Notable novelist who was able to thrive after Russia’s “de-stalinization.” His novel Dr. Zhivago was published outside the USSR in 1956. Got permission to read poetry to troops and visit soldiers at the front in 1943
military policy under which the US promised aid to all nations to prevent government takeover by a “minority party.” (i.e., the communists)
US foreign policy doctrine operating on the principle that communist gov’ts will eventually fall apart as long as they are prevented from expanding their influence
Military operation that brought food and
other needed goods into West Berlin
byname of Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), also called (from 1991) Organization for International Economic Cooperation, organization established in January 1949 to facilitate and coordinate the economic development of the eastern European countries belonging to the Soviet bloc. Comecon’s original members were the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.
anti communist group to protect Western Europe from possible Soviet attack, it emphasized the division between the Soviets and Western nations
75,000 North Korean soldiers poured into the boundary between the soviet-blocked democratic poeple’s republic of Korea to the North and pro-western Republic of Korea to the south. 1st military action of Cold War - against international communism itself
Russian nuclear physicist, anti-soviet dissident and human rights activist. designer of the Soviet Union’s Third Idea - codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons. Nobel Peace Prize in 1975.
1950 - proposed idea for controlled nuclear fusion reactor, the Tokamak
Russian nuclear physicist, anti-soviet dissident and human rights activist. Designer of the Soviet Union’s Third Idea, codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons. Nobel Peace Prize 1975. 1950 - proposed idea for controlled nuclear fusion reactor the Tokamak
Korolyov directed to start development of a true Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. range of 5,500 km
First to develop a space satellite - US public v. aware of it - Massive moral blow to US - Soviets have potential to develop first ICBM that can be fired from USSR and land in the US - Massive US fear and paranoia —> Increase in military spending
Khrushchev’s foreign policy of pursuing peaceful coexistence with the United States and its allies
USSR shot down an American U-2 spy plane in Soviet air space and captured its pilot (Francis Gary Powers). Eisenhower admitted they had been spying for years
More than two years after the Berlin Wall was constructed by East Germany to prevent its citizens from fleeing its communist regime, nearly 4,000 West Berliners are allowed to cross into East Berlin to visit relatives. Under an agreement reached between East and West Berlin, over 170,000 passes were eventually issued to West Berlin citizens, each pass allowing a one-day visit to communist East Berlin.
Sealed all points of entry into West
Berlin from the east with concrete brick walls
pivotal point in Cold War when soviets moved nuclear warheads to the island of Cuba, putting them in range to fire on the US. The US, after mild hysteria, blockaded Cuba and forced the soviets to remove their missiles. All missiles removed by November 20th
Process extended by Khrushchev to
reduce the powers of the secret police
and close Siberian prison camps - led to
a burst of creativity among intellectuals
and writers in Russia
between Soviet led afghan forces and Tehron Eight
On Human Work - peppered with solidarity. hint of encouragement to the Polish people, then under martial law, in their struggle for freedom.
“Class struggle” is a struggle against others, solidarity implies a struggle with others, with injustice (rather than other people) as the enemy. - against Marxism
policy/practice of a more open consecutive gov and wider dissemination of info
A reconstructing of the economy to make it freer from gov control. State enterprises received more independence, and private cooperatives could make a profit for the first time.
In order to ensure a safe passage, the Soviets negotiated ceasefire with local commanders, so the withdrawal was generally peaceful withdrawal from the 10 year war
elected as President of Russia democratically
regional organization whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union. promoted cooperation on cross-border crime prevention. the three countries Russia, Ukraine, Belarus met in the Belovezhskaya Pushcha Natural Reserve on the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the creation of CIS as a successor entity to it.
attempted coup by moscow hardliners
Plot by hardline members of the ruling communist party to take control of the Soviet Union and stop Gorbachev’s “perestroika” program. They hoped to prevent the signing of a new Union treaty which was to decentralize much of the Soviet government’s power to the Soviet Union’s constituent republics. Failed - opposed by thousands of people.
Soviet republic - Independence from USSR
formally ceased to exist on 26 December 1991. The increasing political unrest led the establishment of the Soviet military and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to attempt a coup d'état to oust Mikhail Gorbachev and re-establish a strong central regime in August 1991. On December 26, 1991, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was finalized
Leningrad changed to "St. Petersburg" when Soviet Union Collapsed