Emir Amanullah Khan declares independence from British influence.
Amanullah tries to introduce social reforms, which however stir civil unrest. He flees.
Zahir Shah becomes king and Afghanistan remains a monarchy for next four decades.
General Mohammed Daud becomes prime minister. Turns to Soviet Union for economic and military assistance. Introduces social reforms, such as abolition of purdah (practice of secluding women from public view).
Mohammed Daud forced to resign as prime minister.
Constitutional monarchy introduced - but leads to political polarisation and power struggles.
Second Anglo-Afghan War. A treaty gives Britain control of Afghan foreign affairs