History of India and Japan, 1600 - Present Day

Japan

Battle of Sekigahara

1600
  • Tokugawa Ieyasu was victorious at the Battle of Sekigahara, ending a century and a half of civil war

Tokugawa Period

1603 - 1868

Ieyasu Tokugawa became shogun

1603
  • Awarded the court title of Minister of Right, Udaijin

Registration at Buddhist Temples Introduced

1614
  • The bakufu instituted registration of all residents of its own domains at Buddhist temples

Daimyo Tighten Registration Requirements

1665

Period of Peasant Uprising Increases

1830 - 1840

The Advent of Commodore/Admiral Perry in Japan

1853
  • The subsequent conclusion of unequal treaties with China (Treaty of Nanjing and Treaties of Tianjin)

“Era of Negotiation”

1853 - 1869
  • Negotiating and concluding “unequal treaties”

Alliance of the Tozama Domains of Choshu and Satsuma

1866

Emperor Meiji ascends Throne

01/20/1867

Meiji Period

1868 - 1912

Great Interest In All Things Foreign

1868 - 1885

Formal Declaration of Restoration

03/01/1868

The Charter Oath

04/07/1868

Hokkaido Colonisation Office Set Up

1869

Intervention with Korea

1870 - 1940

Advice, guardianship, colonialism…

(Futile) Attempts at Treaty Revisions with Western Powers

1871 - 1894

Iwakura Mission

1871 - 1873
  • To Europe and the US → renegotiation of the Unequal Treaties; investigation of Western institutions and industry

Competition with China

1871 - 1895

Government Ordinance - the ‘Fundamental Code of Education’

1872

Japan Switches To The Western Solar Calender

1872

Modern Banking System Established

1872

Conscription Edict

1873

Conservative 'Backlash'

1885 - 1912

Huge Conservative Revolt

1886 - 1887
  • All prepared to adopt French civil code until this point; women do not get really any rights - more power in the Tokugawa period

New Constitution of 1889

1889
  • Poor position for women

The Imperial Rescript on Education

1890

Conclusion of “New Treaties”

1894 - 1898

War with China, 1894-5

1894 - 1895
  • China has always been the major power and influence; for Japan to win a conflict is an epoch-making event

Competition with Russia

1895 - 1905

New Civil Code

1898

Peace Preservation Law and Boxer Rebellion (China)

1900

War with Russia, 1904-5

1904 - 1905
  • Victory over a Western power, brings confidence to the Japanese people and they become hugely egotistic

Competition with US

1905 - 1945

Taisho Period

1912 - 1926
  • The new emperor was a sickly man, which prompted the shift in political power from the old oligarchic group of elder statesmen (or genrō) to the Diet of Japan and the democratic parties

  • Thus, the era is considered the time of the liberal movement known as the "Taishō democracy" in Japan; it is usually distinguished from the preceding chaotic Meiji period and the following militarism-driven first part of the Shōwa period

First World War

1914 - 1918

Showa Period

1926 - 1989
  • Defeat in the Second World War brought about radical change to Japan. For the first and only time in its history, Japan was occupied by foreign powers; this occupation lasted seven years

  • It led to the end of the emperor's status as a living god and the transformation of Japan into a democracy with a constitutional monarch

  • In 1952, with the Treaty of San Francisco, Japan became a sovereign nation once more

  • In these ways, the pre-1945 and post-war periods regard completely different states: the pre-1945 Shōwa period (1926–1945) concerns the Empire of Japan, while post-1945 Shōwa period (1945–1989) was a part of the State of Japan

Second World War

1939 - 1945

Battle of Nomonhan

1939
  • Fought between the Red army and the Japanese army - first time Japanese are defeated in the modern era → makes all the difference to the stability of the Soviet Union

Battle of Midway

06/1942
  • Already the beginning of the end for Japan

People In Japan Turning Against War

1943
  • Sacrifices people are asked to make become a little too much, e.g., in terms of conscription - if you refuse to send your son to war, you will be cut off by your community - economic and communal pressure

Allies Close In; Kamikaze Attacks Begin

1944

Allied Occupation of Japan

1945 - 1952

Japan Refuses To Surrender

07/1945

Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima

07/06/1945

Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki

07/09/1945

Japan Surrenders

09/02/1945

Showa Constitution

1946
  • The Meiji Constitution of 1889 was a denial of real democracy; the New Constitution enabled - women with the vote; promotion of liberal, left-wing trade relationships and culture

Renunciation of the Emperor’s Divinity

1946

Fundamental Law of Education

1947

Yoshida Shigeru is Prime Minister

1948 - 1954
  • Wanted to start again where the Taisho had left off; the Americans do not agree → they still see Japan as not being very secure; still a fairly feudal society

