Paper 1, Ancient Med Science


phonecian alphabet used in greek

700 bc

written copies of works made

600 bc

although the oral tradition was very strong, from the C7 authors made at least one written copy of new works

Books appear in Greece

400 bc

early books were long papyrus scrolls - an inconvenient format

accentuation introduced in greek

300 bc - 30 bc

Accentuation introduced in the hellenistic period in an effort to clarify written texts. Not popular until the medieval period, however.

Roman scholarship begins

200 bc

Decline in alexandrian literary work

145 bc

Ptolemy Euregetes II persecutes literary men

First Roman public library

39 bc

made by Pollio

Book trade starts in Rome

1 bc

no book trade before first century bc and when it begins it is not very professional

classification of the liberal arts

1 ad - 100 ad

the seven liberal arts which made up the medieval uni curriculum had been formalised as grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, astronomy, mathematics, music and geometry

decline of contemporary literature

200 - 400

this occurs partly due to political and economic upheaval

scroll replaced by codex

200 - 500

Decline of Roman Empire in West

500 - 600

Roman Empire declines in the west in the C6. This results in great cultural decline.

Dark Ages for classics

550 - 750



Arabs learnt about making paper around 750 when Chinese prisoners taught them the technique

Increase in Cathedral schools

1000 - 1100

brings some info out of monasteries and creates education among the secular clergy.

C12 Renaissance

1100 - 1200

Bologna becomes centre for law, Salerno for medicine. Spain is retaken from the muslims and Toledo becomes centre of translation for incoming Arabic texts. In Italy many Greek works translated to Latin.

Revival of philosophy


C12 philosophical revival, with focus on Aristotle

Greeks regain Constantinople and Greece


Romans lose Constantinople and Greece to the Greek Emperors. Results in some resurgence of Byzantine scholarship.


Museum at Alexandria

280 bc - 250 bc

Museum at Alexandria had first important example of a library.

Monetcassino founded


Founded by Benedict of Nursia. He dictated that 1hr/day should be dedicated to reading but said little else on the subject. Allowed liberal influence when literature and reading resurged.


Eratosthenes librarian @ Alexandria

295 bc - 214 bc

Eratosthenes was both a literary man and a mathematician. He tried to work out the circumference of the earth.

Constantine = pro christianity

300 - 400

Isidore of Seville

570 - 636

Produced the Etymologies - a huge encyclopaedia. His work spread v rapidly throughout the west. He was a bishop but did include info and quotations from pagan treatises.


1304 - 1374

Forefigure of humanist movement. Links literary and scholarly aspects together.