Mao Zedong establishes communist regime.
He claimed this policy was better than the Soviets
It was now less reliant on Soviet protection
Purging 'soviet revisionists' from the chinese government
Modernising Russia's economy.
Acquired huge amounts of foreign capital.
Improved the railways to encourage migration from the country to the urban areas..
Increase in output of oil and coal brought money.
State capitalism, echoing western european industrial revolutions.
No reform for agriculture.
Too dependent on foreign loans.
Neglected vital engineering areas.
Marxist opposition group.
Social Democrats disagree about wether Russia is ready to convert to socialism.
Lack of reform
Navy mutiny, however the rest of the navy stay loyal.
Accepted the duma
Peasant debt abolished
Gave peasants security in land and money
Tried to get rid of the strip system
Migration to Siberia
Created Kulaks loyal to the Tsar
Power lessen when the Tsar got a loan from France
Dominated by reformist parties
Demanded more rights
Rendered the October Manifesto meaningless as it proclaimed the autocratic right of the tsar to do whatever he wants by decree.
Strongly anti government
Extremists on both left and right made agreement difficult
Tsar wanted to look democratic to get loans from Europe
New electoral system: only home owners (no peasants or workers)
Dominated by right wing parties
Criticism was more docile
Questioned the government
Reforms: education and health
Peaceful protesters were massacred in Siberia.
Voiced some criticisms
Reforms: state welfare
Tried to persuade N2 to make concessions and appoint better ministers
Showed how unhappy even the aristocrats were with N2
Feb: strikes about better conditions, pay and equality
March: PG declared, Tsar abdicates
Large concessions to Germany
abandon co-operation with other parties
overthrow the PG
power to the workers
power to the soviets
3 days of demonstrations
PG still had loyal army, and opposition was disunited
spread of the soviets
worker control of the factories
peasant seizure of land
independence for nationalist movements
Kornilov threatened to bring troops to Petrograd and moose military rule
Bolsheviks released from prison and armed to protect the city from the troops which never arrived.
PG offer very little resistance
Right-wing SR's and Mensheviks walk out of the Soviet
Basically just authorised land seizures in the country and takeovers in the factories that had already been happening since Feb
All priority given to the war effort, centralised system, seen by many as true communism
Whites were ununited, poor leadership and failed to get Greens on side
To spread communism over Europe
Thousands of workers tried to ask for concessions such as freedom of speech etc an rights
Russia needed food, so tried to persuade the peasants.
Seen as unrevolutionary
Slated all of the major applicants and offered no alternative, its suppressed
Kamenev and Zinoviev (joined by trotsky in 1926)
Emphasis on heavy industry, ignored consumer goods
The state owned the land and the peasants simply worked on it, many peasants didn't want to.
Led to famines and starvation
Stalin attacks the right over land policy
Peasants stopped producing in many areas due to inability to adapt or as an act of rebellion
More realistic targets
Bad organisation and regional competition meant hold ups in some areas
Spare parts for machines weren't made
Kirov's murder allowed Stalin to pass a decree giving the NKVD complete freedom
Huge propaganda mission to celebrate a man who had overshot his target
Failure to improve living conditions
Focus on heavy industry and communications
Included supposed war criminals and german spies
Doctors Plot: focused on the jewish dominated medical sector
Expressed concerns about US using its wealth to act like an imperialist power, for world domination.
Cominform implement one-party states loyal to the USSR
A response to Marshall Aid. Comecon gave assistance to Eastern Bloc countries.
Civil unrest in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and East Germany.
His temperament was unpredictable and he was prone to bursts of anger and exaggeration.
Primary aim to improve economy with defence cuts
His attitude to diplomacy was erratic
Building relationships with pro-Soviet governments in the Third World
A military Alliance formed in respond to NATO between the Eastern Bloc countries and Soviet Russia.
Criticised Stalin for developing a cult of personality and for abusing his power.
Protests focused on poor conditions and food shortages.
Gomulka wanted reform but made it clear that it would stay loyal to the USSR and would not leave the Warsaw Pact.
The student movement began heavy pressure for widespread reform, including freedom of the press and elections.
