BRITISH GEOGRAPHY AND CULTURE I

Main

IBERIAN

6000 bc - 2000 bc

Lived during the Stone Age
were the first inhabitants of the British Isles
Produced stone and metal objects
built the Stonehenge

CELTS

0700 BC - 0500 BC

Lived during the Iron Age
came from Central Europe
were organized in Tribes
were warriors and food producers
Contributions:
An important queen (Boadicea)
Heritage: Maiden Castle

ROMANS

55 BC - 400 AD

Made 3 invasions::
55 bc: Julius Caesar
54 bc: Julius Caesar
43 bc: Emperor Claudius
Celts left to Scotland and Norther Ireland
Scots joined the Picts in Scotland
Welsh tribes fought against the Romans
Contributions:
Low sistem, religion, the calendar, Latin

ANGLO- SAXONS

410 AD - 750 AD

3 Germanic invasions:
Angles, Saxons and Jutes
They settled in the south- east
They formed the English language
They divided the kingdom into seven, one king per kingdom.
They introduced new methods for agriculture
Religion: Pagans but Christianity was spread (Augustine- south/ Columba- North)

VIKINGS

750 AD - 1066 AD

two waves: Norway and Denmark.
They settled in North west Scotland, costal regions of Ireland and England.
Religion: They were converted into Christianity.
Language: 2 varieties of Germaninc languages.

King Alfred

871 - 899

He was the king of the SAxon kingdom of Wessex.
He divided England between Wessex and Danelaw.

Athelstan

927 - 973

The first king of England.
He was King Alfred's grandson

Ethelred the unready

979 - 1016

(Anglo- saxon)
He was son of King Edgar.
He was only about ten years old when his brother Edward was murdered.
He implemented a taxes system to the vikings called DANEGELD

Canute (viking)

1016 - 1035

He replaced Ethelred the Unready.
He controlled much of England.

Edward the confessor

1042 - 1066

He was interested in the church
Son of Ethelred the unready

THE NORMANS

1066 - 1200

Normans conquered England.
They had a feudal system.
They conquered Wales, Ireland and England but not the Highlands (Scotland).
1086: DOMESDAY BOOK, which detailed recordof the people and their possessions.

Harold Godwinson

01/01/1066 - 10/14/1066

He was named king by witan.
He was defeated and killed in the Battle of Hastings by the normans.

William I

1066 - 1087

William the Conqueror became William I.
He was a norman king.
He was an illegitimate son.
He was Edward the Confesor's cousin.

Henry II

1154 - 1189

He was the first unquestioned king.
He introduced a Trial.
He ordered to kill Thomas Becket, who was a Archbishop of Canterbury

Richard I

1189 - 1199

He was Henry´s son
He was in England for four or five years. He fought in the Crusades.
(Lion Heart)

King John

1199 - 1216

He was Heny´s son and Richard´s brother.
He was an unpopular king.
He lost Normandy (France) in a war.
He was forced to agree to the Magna carta. It was a document that limited the king actions.
(Robin Hood period)

Henry III

1216 - 1272

It´s the beginning of the Parliament due to the Nobles did not like Henry´s actions so they created a council of Nobles.

Edward I

1272 - 1307

He brought together the first real parliament.
He declared Wales a Principality.
He stole the Stone of destiny.

Edward II

1307 - 1327

He was defeated by Robert the Bruce (King of Scotland).

Edward III

1327 - 1377

One hundred year´s war against France.
England lost all French possessions except Calais.
The Black Death

Richard II

1377 - 1399

He was The Duke of York.
He was descendant of Edward III
Peasants´ Revolt of 1381.
A triggered by new laws to cap wages and the introduction of a poll tax.

Henry IV

1399 - 1413

The first monarch of The House of Lancaster.
He drove out Richard II

Henry V

1413 - 1422

He decided to end The Hundred Year' War (conflict between England and France) and he took the crown.

Henry VI

1422 - 1461

He was king of England (eight months), and then he became king of France (ten months), because he married the king of France daughter.

Henry VI

1422 - 1461

He was the Duke of Lancaster.
He was mad and required his wife, Margaret of Anjou to assume the control of his kingdom.
The Battle of St. Albans: Henry VI recover the reason and he defeated York.

WAR OF THE ROSES

1455 - 1485

The throne of England was claimed by representatives of two rival groups: The Lancasterians (RED ROSE) and Yorkist (WHITE ROSE).

Edward IV

1471 - 1483

He was Richard's son.
He drove out Henry VI and he became king.
It was the first monarch of the House of York.
Margaret of Anjou shuttled Edward into exile and bring Henry VI to the throne.
He came back and captured Margaret and had Henry snuffed out in the Tower of London

Richard III

1483 - 1485

He was Edward IV's brother.
He was not popular.
He died at the battle against Henry VII, who claimed the throne.

Edward V

04/09/1483 - 06/26/1483

He was Edward's son.
When he was twelve years old he succeeded his father.
He and his brother were misteriously murdered in the Town of London

Henry VII (Tudor dynasty)

1485 - 1509

He was descendent of the Duke of Lancaster.
He became king.
He married Elizabeth of York (James IV's daughter)
He united the two houses. and it was the end of the War of the Roses

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

He became king.
He had six wifes.
He wasted money Henry VII had saved.
He changed the religion to anglicanism because he wanted to have the church's power and its lands. Also because he wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon.
He controlled the church and wealth.
Reformation: political and financial causes

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

He became king at nine years old.
Edward Seykmour and John Dudley were his lord protectors,
He died of tuberculosis at the age of fifteen.

