Triple Entente (England, Russia, France) vs Triple Alliance (Italy, Austria-Hungary, Germany). U.S. joins Entente later.
Germany is surrounded.
Come to each other's defense if Triple Alliance attacked them.
Fought so Russia can build trans-Siberian railroad. Russia loses.
Russia helps Balkan League defeat Turkey. Great Powers negates gain. Russia is humiliated. Balkan League frustrated.
Prepare for war
Alexander II abdicates, Provisional Govt and Petrograd Soviet divide power.
Creation of Soviet Russia
Reds vs Whites
Ended participation in WWI. Gave up W. Russia to Germany in exchange for removal from War.
Prompted by Lusitania sinking
With Austria-Hungary. Mutual defense if either country is attacked
Invades Belgium to get into France (Schlieffen Plan)
End of restricted sub warfare
Taken when Bulgaria revolted from Turkey. Russian ambition for Balkans is frustrated
Mutual defense if either country is attacked by Russia.
Bulgaria loses to Serbia. Austria-Hungary denies Serbian access to Adriatic Sea. Balkan League upset with Austria-Hungary
Austrian heir Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian anarchist Gavrilo Princip
to redress killing heir
Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary