A Sixty Year Perspective (1908-1968)

A Political Perspective

First World War begins

July 28, 1914 - November 11, 1918

Sparked by the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungrary, Austria had incentive to have another war with Serbia. They looked to Germany for assistance, who promised unconditional support in their, "blank check." With motivational support, Austira-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28th, 1914.

Telegram to the German Ambassador at Vienna
Sources for Western Society: Volume 2

The Enabling Act

March 23, 1933

After losing in an election, Hitler and the Nazis aggressively enforced the Enabling Act, which provided Hitler with dictatorship for a period of four years. Using deceitful tactics, they were quick to crush any opposition.

A History of Western Society: Eleventh Edition

Establishment of the United Nations

October 24, 1945

The United Nations was created in 1945 to ensure international cooperation.

A History of Western Society: Eleventh Edition

India gains independence from Great Britain

August 15, 1947

After years of nonviolent strikes and protests, Ghandi convinced Great Britain to give India its independence, including allowing it to split into three nations, which are India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.

A History of Western Society: Eleventh Edition

The Founding of Israel

May 15, 1948

Once Britain left Palestine, the United Nations established a resolution by dividing it into two states: one Arab and one Jewish. The Jews proceeded by establishing the state of Israel.

A History of Western Society: Eleventh Edition

Building of the Berlin Wall

August 13, 1961

The building of the Berlin Wall happened in 1961, and separated East and West Germany. East Germany was controlled by the Communists, while West Germany was free.

A History of Western Society: Eleventh Edition

A Cultural Perspective

Women work in war factories

1914

The demand for laborers to make ammunition and weapons for the war was so grand, women began working in industrial job positions that were seen as male jobs. This was a big role change for women, as women were more frequently seen in public working jobs such as, "munitions workers, bank tellers...police officers, firefighters and farm laborers."

A History of Western Society: Eleventh Edition

First major public broadcasts in Great Britain & the U.S.

1920

It was not until the 1920s that radio came into the mainstream, when Great Britain and the United States launched the first major public broadcasts of news and special events.

A History of Western Society: Eleventh Edition

Carl Jung publishes "Psychological Types"

1921

"Psychological Types," written by Carl Jung and first published in 1921, differed from Freud's explanation of consciousness and unconscious behavior in that Jung maintained that our perception and judgement is controlled by two psychological functions. This brought a new way of thinking and understanding of human mind and behavior.

A History of Western Society: Eleventh Edition

Displaced Persons

1945

A tsunami of displaced persons, consisting of concentration camp survivors, prisoners of war, and orphaned children were release from German control. For two years, seven hundred and sixty camps were opened for these displaced persons by the United Nations and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRAA).

A History of Western Society: Eleventh Edition

The Second Sex is written by Simone de Beauvoir

1949

One of the first books written about the treatment of women. It is considered one of the major works in the philosophy of feminism.

The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir
Sources for Western Society: Volume 2

Rights of the People

Helena Swansick writes on Readjustment of Employment for women

1916

In this book on the effects of the war on women, Swansick argues that men need to perceive women as partners fighting against society's ills together. Until men see them equally, Swansick believes women will not have equal rights, especially in the workplace, where they do equal work for less pay.

The War in Its Effect Upon Women by Helena Swansick
Sources for Western Society: Volume 2

The Holocaust

1941 - 1945

Beginning as a German objective to rid their country of Jews, the Holocaust became a full-blown extermination effort. In Reich Minister Alfred Rosenberg's essay on the, "Jewish Question," he discusses the dilemma of where to relocate the Jewish people.

The Jewish Question as a World Problem by Alfred Rosenberg
Sources for Western Society: Volume 2

Decolonization

1961

In Frantz Fanon's, "The Wretched of the Earth," he argues that the colonized countries must discard the cloak of the colonizing country. In other words, he believes they should stick with their own cultures, values and traditions.

The Wretched of the Earth by Frantz Fanon
A History of Western Society: Volume 2