unknown by us until 1850’s b.c, Mohenjo-daro = major city, Dravidian lang., Harappa = major city, BOTH WERE TWIN CAPITALS, conquered by aryans,monsoon rains, systems failure = decline( no invasion)
came across Hindu Kush mountains,
caste system- heredity class system, unchangable
Varna- term meaning color, four varnas to describe social class.
jati - birth groups
rig veda- most important doc honoring aryans
buddhism began in india - founded by siddhartha gautama(563 b.c - 483 b.c)
"enlightened one", Nirvana- union with the spirit, four noble truths, eight fold path,
universal spirit that is responsible for what occurs. karma
Ashoka- 3rd ruler and greatest ruler.
before mauryan dynasty, India was politically fragmented, located around trade routes. Ashoka turned to buddhism after being shocked by the bloodshed. India returned to fragmentation after Mauryan.
extensive trade system connecting from southeastern China to Africa.
Nomadic huns began aggressive migration westward. motivation was probably related to drought and competition for land. Attila- Leader of the Huns, lead army during mid- 5th century c.e, to invade Hungary and cross Roman frontiers. later they poured into the Indian sub-continent into Gupta territory.
founder- chandra Gupta,
Not as large as Mauryan or as controlling, regional warrior elites rule and collect tribute
conquest by persians, nile river, pharaoh, 1st paraoh = Menes, Horus = sky god, OLD, MIDDLE, NEW kingdom, social mobility was possible
they traveled for centuries all over Sub-Saharan Africa, but retained many of their customs including their language, their language spread and mixed with others. very gradual migration, introduced agriculture, iron metallurgy, and Bantu language to most of the regions of sub- Saharan Africa by 600 c.e
Yangzi river valley, yellow river valley, 3000 b.c = both rivers traded and communicated, secluded, himalaya mountains and gobi dessert, methods to control flooding in yellow river, XIA dynasty = 1st, Shang dynasty = 1750 – 1500 – nomadic – most people were gov. by vassals, Zhou Dynasty = 12th century b.c – written records, shi- were under Zhou and were men of service, confusianism, divination = communicating with god
followed domestic animals, came into conflict with villagers along the river,
nomadic, most people were governed by vassals
kept written records, historical accounts of success of monarch, shi- men of service, shi were the best educated men and and were advisers. Warring states period at end of Zhou dynasty.
founded by Laozi, based on nature and peaceful thinking,
Confucius lived in the late Zhou era during the warring states period. Mandate of Heaven and yin-yang, based of model of Chinese family
Shi Huangdi declared himslef "first emperor" when he recovered China from Warring states period, centralized bureaucracy, LEGALISM, stripped nobility of power, divided china into provinces, built roads, built Great Wall! harsh rule, standardized rule and currency and common script. ended in 207 b.c
china was brought under control quickly by Liu Bang- not a military commander but was a strong ruler, de-emphasized legalism, made gov. based on Confucian values, Mandate of Heaven was incorporated as-well.
Han Wudi- (140-87 b.c) liu's successor, required nobles to dived land to sons, so larger estates would be broken up.
Han rulers expanded frontiers
nomadic groups were trouble even with the great wall, Han Wudi's forces defeat nomadic groups.
Shi had high social status as scholar Bureaucrats(Confucian), exam system
nomadic groups and ineffective gov were main causes for decline.
heavenly horses, Greeks could trade for Chinese silk.
Stirrup was probably invented
olmec and chavin, separation of west and east
“rubber people”, coast of gulf of Mexico, rainfall = no irrigation, based on agriculture, religious and trade centers, no competitive city-states, 365 day calendar.
peruvian coast and foothills of the Andes, not on a river valley, abundance of fish, capital = Chavin de Huantar,
mountainous, little farming land, most skilled sailors, Minoan- 1600 b.c , island of Crete Mycenaean- (1600-1200 b.c), part of trade network of late Bronze era, often at war, Aegean area entered a “Dark age” (1200-800 b.c), isolated from people around them. Phoenicians- established contact between Greece and middle east, soon trade was established. Polis: city-state.
