although the oral tradition was very strong, from the C7 authors made at least one written copy of new works
Books appear in Greece
early books were long papyrus scrolls - an inconvenient format
accentuation introduced in greek
300 bc - 30 bc
Accentuation introduced in the hellenistic period in an effort to clarify written texts. Not popular until the medieval period, however.
Roman scholarship begins
Decline in alexandrian literary work
Ptolemy Euregetes II persecutes literary men
First Roman public library
made by Pollio
Book trade starts in Rome
no book trade before first century bc and when it begins it is not very professional
classification of the liberal arts
1 ad - 100 ad
the seven liberal arts which made up the medieval uni curriculum had been formalised as grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, astronomy, mathematics, music and geometry
decline of contemporary literature
200 - 400
this occurs partly due to political and economic upheaval
scroll replaced by codex
200 - 500
Decline of Roman Empire in West
500 - 600
Roman Empire declines in the west in the C6. This results in great cultural decline.
Dark Ages for classics
550 - 750
Arabs learnt about making paper around 750 when Chinese prisoners taught them the technique
Increase in Cathedral schools
1000 - 1100
brings some info out of monasteries and creates education among the secular clergy.
1100 - 1200
Bologna becomes centre for law, Salerno for medicine. Spain is retaken from the muslims and Toledo becomes centre of translation for incoming Arabic texts. In Italy many Greek works translated to Latin.
Revival of philosophy
C12 philosophical revival, with focus on Aristotle
Greeks regain Constantinople and Greece
Romans lose Constantinople and Greece to the Greek Emperors. Results in some resurgence of Byzantine scholarship.
Museum at Alexandria
280 bc - 250 bc
Museum at Alexandria had first important example of a library.
Founded by Benedict of Nursia. He dictated that 1hr/day should be dedicated to reading but said little else on the subject. Allowed liberal influence when literature and reading resurged.
Eratosthenes librarian @ Alexandria
295 bc - 214 bc
Eratosthenes was both a literary man and a mathematician. He tried to work out the circumference of the earth.
Constantine = pro christianity
300 - 400
Isidore of Seville
570 - 636
Produced the Etymologies - a huge encyclopaedia. His work spread v rapidly throughout the west. He was a bishop but did include info and quotations from pagan treatises.
1304 - 1374
Forefigure of humanist movement. Links literary and scholarly aspects together.