He claimed this policy was better than the Soviets
First Nuclear Weapon
It was now less reliant on Soviet protection
1966 - 1976
Purging 'soviet revisionists' from the chinese government
Secret talks with USA
Russia and other Communists
March 1881 - November 1894
Wittes Economic Reforms
1894 - 1906
Modernising Russia's economy.
Acquired huge amounts of foreign capital.
Improved the railways to encourage migration from the country to the urban areas..
Increase in output of oil and coal brought money.
State capitalism, echoing western european industrial revolutions.
No reform for agriculture.
Too dependent on foreign loans.
Neglected vital engineering areas.
November 1894 - Feb 1917
Social Democrats Formed
Marxist opposition group.
Social Democrats disagree about wether Russia is ready to convert to socialism.
Lack of reform
Navy mutiny, however the rest of the navy stay loyal.
Accepted the duma
Peasant debt abolished
St Petersburg/Moscow Soviets Formed
October 1905 - Nov 1905
1906 - 1911
Gave peasants security in land and money
Tried to get rid of the strip system
Migration to Siberia
Created Kulaks loyal to the Tsar
april 1906 - june 1906
Power lessen when the Tsar got a loan from France
Dominated by reformist parties
Demanded more rights
Rendered the October Manifesto meaningless as it proclaimed the autocratic right of the tsar to do whatever he wants by decree.
feb 1907 - june 1907
Strongly anti government
Extremists on both left and right made agreement difficult
nov 1907 - june 1912
Tsar wanted to look democratic to get loans from Europe
New electoral system: only home owners (no peasants or workers)
Dominated by right wing parties
Criticism was more docile
Questioned the government
Reforms: education and health
Peaceful protesters were massacred in Siberia.
nov 1912 - aug 1914
Voiced some criticisms
Reforms: state welfare
Tried to persuade N2 to make concessions and appoint better ministers
1 dec 1916
Showed how unhappy even the aristocrats were with N2
February 1917 - October 1917
17 feb 1917 - 4 march 1917
Feb: strikes about better conditions, pay and equality
March: PG declared, Tsar abdicates
Large concessions to Germany
Lenin's April Thesis
4 april 1917
abandon co-operation with other parties
overthrow the PG
power to the workers
power to the soviets
July 3 1917 - July 6 1917
3 days of demonstrations
PG still had loyal army, and opposition was disunited
spread of the soviets
worker control of the factories
peasant seizure of land
independence for nationalist movements
Prime Minister: Kerensky
8 july 1917
September 1 1917
Kornilov threatened to bring troops to Petrograd and moose military rule
Bolsheviks released from prison and armed to protect the city from the troops which never arrived.
23 october 1917 - 27 oct 1917
PG offer very little resistance
Right-wing SR's and Mensheviks walk out of the Soviet
Decree on Land and Workers
Basically just authorised land seizures in the country and takeovers in the factories that had already been happening since Feb
Russian Civil War
1918 - 1920
Whites were ununited, poor leadership and failed to get Greens on side
1918 - 1921
All priority given to the war effort, centralised system, seen by many as true communism
Grain requisitions begin
To spread communism over Europe
Ban on Factionalism
Thousands of workers tried to ask for concessions such as freedom of speech etc an rights
march 1921 - 1928
Russia needed food, so tried to persuade the peasants.
Seen as unrevolutionary
Purges and Show Trials
Slated all of the major applicants and offered no alternative, its suppressed
1924 - 1929
1924 - 1925
1925 - 1929
Kamenev and Zinoviev (joined by trotsky in 1926)
The state owned the land and the peasants simply worked on it, many peasants didn't want to.