Greece vs. Persia
more rebellions = higher militaristic society, 700s- defeated neighbor city-state (messania),
Hoplits: armed infantrymen
social distinction- citizen or non-citizen
spartan women were free and equal to men- in a way run by women
polytheistic, secularism, natural law- forces in nature that cause phenomena.
Socrates(470-399 B.C)- first to focus on ethical questions
Plato- socrates student, wrote about Socrates findings and research.
Aristotle- Plato's student, interested in every field.
Pericles- Delian League,
Athens went through all 4 types of governments, democracy- town meeting
Pericles formed Delian League to connect all city-states. Peloponnesian war between Sparta and Athens - Sparta eventually won.
Etruscans- came to Italy in 800 b.c, series of small city-states that rules the native people, one of the subject communities was Rome
Rome- Founded by twin brother Romulus and Remus, 509 b.c Rome gained independence from Etruscan rule, republic; lasted until 1st emperor
-Augustus- ( 31 b.c - 14 c.e)
senate, composed of Patricians(aristocrats), Plebeians(commoners)-90% of pop.
Tribune- plebeian representation.
Julius Caesar- Patrician general with sway over soldiers
Triumvirate- (rule of three), Julius Caesar; Crassus(wealth); Pompey(rival to Caesar), Caesar declared himslef dictator but was assassinated by senate in 44 b.c
Caesar's nephew Octavian battle for control of Rome and won in the Battle of Actium. -Augustus Caesar-established Roman Empire.
Equites: Italian merchants who helped run Roman empire.
Law of the Twelve Tables: code from the republic with a few changes from Augustus Caesar.
Pax Romana: Roman Peace, caused by reforms and peace lasted until 100 c.e, Empire reached largest extent during that time.
Patron-Client: relationship, paterfamilias, oldest male tied to the next then next...etc
Punic Wars-fought with Carthage a former Phoenician colony(Mediterranean) (264-146 b.c) WON!
founder was Jesus of Nazareth, Jesus' disciples spread Christianity, Constantine of Rome became a christian himself and opened up the religion.
Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of Rome. too late to save the crumbling Rome, but able to keep the religion alive.
heavenly horses, Greeks could trade for Chinese silk. Stirrup was probably invented
Nomadic huns began aggressive migration westward. motivation was probably related to drought and competition for land.
Attila- Leader of the Huns, lead army during mid- 5th century c.e, to invade Hungary and cross Roman frontiers. later they poured into the Indian sub-continent into Gupta territory.
Cuneiform- wedge shaped, writing Ziggurats- large multistory pyramids amulets- protect from evil spirits. islam originated
Theocracy, cultural hearth, semitics and sumarians, Hammurabi code
earliest Mesopotamian city
Sargon the Great led the political conquest, cultural diffusion, fertile crescent, ruled by kings.
Hammurabi led them
Hebrew Bible, founded by- Abraham, they suffered a diaspora- or scattering of people
High dry plateau, in between Indian subcontinent and southwest Asia, trade area,
Cyrus the Great- extended territory to edge of Mediterranean sea
Darius 1- Cyrus' successor, extended into Egypt, and Macedonia
Xerxes- Darius' successor defeated more often
Satrap:Persian representatives, collect tribute, keeping order,
Wars started the decline of persia
official religion of the Persian empire. essentially monotheistic. one god but had an evil spirit opposing it.
King Phillip II- built powerful military, in little over 10 years he brought all Greece under his control, poised to invade Persia, but murdered
Alexander the Great- his son, invading Persia fell to him, his feats became legendary, started with Anatolia then Egypt(greeted as pharaoh), pushed his troop who made it to Indus River valley, he died 13 years after he came into control and the empire fell apart without him THIS WAS CALLED THE HELLENISTIC AGE
heavenly horses, Greeks could trade for Chinese silk. Stirrup was probably invented
belief in many gods, most early civilizations were polytheistic.