LDP In Power

1955 - 2014
  • Responding to unusually united socialists, Japan’s two major parties unite, forming the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP/jiminto)

  • Except 1993-4 and 2009-12 it has held power continuously

  • LDP platform:

    • Conservative social policies (including support for post-war emperor system)
    • Cooperation with business to build strong export economy
    • Cooperation with US

Jun-chan is Prime Minister

2001 - 2006
  • Popstar like PM, expected to really do something for the people…

India

Mughal Empire

1526 - 1857

Rule of Babur

1526 - 1530

-A direct descendent of the Turkish Genghis Khan and Timur from Tamerlane

-Defeated the Delhi Sultanate and established the Mughal Empire

-Gained control of the whole of Northern India; made Agra capital

-Did not enact any new laws of organisation in the Empire due to his early death

"Hindustan is a place of little charm, there is no beauty in its people, no etiquette, nobility or manliness"

Rule of Humayun

1530 - 1556

-Son of Babur; was not a solider, and, unlike his father, was neither skilled nor a wise leader

-Inherited a disunited and disorganised Empire

-In 1540 Sher Shah of Bengal defeated Humayun and took over the Mughal Empire; the Empire was lost from 1540-1545 - he was exiled but later regained power in 1555

-Known as the "luckless one"

Empire temporarily lost to Sher Shah of Bengal

1540 - 1545

Rule of Akbar

1556 - 1605

-Ambitous and noble - built the largest army ever in the Empire; helped to conquer nearly all of modern-day northern India and Pakistan

-Great administrator - developed a centralised government: it delegated 15 provinces each under a governor and each province into districts and each district was further subdivided into smaller sections

-Best known for tolerance of his subjects (especially Hindus) - removed 'jizya' (poll tax) on Hindus

-Developed his own faith called Din Ilahi - a mixture of other religions Akbar had studied in religious debates with scholars; it never caught on

Rule of Jahangir

1605 - 1627

-Opposite of his father, Akbar: poor monarch and warrior but good at maintaing status quo

-Continued many of Akbar's policies - freedom of worship; fair treatment of Hindus; continued friendship and alliance with Rajputs; allowed foreigners like the Portuguese and the English into India for trade

-Married Nur Japan - she became the real ruler until the death of her husband

Rule of Shah Jahan

1627 - 1658

-Better ruler than his father, Jahangir - restored the efficiency of government; recovered territories; maintained peace; foreign traders were allowed into India and trade increased considerably

-Empire expanded

-Was a patron of the arts - built much great architecture, including the Taj Mahal (nearly bankrupted the Empire) and the Peacock Throne

-1657: Shah Jahan became seriously ill and dispute over succession ensured between his three sons

-Aurangzeb disposed Shah Jahan in a coup d'etat in 1658; he was imprisoned in the Octagonal Tower of the Agra Fort from which he would see the Taj Mahal; died in 1666

Rule of Aurangzeb

1658 - 1707

-Ascended the throne after disposing his father and beating out his two brothers

-Traditionally seen as despotic

-Empire declines under his reign: he removed the tax-free status for Hindus; destroyed their temples; crushed semi-autonomous states

-Over expanded the Empire and strained his resources - large sums of money and manpower were lost; lost the support of the Hindu people; weakened his administration

-Died in 1707; was succeeded by his son Bahadur Shah, but he was so old by this time he only managed to live a few more years

-The death of Aurangzeb and his son led to the end of the Mughal Empire and the beginning of British rule

Rule of Bahadur Shah I

1707 - 1712

Rule of Jahandar Shah

1712 - 1713

Rule of Furrukhsiyar

1713 - 1719

Rule of Rafi Ul-Darjat

1719

Rule of Rafi Ud-Daulat

1719

Rule of Nikusiyar

1719

Rule of Muhammad Shah

1719 - 1748

-Got rid of the Syed Brothers (powerful Mughal army generals of the Mughal Empire during the early 18th century - became highly influential in the Mughal Court after Aurangzebs death and became king-makers during the anarchy dollowing Aurangzeb's death in 1707; created and dethroned Mughal emperors at their will during the 1710s)

-Countered the emergence of the renegade Marathas and lost large tracts of Deccan and Malwa in the process

-Suffered the invasion of Nadir-Shah of Persia in 1739

Rule of Muhammad Ibrahim

1720

Rule of Ahmad Shah Bahadur

1748 - 1754

Rule of Alamgir II

1754 - 1759

Battle of Panipat

1757

Combined forces of the Mughal Emperor and the Marathas (Indian warrior caste) under Madhav Rao Scindia engaged Afghan army of Ahmed Shah Durrani.

