although the oral tradition was very strong, from the C7 authors made at least one written copy of new works
early books were long papyrus scrolls - an inconvenient format
Accentuation introduced in the hellenistic period in an effort to clarify written texts. Not popular until the medieval period, however.
Ptolemy Euregetes II persecutes literary men
made by Pollio
no book trade before first century bc and when it begins it is not very professional
the seven liberal arts which made up the medieval uni curriculum had been formalised as grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, astronomy, mathematics, music and geometry
this occurs partly due to political and economic upheaval
Roman Empire declines in the west in the C6. This results in great cultural decline.
Arabs learnt about making paper around 750 when Chinese prisoners taught them the technique
brings some info out of monasteries and creates education among the secular clergy.
Bologna becomes centre for law, Salerno for medicine. Spain is retaken from the muslims and Toledo becomes centre of translation for incoming Arabic texts. In Italy many Greek works translated to Latin.
C12 philosophical revival, with focus on Aristotle
Romans lose Constantinople and Greece to the Greek Emperors. Results in some resurgence of Byzantine scholarship.
Museum at Alexandria had first important example of a library.
Founded by Benedict of Nursia. He dictated that 1hr/day should be dedicated to reading but said little else on the subject. Allowed liberal influence when literature and reading resurged.
Eratosthenes was both a literary man and a mathematician. He tried to work out the circumference of the earth.
Produced the Etymologies - a huge encyclopaedia. His work spread v rapidly throughout the west. He was a bishop but did include info and quotations from pagan treatises.
Forefigure of humanist movement. Links literary and scholarly aspects together.