1600's-1800's

England

Act of Union with Scotland, 1603

1603

Long Parliament, 1640

1640

English Civil War, 1642

1642

Charles I executed, 1649

1649

Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector, 1653

1653

Oliver Cromwell dies, 1658

1658

Glorious Revolution, 1688

1688

Locke's "2nd Treatise of Government," 1689

1689

Watt's steam engine invented, 1698

1698

Enclosure Acts, 1700

1700

Kay's flying shuttle invented, 1733

1733

Hargreaves Spinning Jenny invented, 1764

1764

William Pitt the Elder becomes Prime Minister, 1766

1766

Arkwright's water frame invented, 1769

1769

Jeremy Bentham's ideas about Utilitarianism, 1770

1770

Adam Smith's "The Wealth of Nations," 1776

1776

Cartwright's power loom invented, 1785

1785

William Pitt the Younger becomes Prime Minister, 1787

1787

Abbe Sieyes "What is the Third Estate?" 1789

1789

Tennis Court Oath, 1789

1789

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789

1789

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, 1791

1791

Malthus' ideas on population, 1798

1798

Act of Union with Ireland, 1800

1800

Luddites protest against new machines, 1811

1811

Corn Laws passes, 1815

1815

Ricardo's Iron Law of Wages, 1817

1817

Reform Bill, 1832

1832

Poor Laws of 1834

1834

Chartists, 1838

1838

Queen Victoria coronation/abdication, 1838/1901

1838 - 1901

Corn Laws Repealed, 1846

1846

Marx and Engels "The Communist Manifesto," 1848

1848

Early Utopian Socialist ideas emerge: Charles, Fourier, Louis Blanc, 1848

1848

Darwin's Origin of Species, 1859

1859

Gladstone becomes Prime Minister in Britain, 1864

1864

Reform Bill, 1867

1867

Reform Bill, 1887

1887

Kipling writes "White Man's Burden," 1899

1899

France

Versailles is constructed, 1624

1624

Louis XIV's reign begins, 1643

1643

The Fronde, 1648

1648

French Classicism , 1650

1650

Jean Baptiste Colbert made French Minister of Finance, 1668

1668

Montesquieu's "Spirit of the Laws," 1748

1748

Voltaire's "Candide," 1759

1759

Rousseau's "Emile," 1762

1762

French Revolution, 1789

1789

King Louis XVI executed, 1793

1793

Mary Antoinette executed, 1793

1793

Committee of Public Safety est., 1793

1793

Robespierre is executed, 1794

1794

Louis XVII coronation France, 1795

1795

The Directory, 1795

1795

Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1796

1796

Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'etat, 1799

1799

Romanticism, 1800

1800

Napoleonic Wars, 1803

1803

Code Napoleon est. 1804

1804

Continental System, 1806

1806

Charles X Coronation/Abdication, 1825/1830

1825 - 1830

Revolution of 1830 in France

1830

Louis Philip (Bourgeois King) Coronation/abdication, 1830/1848

1830 - 1848

The Bloody June Days, 1848

1848

Louis Napoleon elected president, 1848

1848

Literary and Artistic Realism, 1850

1850

Louis Napoleon -> Napoleon III as emperor 1852

1852

Baron Haussman remodels Paris, 1853

1853

Pasteur Germ Theory, 1853

1853

Third Republic of France, 1870

1870

Boulanger Affair, 1887

1887

Dreyfus Affair, 1894

1894

Emile Zola's "J.Accuse," 1898

1898

Holy Roman Empire, Confederation of the Rhine, Germany

Declaration of Pillnitz, 1791

1791

Confederation of the Rhine created, 1806

1806

Burschenscraft formed, 1815

1815

Friedrich List's Economic Nationalism, 1815

1815

Carlsbad Decrees, 1819

1819

Zollverein formed, 1834

1834

Frankfort Assembly, 1848

1848

William I crowned German Emperor (kaiser), 1861

1861

Bismarck's "Iron and Blood Speech," 1862

1862

Bismarck's Kulturkampf, 1864

1864

Augsleich (Compromise of 1867)

1867

Bismarck made chancellor of Germany, 1871

1871

German unification complete, 1871

1871

Congress of Berlin, 1878

1878

Italian States, Italy

Baroque art Movement, 1600

1600

Galileo put on trial, 1633

1633

Garibaldi gives S. Italy to Cavour to join with the N. lands, 1848

1848

Cavour begins unification process in Italy, 1848

1848

Mazzini advocated for Italian Unification, 1851

1851

Victor Emmanuel crowned king of Italy, 1861

1861

Impressionist Movement, 1870

1870

Italian Unification complete, 1870

1870

Post-Impressionism, 1885

1885

General Europe Changes

Thirty Years War, 1618

1618

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion, 1619

1619

King Gustavus Adolphus dies, 1632

1632

Descarte's "Discourse on Method," 1637

1637

Rembrandt paints "Night Watch," 1642

1642

Peace of Westphalia, 1648

1648

Golden Age of Dutch Republic, 1648

1648

Vermeer paints "The Astronomer," 1668

1668

Isaac Newton's "Principia," 1687

1687

Northern Wars, 1700

1700

War of Spanish Succession, 1701

1701

Treaty of Utrecht, 1713

1713

Hanoverian Dynasty begins , 1714

1714

Maria Theresa's rule, 1740

1740

Frederick the Great's rule, 1740

1740

War of Austrian Succession, 1740

1740

Seven Years War, 1754

1754

Diderot's Encyclopedia 1757

1757

Treaty of Paris, 1763

1763

American Revolution, 1765

1765

Joseph II's rule, 1765

1765

Each of the 3 partitions of Poland, 1772, 1793, 1795

1772 - 1795

Napoleonic Wars, 1803

1803

Congress of Vienna, 1814

1814

Greek Independence of 1832

1832

Irish Potato Famine, 1845

1845

Revolution of 1848: France, German States, Austria, Italy

1848

Crimean War begins/ends, 1853-1856

1853 - 1856

Danish War, 1859

1859

Austro-Prussian War, 1866

1866

Paris Commune resist Prussia, 1871

1871

Franco-Prussian War, 1878

1878

Russia

St. Petersburg is constructed, 1703

1703

Peter the Great begins, 1721

1721

Catherine the Great begins her rule, 1762

1762

Pugachevs Rebellion, 1773

1773

Napoleonic Wars, 1803

1803

Decembrist Revolt, 1825

1825

Alexander II free serfs in Russia, 1861

1861

Alexander II assassinated, 1881

1881