1600s-1900s

England

Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Charles I Executed

1649

Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector

1649

Oliver Cromwell dies

1658

Glorious Revolution

1688

Locke’s “2nd Treatise of Government”

1689

Act of Union with Scotland

1707

Enclosure Acts

1713

Hanoverian Dynasty begins

1714

William Pitt the Elder becomes Prime Minister

1757

Treaty of Paris

1763

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

William Pitt the Younger becomes Prime Minister

1783

Act of Union with Ireland

1801

Corn Laws Passed

1815

Reform Act of 1832

1832

Poor Law of 1834

1834

Queen Victoria coronation

1837

Chartists

1838 - 1848

Corn Laws Repealed

1846

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Reform Act of 1867

1867

Reform Act of 1884

1884

Prime Minister Gladstone

1892

Queen Victoria abdication

1901

France

Louis XIV’s reign begins

1643

The Fronde

1648 - 1652

French Classicism

1650 - 1700

Jean Baptiste Colbert made French Minister of Finance

1665

Versailles is constructed

1688

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Treaty of Paris

1763

Abbe Sieyes “What is the Third Estate?”

1789

Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

1789

Tennis Court Oath

1789

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

1790

Declaration of Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen

1791

Declaration of Pillnitz

1791

Committee of Public Safety est.

1793

Marie Antoinette executed

1793

King Louis XVI executed

1793

Robespierre is executed

1794

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup d’état

1799

Napoleonic Wars

1803 - 1815

Code Napoleon est.

1804

Continental System

1806 - 1807

Louis XVIII Coronation

1814

Charles X Coronation

1825

Charles X Abdication

1830

Revolution of 1830 in France

1830

Louis Phillippe (bourgeois king) Coronation

1830

The Bloody June Days

1848

Louis Phillippe Abdication

1848

Louis Napoleon elected president

1851

Louis Napoleon —> Napoleon III as emperor

1852

Baron Haussman remodels Paris

1853

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Paris Commune resists Prussia

1871

Third Republic of France

1875

Boulanger Affair

1889

Dreyfus Affair

1895

Emile Zola’s “J’Accuse”

1898

Holy Roman Empire/Germany

Frederick the Great’s rule

1740 - 1786

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Maria Theresa’s rule

1740 - 1780

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Joseph II’s rule

1780 - 1790

Confederation of the Rhine created

1806

Burschenscaften formed

1817

Carlsbad Decrees

1819

Zollverein formed

1834

Friedrich List’s Economic Nationalism

1844

Frankfurt Assembly

1848 - 1849

Bismarck’s “iron and blood speech”

1862

Danish War

1864

Austro-Prussian War

1866

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Bismarck’s Kulturkampf

1871 - 1878

German Unification Complete

1871

William I crowned German Emperor

1871

Bismarck made chancellor of Germany

1871

Italian States/Italy

Mazzini advocates for Italian Unification

1831

Victor Emmanuel crowned king of Italy

1849

Cavour begins unification process in Italy

1858

Garibaldi gives S. Italy to Cavour

1861

Italian Unification Complete

1861

Russia

Peter the Great’s Rule begins

1689

Northern Wars

1701 - 1721

St. Petersburg is constructed

1703

Catherine the Great begins her rule

1762

Pugachev’s Rebellion

1773 - 1775

Decembrist Revolt

1825

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Alexander II frees serfs in Russia

1861

Alexander II assassinated

1881

General Europe Changes

Golden Age of the Dutch Republic

1588 - 1702

Baroque Art movement

1600 - 1700

Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion

1609

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

King Gustavus Adolphus Dies

1632

Galileo put on trial

1633

Descartes’ “Discourse on Method”

1637

Rembrandt paints “Night Watch”

1642

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Vermeer paints “The Astronomer”

1668

Isaac Newton’s “Principia”

1687

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Kay’s flying shuttle invented

1733

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Montesquieu’s “Spirit of the Laws”

1748

Diderot’s “Encyclopedia”

1751

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Voltaire’s “Candide”

1759

Rousseau’s “Emile”

1762

Arkwright’s water frame invented

1763

Watt’s steam engine invented

1763

First Partition of Poland

1772

Adam Smith’s “The Wealth of Nations”

1776

Hargreaves Spinning Jenny invented

1779

Cartwright’s power loom invented

1785

Second Partition of Poland

1793

Third Partition of Poland

1795

Malthus’ ideas on population

1798

Romanticism

1800 - 1850

Luddites protest against new machines

1812

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Ricardo’s Iron Law of Wages

1817

Greek Independence of 1832

1832

Irish Potato Famine

1845

Literary and Artistic Realism

1848

Marx & Engels “The Communist Manifesto”

1848

Revolutions of 1848

1848

Darwin’s “Origin of Species"

1859

Pasteur’s Germ Theory

1864

Augsleich (Compromise of 1867)

1867

Impressionist Movement

1870

Congress of Berlin

1878

Post-Impressionism

1892

‘White Man’s Burden”

1899