900s Divorce laws liberalized

1900 - 1910

Divorce because of cruelty.

By 1910 35 of 46 states had passed liberalized divorce laws like these -- domestic relations courts

25 cities adopted Chicago's Protective Agency

1915 - 1920

25 cities adopted Chicago's Protective Agency

FBI UCR began

1931

1940s Women's bureaus disappeared (end of social work era)

1940

End of social work era

Rise of psychology

1940 - 1959

1940s-1950s rise of psychology and TREATMENT of individuals – no longer criminals and victims, rather they were CLIENTS

Von Hentig

1948

The Criminal and his victim.
Some people are more inclined to becoming criminal and victims
Victims usually include: rich, children, elderly

Mendelsohn wrote 6 degrees of victim blame

1956
  1. Completely innocent victims
  2. Victim’s with minor guilt
  3. Victim as guilty as offender/voluntary victim
  4. Victim more guilty than offender
  5. Most guilty victim
  6. Simulating or imaginary victim

Margaret Fry

1957

Compensation in England, not adopted in England.

Amir on Rape (published in 1971)

1958 - 1960

Thought of as prompting victim blame in rape cases

Compensation and restitution

1960 - 1969

Mapp v. Ohio

1961

No evidence form illegitimate searches.

New Zealand

1963

First country to adopt compensation for victims.

1st Act to protect victims' rights

1965

California initiates first victim compensation in USA

1965 - 1979

By 1979 we had 28 others

Schafer Victim and his Criminal

1965

Precipitation

Miranda

1966

President's Commision

1967

Focused on concern for victims

Government Funded In-House Projects

1970 - 1979

Government funded in-house projects to encourage victims to participate in prosecution

1970s Women's, Children's Movements, Civil Rights

1970 - 1979

Occupational Safety and Health ACt

1970

Addresses workplace safety, general duty clause

London opened the DV shelter

1972

Focused on services

First 3 victim assistance programs open in the US

1972

2 are rape crisis centers (DC & SF)

NCS becomes NCVS

1972

LEAA conference

1973 - 1975

1974 - funding established the first local victim/witness programs
1975 - founding of National Office of Victim Assitsance

Victim-Offender Mediation

1973

Canada
Usually happens post-conviction.
Victims are voluntary participants, offenders not so much.

Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act

1973

Mandatory reporting
Database available 24/7

Fist National Victim Resource Center funded by LEAA block grants

1978

Steinmetz – Elder Abuse

1978

Crime Victim's Book - identifying and meeting victims' needs

1979

1st Victims' Bill of Rights (Wisconsin)

1980

MADD formed

1980

1980s TROs became available

1980 - 1989

1980s Rape Shield Laws

1980 - 1989

National Campaign for Victims' Right founded

1980

Minneapolis Experiment

1981 - 1982

first Victims' Week (Reagan)

1981

Founding of President's Task Force for Victims of Crime (VOCA resulted)

1982

VOCA
Final Report offers 68 recommendations to improve the treatment of crime victims.

Recommended restitution

Founded National Victim and Witness Protection Act

1982

Omnibus Victim/Witness

Office of Victims of Crime opens within the DOJ

1983

USAG creates guidelines for the treatment of federal victims and witnesses

1983

National Conference on the Judiciary and Victims Rights

1983

on how to protect the rights of victims

USAG task force report

1984

Thurman v. Torrington Police

1984

Connecticut
Police watched victim be abused by husband before stepping in.
Thurman won the case

Family Violence Prevention and Treatment Act

1984

Abuse and neglect of the elderly made illegal

VOCA Reagan

1984

Funded with (not taxes) offender fines, rainy day backup only used 3 times in last 8 years
4 million crime victims each year
DV, sexual assault, child abuse, elder abuse, drunk driving, survivors of homicide
Federal Victim Notification System
Emergency relief to victims of terrorism and mass violence
Child abuse prevention and treatment programs
Prosecutors, law enforcement agencies and victims' advocates
DV and sexual assault victims makes up half of those receiving services -- shelters, crisis centers, child abuse treatment programs

Older Americans Act

1984

States to assess

Booth v. MD

1987

No VIS during sentencing

Family Group Conferncing

1989

New Zealand
Shaming
Stakeholders can attend

Gathers v. SC

1989

No statements about victim character by prosecution

By 1990 - 48 states made restitution a punishment unto itself

Crime Control Act created the Victims' Bill of Rights

1990

Clery Act Passed

1990

Universities must report campus crimes annually and accurately

1990s Police academies added DV training

1990 - 1999

Circle Sentencing

1990

Canada
Minor crimes
Doesn't matter if stakeholder or not. Everyone can attend.

Payne v. Tennessee

1991

Reversed/Overturned both Booth and Gathers

Family Violence and Prevention Services Act

1992

Hate Crime Statistics Act

1992

Agencies must report and collect all information on hate crimes as a separate crime

Older Americans Act reauthorized to create protections

1993

Protections created:
Mandatory reporting
Social services -- self-neglect

Model Code on Domestic & Family Violence...

1994

... by National Council of Juvenile & Family Court Justices

VAWA

1994

Violence Against Women Act
$1.2 billion between 1995-2000
Improved response to violence against women by training
Services in community
Public safety measures
Education, health and data services
STOP (Services and Training for Officers and Prosecutors) DV

Child Abuse Registry launched

1994

Lautenburg Amendment

1996

Cannot own a firearm if convicted of domestic violence

Implementation of the National Domestic Violence Hotline

1996

Community Notification Act (Megan's Law)

1996

Registered Sex Offenders information made public

Victims' Rights Clarification Act

1997

Result of Oklahoma City Bombings
Victims have right to be present during trial

Crime Victims with Disabilities Act

1998

VAWA II

2000

$3.3 billion over 5 more years
Renewal required cross-jurisdictional honor of TRO
Demanded efficacy for continued funding of existing programs
Expanded original STOP programs

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act

2000

Uniform Nationally

Special Federal Victim Compensation

2001

9/11

By 2002 2/3 States constitutional right to compensation

2002

Amber Alert becomes national

2003

National Office on Violence Against Women (DOJ)

2003

Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act Reauthorized

2003

January became stalking awareness month

2004

National Child Abuse

2005

Combating Trafficking

2005

National Online Sex Offender Registry is commissioned

2005

Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act

2006

Standards of information

Crime Victims’ Rights Rules Act

2007

Guaranteed victim rights and guidance in federal court

Trafficking victim protection reauthorized

2008

Went worldwide

National Survey of White Collar Crime

2010

Shows 24% of households and 17% individuals experienced in last 12 months.

VAWA reauthorized

2013

Education in teen violence, barriers removed for LGBT definitions, expanded stalking defs

1/13 OVC $8.3m Boston Marathon bombings support

2014

1/13 OVC $8.3m Boston Marathon bombings support

Sexual Assault Kit Backlog Reduction Law

2014

Sexual Assault Kit Backlog Reduction Law – 6 states and the Feds (12 states have laws pending on this) – OVAW

Interstate compact – ICAOS – Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision

2014