Nagy's reforms went too far and on November Soviet troops moved in to crush the rising.
Beginning of the Brezhnev Doctrine
First free trade union in Easter Europe
Perestroika: less money on military to boost the economy
End to the arms race
End to the Brezhnev Doctrine
End of the Brezhnev Doctrine and to the interference in the Eastern Bloc
Poland disregards communism
Encouraged by Gorbachev, they hold elections
Huge embarrassment for Russia.
Britain would station troops in Greece
USSR would station troops in Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary
Poland to remain in USSR sphere and Germany to remain weak.
Acceptance of UN once Russia has right of veto.
Russia will enter war against Japan once t has finish its campaign in Europe.
Divided Germany into 4 zones, with any further decisions to be made by everyone.
Stalin refuses acceptance of democratic Polish government.
US proposal for monetary reform in Berlin to stimulate industrial development was seen as a threat by the Soveits.
Currency reform in Western Germany and Berlin was met with a blockade of West Berlin.
Supplies were flown in by the Western Allies.
The Western Allies agree to merge their three sections of Germany.
China accepts Soviet leadership of communist world
China has lots of aid (paid back with interest)
Mongolia is in Soviet influence
US vowed to protect Taiwan, where the Chinese nationalists were based.
Khrushchev did not back Mao
Divided since the end of the war, Austria was now recognised as neutral.
USSR proposed uniting a neutral Germany: US rejected this
USSR proposed disbanding of NATO an Warsaw Pact: US rejected this
US suggested 'open skies': USSR rejected this
Acceptance that neither side wanted war.
A failure as Khrushchev walks out after not receiving an apology from Eisenhower.
A U2 spy plane is shot down over USSR territory. America is hugely embarrassed when its cover story turns out to be a lie.
Khrushchev saw Berlin was a top priority.
US saw disarmament a priority.
Khrushchev bullies Kennedy, and Kennedy threatens the use of nuclear weapons over Berlin.
A naval blockade was established to stop further missiles being stationed in Cuba
A secret agreement was made to remove missiles from Turkey
tests in the air
tests in space
tests under water
No reduction of armaments
Unsuccessful talks between China and the USSR
Basic Principles Agreement
No single power should dominate Asia
US would not tolerate a Soviet invasion of China
US-China trade, culture, educational links
China then began to downplay its struggle for world revolution and criticise the Soviet Union
First time that oil was used as a strategic weapon on this scale
Bad for US
Good for USSR
Led to perception of US as weak and led to criticisms of detente
acceptance of USSR borders
trade and technology
this drained the USSR economy for many years
Gorbachev had realised that SDI would never work and so this was focuses on the removal of intermediate missile from Europe
Trade and technology links
Telegram to US gov. stating fears that the USSR was preparing for world domination.
Argues for containment.
Committed US to provide aid to war-torn countries.
Gave huge amounts of aid to European countries to provide a stable base for American trade and protect against the allure of communism.
Promises to stand up to communism.
Defence of democracy
Cutting conventional forces whilst increasing nuclear spending
Covert & Overt operations to stop the spread of communism in the third world
Soviet leaders see this as a threat.
covert/overt operations to stop communism developing in the third world
An attempt to invade Cuba and overthrow the communist government there
Tried to make allies in the Eastern Bloc countries with the aim of one day re-uniting Germany
Involved in the watergate scandal, initiated talks with China
Struggles to make important decisions because he hasn't been elected
Much more hard-line
Troops sent in to deal with communists
No means testing
Payments from the employer and employee (not the government)
Minimum contributions had to be made before benefits could be drawn
Nationalise to replace the confusing and chaotic mix of charity run and private hospitals
Spoke about two power blocs divided by an Iron Curtain.
Gave farmers price guarantees and grants to encourage modernisation
Aimed to secure those who weren't covered in 1946
self employed (under 104 a year)
these WERE means tested
bank rate goes up
Macmillan sacks 1/3rd of the cabinet
cuts cuts cuts
Direct taxes cut
Abolition of the price commission
Exchange controls abolished
900 million cut in gov. spending
first time since 1932
opposing further integration with europe