Led to famines and starvation
1928 - 1932
Emphasis on heavy industry, ignored consumer goods
Stalin attacks the right over land policy
1932 - 1933
Peasants stopped producing in many areas due to inability to adapt or as an act of rebellion
1933 - 1937
More realistic targets
Bad organisation and regional competition meant hold ups in some areas
Spare parts for machines weren't made
Legal System obeys Stalin
1933 - 1934
Post Kirov Purges
1934 - 1936
Kirov's murder allowed Stalin to pass a decree giving the NKVD complete freedom
USSR joins League of Nations
Huge propaganda mission to celebrate a man who had overshot his target
The Great Purge
1936 - 1939
1938 - 1941
Failure to improve living conditions
Focus on heavy industry and communications
1941 - 1953
Included supposed war criminals and german spies
Doctors Plot: focused on the jewish dominated medical sector
Expressed concerns about US using its wealth to act like an imperialist power, for world domination.
Stalinisation of Europe
1947 - 1949
Cominform implement one-party states loyal to the USSR
A response to Marshall Aid. Comecon gave assistance to Eastern Bloc countries.
First Atom Bomb
Uprisings in Eastern Europe
Civil unrest in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and East Germany.
Russia gives up military bases in Finland
New Leader: Khrushchev
His temperament was unpredictable and he was prone to bursts of anger and exaggeration.
Primary aim to improve economy with defence cuts
His attitude to diplomacy was erratic
Building relationships with pro-Soviet governments in the Third World
A military Alliance formed in respond to NATO between the Eastern Bloc countries and Soviet Russia.
Criticised Stalin for developing a cult of personality and for abusing his power.
Protests focused on poor conditions and food shortages.
Gomulka wanted reform but made it clear that it would stay loyal to the USSR and would not leave the Warsaw Pact.
October 1956 - November 1956
The student movement began heavy pressure for widespread reform, including freedom of the press and elections.
Nagy's reforms went too far and on November Soviet troops moved in to crush the rising.
New Leader: Brezhnev
Beginning of the Brezhnev Doctrine
1st Pope Visit
Nicaragua becomes Communist
1980 - 1981
First free trade union in Easter Europe
2nd Pope Visit
New Leader: Gorbachev
Perestroika: less money on military to boost the economy
End to the arms race
End to the Brezhnev Doctrine
3rd Pope Visit
End of the Brezhnev Doctrine and to the interference in the Eastern Bloc
Poland disregards communism
Hungary Becomes Democratic
Encouraged by Gorbachev, they hold elections
Fall of USSR
Conflict and Agreements
Russo Japanese War
1904 - 1905
Huge embarrassment for Russia.
July 1914 - November 1918
September 1939 - September 1945
Britain would station troops in Greece
USSR would station troops in Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary
Poland to remain in USSR sphere and Germany to remain weak.
Acceptance of UN once Russia has right of veto.
Russia will enter war against Japan once t has finish its campaign in Europe.
Divided Germany into 4 zones, with any further decisions to be made by everyone.
Stalin refuses acceptance of democratic Polish government.
US proposal for monetary reform in Berlin to stimulate industrial development was seen as a threat by the Soveits.
Berlin Blockade & Airlift
June 1948 - May 1949
Currency reform in Western Germany and Berlin was met with a blockade of West Berlin.
Supplies were flown in by the Western Allies.
The Western Allies agree to merge their three sections of Germany.
China accepts Soviet leadership of communist world
China has lots of aid (paid back with interest)
Mongolia is in Soviet influence
June 1950 - July 1953
1954 - 1958
US vowed to protect Taiwan, where the Chinese nationalists were based.
Khrushchev did not back Mao
Divided since the end of the war, Austria was now recognised as neutral.
USSR proposed uniting a neutral Germany: US rejected this
USSR proposed disbanding of NATO an Warsaw Pact: US rejected this
US suggested 'open skies': USSR rejected this
Acceptance that neither side wanted war.
December 1956 - April 1975
A failure as Khrushchev walks out after not receiving an apology from Eisenhower.
A U2 spy plane is shot down over USSR territory. America is hugely embarrassed when its cover story turns out to be a lie.
Khrushchev saw Berlin was a top priority.
