Cold War


Boris Pasternak


Notable novelist who was able to thrive after Russia’s “de-stalinization.” His novel Dr. Zhivago was published outside the USSR in 1956. Got permission to read poetry to troops and visit soldiers at the front in 1943

Truman Doctrine


military policy under which the US promised aid to all nations to prevent government takeover by a “minority party.” (i.e., the communists)

Containment Policy


US foreign policy doctrine operating on the principle that communist gov’ts will eventually fall apart as long as they are prevented from expanding their influence

Berlin Aircraft


Military operation that brought food and
other needed goods into West Berlin



byname of Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), also called (from 1991) Organization for International Economic Cooperation,  organization established in January 1949 to facilitate and coordinate the economic development of the eastern European countries belonging to the Soviet bloc. Comecon’s original members were the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.



anti communist group to protect Western Europe from possible Soviet attack, it emphasized the division between the Soviets and Western nations

Korean War


75,000 North Korean soldiers poured into the boundary between the soviet-blocked democratic poeple’s republic of Korea to the North and pro-western Republic of Korea to the south. 1st military action of Cold War - against international communism itself

Andrei Sakharov


Russian nuclear physicist, anti-soviet dissident and human rights activist. designer of the Soviet Union’s Third Idea - codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons. Nobel Peace Prize in 1975.
1950 - proposed idea for controlled nuclear fusion reactor, the Tokamak

Alexander Solzhenitsyn


Russian nuclear physicist, anti-soviet dissident and human rights activist. Designer of the Soviet Union’s Third Idea, codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons. Nobel Peace Prize 1975. 1950 - proposed idea for controlled nuclear fusion reactor the Tokamak



Korolyov directed to start development of a true Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. range of 5,500 km

Warsaw Pact

  • Soviet response to NATO
- Made its members reliant on Soviet forces for protection – strengthens Soviet position in Europe
- All military harware was provided by the USSR
- Some states resented USSR interference

Geneva Summit

  • First meeting of leaders since 1945
- Reasonable amicable relations
- Established “Geneva Spirit”
- Cultural exchanges were agreed



First to develop a space satellite 
- US public v. aware of it
- Massive moral blow to US
- Soviets have potential to develop first ICBM that can be fired from USSR and land in the US
- Massive US fear and paranoia —> Increase in military spending

Call for Peaceful Coexistence


Khrushchev’s foreign policy of pursuing peaceful coexistence with the United States and its allies

Camp David Summit

  • First Soviet leader to visit US
- Positive, cordial reception for Khr. from US public and politicians
- No deals were made
- Tension still present and distressed
- The Disneyland Incident.

U-2 Spy Plane Shot Down


USSR shot down an American U-2 spy plane in Soviet air space and captured its pilot (Francis Gary Powers). Eisenhower admitted they had been spying for years

Berlin Wall Opened


More than two years after the Berlin Wall was constructed by East Germany to prevent its citizens from fleeing its communist regime, nearly 4,000 West Berliners are allowed to cross into East Berlin to visit relatives. Under an agreement reached between East and West Berlin, over 170,000 passes were eventually issued to West Berlin citizens, each pass allowing a one-day visit to communist East Berlin.

Berlin Wall Construction


Sealed all points of entry into West
Berlin from the east with concrete brick walls

Cuban Missile Crisis


pivotal point in Cold War when soviets moved nuclear warheads to the island of Cuba, putting them in range to fire on the US. The US, after mild hysteria, blockaded Cuba and forced the soviets to remove their missiles. All missiles removed by November 20th



Process extended by Khrushchev to
reduce the powers of the secret police
and close Siberian prison camps - led to
a burst of creativity among intellectuals
and writers in Russia

Prague Spring

  • Uprising that aimed to achieve a greater institution of rights for Czech citizens and decentralisation of the economy and democratization
- Thousands of Red Army soldiers were sent in to suppress the protests

SALT I - Basic Principles Agreement

  • Laid down rules of warfare
- Pledged to “do their utmost to avoid military confrontation” and to exercise restraint in International Relations

Invasion of Afghanistan


between Soviet led afghan forces and Tehron Eight

Solidarity and Pope John Paul II


On Human Work - peppered with solidarity. hint of encouragement to the Polish people, then under martial law, in their struggle for freedom.
“Class struggle” is a struggle against others, solidarity implies a struggle with others, with injustice (rather than other people) as the enemy. - against Marxism



policy/practice of a more open consecutive gov and wider dissemination of info



A reconstructing of the economy to make it freer from gov control. State enterprises received more independence, and private cooperatives could make a profit for the first time.



In order to ensure a safe passage, the Soviets negotiated ceasefire with local commanders, so the withdrawal was generally peaceful withdrawal from the 10 year war

Yeltsin elected


elected as President of Russia democratically

CIS formed


regional organization whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union. promoted cooperation on cross-border crime prevention. the three countries Russia, Ukraine, Belarus met in the Belovezhskaya Pushcha Natural Reserve on the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the creation of CIS as a successor entity to it.



attempted coup by moscow hardliners
Plot by hardline members of the ruling communist party to take control of the Soviet Union and stop Gorbachev’s “perestroika” program. They hoped to prevent the signing of a new Union treaty which was to decentralize much of the Soviet government’s power to the Soviet Union’s constituent republics. Failed - opposed by thousands of people.



Soviet republic - Independence from USSR
formally ceased to exist on 26 December 1991. The increasing political unrest led the establishment of the Soviet military and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to attempt a coup d'état to oust Mikhail Gorbachev and re-establish a strong central regime in August 1991. On December 26, 1991, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was finalized

St. Petersburg


Leningrad changed to "St. Petersburg" when Soviet Union Collapsed

United States President

Harry S. Truman

1945 - 1953

Dwight D Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

John F. Kennedy

1961 - 1963

Lyndon B. Johnson

1963 - 1969

Richard M. Nixon

1969 - 1974

Gerald R. Ford

1974 - 1977

Jimmy Carter

1977 - 1981

Ronald Reagan

1981 - 1989

George Bush

1989 - 1993

Soviet Leaders

Joseph Stalin

1947 - 1953

Nikita Khrushchev

1953 - 1964

Leonid Brezhnev

1964 - 1982

Yuri Andropov

1982 - 1984

Konstantin Chernenko

1984 - 1985

Mikhail Gorbachev

1985 - 1991