Both sides devastated by conflict.

Rule of Shah Jahan III

1759

Rule of Shah Alam II

1759 - 1806
  • He was the last Mughal Emperor to preside effective control over the empire.

Battle of Plassey

1761

-Clive and allies defeats former Nawab of Bengal

-It was an important British East India Company victory over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies; It let the British East India Company take control of a part of South Asia.

First War between the Marathas and the British

1777 - 1783

Marathas are victorious.

Second War between the Marathas and the British

1803 - 1805

Commissioned by Governor-General Lord Richard Wellesley without approval from London.

The last major threat to British power.

British are victorious.

Rule of Akbar Shah II

1806 - 1837

1813 Charter Act

1813
  • EIC lost monopoly on trade with India

  • Financial problems exacerbated

  • Solution: import Indian opium to China → origins of first Opium War

New Education Policy 1835

1835
  • English official language, medium of instruction

Rule of Bahadur Shah II

1837 - 1857
  • The last Mughal emperor was deposed by the British and exiled to Burma following the Indian Rebellion of 1857

  • End of Mughal dynasty.

Indian Uprising of 1857

1857
  • Began 9th May 1857: on the parade ground of Meerut, 85 Indian troopers were court martialled; their crime - these troopers had refused to load their rifles with the new cartridges (cow and pig fat)

  • 10th May 1857: men of the 3th Light Cavalry stormed the barracks jail and released their comrades

British Rule in India

1858 - 1947

Gandhi and the Free Movement

1869 - 1948

Arya Samaj founded

1875
  • Founded 1875 by Dayananda Saraswati

  • Believed infallibility of ‘Vedas’ - if people returned to the traditional texts, India would become a bold nation again

  • Promoted upper caste behaviour - vegetarianism, temperance, practices of upper class hindus

Indian Association founded

1876
  • Founded by Surendranath Banerjea

  • The objectives of this Association were “promoting by every legitimate means the political, intellectual and material advancement of the people”

  • Later formed with the Indian Congress

‘ILBERT’ Bill of Criminal Jurisdiction 1883

1883
  • Introduced to try and get Indians to serve as jurors

  • Caused controversy to the British, as the idea of an Indian trying a white person was inconceivable → it was thus watered down, and thus led Indians to believe they were despised by the colonial rulers → this led to deep resentment

Foundation of Indian National Congress by Allan Octavian Hume 1885

1885

1892 Councils Act

1892
  • Trying to introduce social policy legislation

  • Increased in size councils in British India; local representation comes into being in India, for the first time in colonial India → increasing public sphere

Riots during Festival of Id

1893

George Nathaniel Curzon: Viceroy of India 1899-1905

1899 - 1905

Incorporation of BERER into Central Provinces

1904
  • Done deliberately to split up regions so it was harder to unify, and so easier for the British to control

Partition of Bengal

1905

'Swadeshi' Campaign

1905 - 1911
  • Started with the partition of Bengal by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon

  • It was the most successful of the pre-Gandhian movements

Foundation of the Muslim League

1906

Muslim League Formed

1907

India Office Official Curzon-Wylie Assassinated in London

1909
  • Showed resistance not just in India, but is coming home

Bengal Reunited as Province

1911

Hindustan Party Founded

1913

First World War

1914 - 1918

The Defence of India Act

1915

Alliance Forged Between Muslim League and INC

1916

Gandhi: Bihar 1917 Campaign

1917
  • Over indigo and abolition of tinkathia system

  • Localised and regional

Gandhi: Gujarat 1918 Campaign

1918
  • Against crop failure

  • Localised and regional

Gandhi: Textile Mills 1918 Campaign

1918
  • Localised and regional

Gandhi: The ‘Rowlatt’ Campaign

1919

Gandhi: The Non-cooperation Movement

1920 - 1922

Gandhi: The Civil Disobedience Campaign

1930 - 1932

Government of India Act provincial elections

1935
  • Extension of suffrage to 35 million

  • Divided India into provinces; at partition, these provinces still existed

Second World War

1939 - 1945

1940 Lahore Resolution

1940
  • The Muslim League desired a majority area that would constitute an area for them that they would have governance in

Cripps Mission

1942
  • Designed to facilitate Indian cooperation in WW2 but only made vague allusions to have more Indians in Viceroy’s assembly and so abortive and 5 months later Quit India Movement launched

Members of the NIC Detained

1942 - 1945

Gandhi: The Quit India Movement Begins

1942
  • Quit India Campaign was absolutely huge - support of All India Trade Congress; sabotage of the Post Office, War effort etc…; underground radio station established