US saw disarmament a priority.
Khrushchev bullies Kennedy, and Kennedy threatens the use of nuclear weapons over Berlin.
Cuban Missile Crisis
A naval blockade was established to stop further missiles being stationed in Cuba
A secret agreement was made to remove missiles from Turkey
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
tests in the air
tests in space
tests under water
No reduction of armaments
Unsuccessful talks between China and the USSR
Sino-Soviet Border Clash
Basic Principles Agreement
Nixon visits China
China then began to downplay its struggle for world revolution and criticise the Soviet Union
No single power should dominate Asia
US would not tolerate a Soviet invasion of China
US-China trade, culture, educational links
First time that oil was used as a strategic weapon on this scale
Bad for US
Good for USSR
Led to perception of US as weak and led to criticisms of detente
acceptance of USSR borders
trade and technology
Invasion of Afghanistan
this drained the USSR economy for many years
Gorbachev had realised that SDI would never work and so this was focuses on the removal of intermediate missile from Europe
Trade and technology links
Berlin Wall falls
America and the West
New President: Truman
Telegram to US gov. stating fears that the USSR was preparing for world domination.
Argues for containment.
Committed US to provide aid to war-torn countries.
Gave huge amounts of aid to European countries to provide a stable base for American trade and protect against the allure of communism.
New President: Eisenhower
Promises to stand up to communism.
Defence of democracy
Cutting conventional forces whilst increasing nuclear spending
Covert & Overt operations to stop the spread of communism in the third world
West Germany joins NATO
Soviet leaders see this as a threat.
New President: Kennedy
covert/overt operations to stop communism developing in the third world
Bay of Pigs
An attempt to invade Cuba and overthrow the communist government there
New President: Nixon
Involved in the watergate scandal, initiated talks with China
Tried to make allies in the Eastern Bloc countries with the aim of one day re-uniting Germany
New President: Ford
Struggles to make important decisions because he hasn't been elected
New President: Reagan
Much more hard-line
Restricts trade with USSR
1981 - 1982
Troops sent in to deal with communists
SDI (Strategic Defence Initiative)
New PM: Attlee
Loan from US
National Insurance Act
No means testing
Payments from the employer and employee (not the government)
Minimum contributions had to be made before benefits could be drawn
Nationalise to replace the confusing and chaotic mix of charity run and private hospitals
Bank of England Nationalised
Iron Curtain Speech
Spoke about two power blocs divided by an Iron Curtain.
Gave farmers price guarantees and grants to encourage modernisation
National Assistance Act
Aimed to secure those who weren't covered in 1946
self employed (under 104 a year)
these WERE means tested
New PM: Churchill
Butlers 1st Budget
bank rate goes up
First Atom Bomb
Butlers 2nd Budget
New PM: Eden
New PM: Macmillan
'Never had it so good' Speech
Britain applies to the EEC
Night of the Long Knives
Macmillan sacks 1/3rd of the cabinet
DeGaulle Vetoes entry to the EEC
New PM: Wilson
End to Capital Punishment
Race Relations Act
Comprehensive School's Encouraged
Devaluation of the Pound
Cuts to Welfare & Defence
'Rivers of Blood' Speech
'In Place of Strife' Barbara Castle
1969 - 1990
UDF Founded to protect Protestant Rights
Divorce Made Easier
Equal Pay Act
New PM: Heath
cuts cuts cuts
Industrial Relations Act becomes Law
NUM Over-Time Ban
NUM National Strike
Direct Rule of Ulster
Britain joins EEC
3 Day Week
New PM: Wilson
Civil Rights Marsh in Ireland
IRA bomb Birmingham
Referendum on joining Europe
Inflation Almost 27%
North Sea Oil Opens
New PM: Callaghan
Inflation below 10%
Winter of Discontent
New PM: Thatcher
Howes 1st Budget
Direct taxes cut
Abolition of the price commission
Exchange controls abolished