Mary I (bloody Mary)

1553 - 1558

She married to the King of Spain, Philip II.
She was a catholic queen.
She was called bloody Mary because she persecuted the protestants.
She lost the last French possession: Calais.

Lady Jane Grey

07/10/1553 - 07/19/1553

Was Henry VIII's granddaughter.
She married to John Dudley's son.
She was queen for nine days
She was executed

Elizabeth (The Virgin Queen)

1558 - 1603

She was Henry VIII's daughter.
She was called The Virgin Queen because she never got married.
Religion: anglicanism
She was excommunicated by the POPE
She won the war against Spain.
She imprisoned her cousin, Mary the Queen of Scotland for 20 years. Then she was excuted.
Period of stability and sense of national identity.
She wasn't interested in persecute catholics.

James I (Stuart Dynasty)

1603 - 1625

He was protestant.
He became James I of England and IV of Scotland, the first English monarch of the House of Stuart.
England and Scotland shared king but not parliament.
Guy Fawkes: was a catholic man who wanted to blow up the parliament but he couldn't. He was executed

Charles I

1625 - 1649

He was a tyrant because he didn't pay attention to the parliament.
People didn't like him, so he was executed.

Oliver Cromwell

1649 - 1660

He was a farmer and soldier.
He fought against Charlies I.
Great Britain was a republic for first time.
He was a lord protector.
He created a more severe government than Charles'.
He dissoluted the parliament.
It was forbidden to celebrate Easter and Christmas.

Charles II

1660 - 1685

He had seventeen illegitimate children and no heir.
The Great Plague: illness attacked the people.
The Great Fire of London: half of the city was burned.

James II

1685 - 1688

He was Charles' broter.
He wanted to give catholics full rights and positions in government.
He was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne by William III (William of Orange).

William III and Mary II

1688 - 1702

It was an special case because both of them ruled together.
Mary II was James II's sister.
The Parliament made an improvement of magna carta.
In 1694 Mary died and a few years later William died too.
They had no heir.

Anne

1702 - 1714

She was James II's daughter.
She had eighteen children, all died before her.
1701: Act of Settlement. Only anglican (protestant)could be queen or king of England.
1707: Act of Union: Scotland, England and Wales under one Parliament and flag.

George I (House of Hanover)

1714 - 1727

He was Anne's German cousin.
He fought against the two Jacobites rebellions, they wanted to reinstall the Catholic Stuart line.
Power was drifting from crown to Parliament.

George II

1727 - 1760

Political parties: Torres (right) and Whigs (Left)
Bonnie Prince Charlie (wanted to be the king). He was defeated at The Battle of Culloden between England and German
Act of Proscription: they couldn't express themselves (Clothes, music, etc)

First Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

It starts in the North of England.
Text industry was mecaniced. Innovation of the power.

George III

1760 - 1820

1763: he achive the peace with France.
1775: he lost the American war of independence.
1789 - 1799: French Revolution. Napoleon
1801: Act of Union Ireland, Britain and Scotland.
1805: Battle of Trafalgar. They won the battle and the Capital Nelson died.
1815: Battle of Waterloo. Duke of Wellington commanded the army and they defeated France.

George IV

1820 - 1830

He was a prince regent.
His father was George III.
He was mad and he couldn't rule.
People migrated to the new industrial towns.
Railway was built.
Possession of land: power and prestige.

William IV

1830 - 1837

1832: Great reform Act.
1833: Abolition of the slavery
First convict ship sent to Australia.

Victoria

1837 - 1901

She married to Albert Saxe Cuburg Gotha.
1845: The Great Femine (Ireland).
1860: Second Industrial Revolution.
The idea of Constitutional Monarchy began to endure.
Victoria's Values: family life; People had to work hard; Thrift; Honesty in public matter; respectability in sexual matters.

Edward VII

1901 - 1910

He was the only monarch of the dynasty SAxe Coburg Gotha.

George V

1910 - 1936

1914 - 1919: First World War. Britain was against Germany.
1917: He changed the name of the house because he didn't want to have a german name. He called it: House of Windsor.
1926: General Strike.
1928: suffragette demanded the women right to vote.
1929: The Great Depression.

George VI

1936 - 1952

1939: The Second World War.
1940: Winston Churchill conservated Parliament.
Most colonies opted for self government.
Common wealth of nation.
1950: West Indian arrived

Edward VIII

01/20/1936 - 12/11/1936

He was king for one year (Abdicated)

Elizabeth II

1952 - 2014

The Princess Elizabeth became Queen Elizabeth II, when her father, George VI died.
1970: inflaction.
1979: Winter of Discontent (there was strike discovery of GAS and OIL in Scotland.
Margaret Tatcher: conservative party.
1980: coal pit closure. Miner's strike.
1989: Falkland's War.
1990: The poll tax changed into council tax.
1997: Tony Blair (labour party). Diana's death.
2007: Gordon Brow (labour party)
2010: David Cameron (conservative party)