  • People who had not before been involved in activism now were, e.g., women, undergraduates

  • British did not take this movement lying down; British state ordered a brutal suppression, in particular in cities such as Bombay; Viceroy Linlithgow described it as the most serious rebellion since 1857; required deployment of 55 army battalions to suppress it; 100,000 imprisoned

Muslim League Support The War Effort

07/07/1942

Peasant Insurgent in India

1944 - 1949

New Labour Government Claim They Have No Interest In Ruling India

07/1945

Royal Navy Indian Mutiny

1946

2nd Elections 1946

1946
  • Under the provincial system; Muslim League did spectacularly well in the Muslim provinces; allowed the balances to be tilted - they had a genuine right to representation

Nehru Prime Minister of India

1947 - 1964

Partition of India

1947
  • Pakistan becomes a new state as part of this partition, 14th August

  • Commemoration of the formation of India, 15th August

  • Borders not firmly established until 17th August

  • The date for withdrawal was advanced by Viceroy Mountbatten from June 1948 to 15th August 1947

Jinnah makes a speech to the Constituent Assembly

07/11/1947
  • For the purposes of governance, there would be a separation between state and religion; however, his death came very quickly - Islam comes into the world inheriting the weakness of the colonial past, financially etc

Jinnah Dies

1948

Indian Constitution Is Drawn Up

1951
  • Banned untouchability and religious discrimination

Attempts at Land Reform

1955 - 1965

Bandung Conference, 1955

1955
  • Alliance made up of 5 leaders; one of which was Nehru; also, Egypt, Indonesia, Ghana, and Yugoslavia

Untouchability Offences Act

1955
  • Also saw reservation list drawn up and scheduled castes

New Constitution

1956
  • Framework was meant to be federal - absence of national political party → caused conflict between the regions and the centre

Equal Succession Act

1956

Iron Production Went From 4 Million To 11 Million Tons

1956 - 1961

It Is Announced That Pakistan Will Be An Islamic Republic

1956
  • However there was no vote on this

Ayub Khan Prime Minister

1958 - 1969
  • Under Ayub Khan’s government there is a worsening of tension between the east and the west; he was clearly a dictator but also a moderniser - he wanted Pakistan to develop rapidly

Accepted funding from the Monetary fund and World Bank

1959
  • Set about rapid growth in industrialisation

Capital of Pakistan shifts from Karachi to Islamabad

1960
  • This results in ethnic and linguistic divisions

Dowry Abolished

1961

The Word Islam Is Dropped From The Constitution

1962

Indian-Chinese war of 1962

1962
  • Over Tibet

Nehru died in 1964

1964

-“Last Englishman to rule India”
- Within one year of his death, India enters into its first major war with Pakistan over Kashmir; one of Nehru’s policies was about friendship with Pakistan

1965 War between India and Pakistan over Kashmir

1965

"1968 Moment"

11/1968 - 03/1969
  • Industrial unrest, general strikes, student protests; anti-government protests; all very urban

Yahya Khan In Charge

1969 - 1971

Elections Are Finally Held

1970
  • Two major political parties: Pakistan People’s Party, and Awami League (gain majority of seats)

  • Rather than respecting this outcome, the Awami are imprisoned - leads to civil war

  • As a result of Pakistan losing the civil war, Yahya Khan is forced to resign, and Bangladesh is formed

Bangladesh Formed

1971
  • As a result of Civil War

1971 War between India and Pakistan

1971

Bhutto Becomes President of West Pakistan

1971 - 1977
  • Very Anglican man; whole outlook on life is to be a modernist → his policies did not bring an improvement to the material lives of most Pakistanis; detaining and arresting of opponents lead to outcries of lack of democracy

  • Cuts ties with both SEATO and the Commonwealth, and also countries such as Saudi-Arabia and France → marks the beginning of the Pakistan nuclear programme

  • 1977 - Bhutto accused of rigging in the elections; mass popular protests; army steps in and martial law is declared; Bhutto is imprisoned and eventually hanged

General Zia-ul-Haq In Charge

1977 - 1988
  • Says Pakistan is perhaps not ready for a western style of government; democracy is limited; no free press etc; holds elections but few political parties involved → he wins, of course

Soviet Union invades neighbouring Afghanistan

1978
  • Crucial historical moment in terms of Pakistans trajectory - Cold War

Zia is killed in suspicious circumstances

1988
  • Return to democratic rule

Soviet Union forced to withdraw from Afghanistan

1988

The Taliban is formed

1991
  • In the late 1980s/early 1990s is given total backing by the Pakistani regime, and backing is provided by the Saudi-Arabian government and the US

1999 ‘military theatre’ between India and Pakistan

1999