HISTORY

China

Communism

1949

Mao Zedong establishes communist regime.

Great Leap Forward

1958 - 1961

He claimed this policy was better than the Soviets

First Nuclear Weapon

1964

It was now less reliant on Soviet protection

Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1976

Purging 'soviet revisionists' from the chinese government

Secret talks with USA

1969

Russia and other Communists

Alexander III

March 1881 - November 1894

Wittes Economic Reforms

1894 - 1906

Modernising Russia's economy.
Acquired huge amounts of foreign capital.
Gold standard.
Improved the railways to encourage migration from the country to the urban areas..
Increase in output of oil and coal brought money.
State capitalism, echoing western european industrial revolutions.
HOWEVER:
No reform for agriculture.
Too dependent on foreign loans.
Neglected vital engineering areas.

Nicholas II

November 1894 - Feb 1917

Social Democrats Formed

1898

Marxist opposition group.

Bolshevik/Menshevik Split

1903

Social Democrats disagree about wether Russia is ready to convert to socialism.

1905 Revolution

1905

LONG TERM:
Poverty
Famine
Repression
Autocratic system

MEDIUM TERM:
Poor leader
Lack of reform
Rasputin/Tsarina

SHORT TERM:
Bloody Sunday
Russo-Japanese war

Potemkin Mutiny

June 1905

Navy mutiny, however the rest of the navy stay loyal.

October Manifesto

Oct 1905

Accepted the duma
Civil rights
Peasant debt abolished

St Petersburg/Moscow Soviets Formed

October 1905 - Nov 1905

Stolypin's Reforms

1906 - 1911

Gave peasants security in land and money
Tried to get rid of the strip system
Migration to Siberia
Created Kulaks loyal to the Tsar

First Duma

april 1906 - june 1906

Power lessen when the Tsar got a loan from France
Dominated by reformist parties
Demanded more rights

Fundamental Laws

April 1906

Rendered the October Manifesto meaningless as it proclaimed the autocratic right of the tsar to do whatever he wants by decree.

Second Duma

feb 1907 - june 1907

Strongly anti government
Extremists on both left and right made agreement difficult
Hostile

Third Duma

nov 1907 - june 1912

Tsar wanted to look democratic to get loans from Europe
New electoral system: only home owners (no peasants or workers)
Dominated by right wing parties
Criticism was more docile
Questioned the government

Reforms: education and health

Lena Goldfields

1912

Peaceful protesters were massacred in Siberia.

Fourth Duma

nov 1912 - aug 1914

Voiced some criticisms

Reforms: state welfare

Progressive Bloc

june 1915

Tried to persuade N2 to make concessions and appoint better ministers

Rasputin Killed

1 dec 1916

Showed how unhappy even the aristocrats were with N2

Provisional Government

February 1917 - October 1917

Feb Revolution

17 feb 1917 - 4 march 1917

Feb: strikes about better conditions, pay and equality
March: PG declared, Tsar abdicates

Brest-Litovsk

march 1917

Large concessions to Germany

Lenin's April Thesis

4 april 1917

abandon co-operation with other parties
another revolution
overthrow the PG
power to the workers
power to the soviets

July Days

July 3 1917 - July 6 1917

3 days of demonstrations
PG still had loyal army, and opposition was disunited

spread of the soviets
worker control of the factories
peasant seizure of land
independence for nationalist movements

Prime Minister: Kerensky

8 july 1917

Kornilov Affair

September 1 1917

Kornilov threatened to bring troops to Petrograd and moose military rule
Bolsheviks released from prison and armed to protect the city from the troops which never arrived.

October Revolution

23 october 1917 - 27 oct 1917

PG offer very little resistance
Right-wing SR's and Mensheviks walk out of the Soviet

Decree on Land and Workers

nov 1917

Basically just authorised land seizures in the country and takeovers in the factories that had already been happening since Feb

War Communism

1918 - 1921

All priority given to the war effort, centralised system, seen by many as true communism

Russian Civil War

1918 - 1920

Whites were ununited, poor leadership and failed to get Greens on side

Grain requisitions begin

july 1918

Cominterm

march 1919

To spread communism over Europe

Ban on Factionalism

1921

Kronstadt Rising

march 1921

Thousands of workers tried to ask for concessions such as freedom of speech etc an rights

NEP

march 1921 - 1928

Russia needed food, so tried to persuade the peasants.
Seen as unrevolutionary

Purges and Show Trials

1922

Lenins Testament

1923

Slated all of the major applicants and offered no alternative, its suppressed

Triumvirate

1924 - 1925

Stalin/Kamenev/Zinoviev

Lenins Death

Jan 1924

Power Struggle

1924 - 1929

Testament Suppressed

may 1924

United Opposition

1925 - 1929

Kamenev and Zinoviev (joined by trotsky in 1926)

Trotsky Removed

nov 1927

FYP 1

1928 - 1932

Emphasis on heavy industry, ignored consumer goods

Collectivisation

1928

The state owned the land and the peasants simply worked on it, many peasants didn't want to.
Led to famines and starvation

Right defeated

1929

Stalin attacks the right over land policy

Famine

1932 - 1933

Peasants stopped producing in many areas due to inability to adapt or as an act of rebellion

Legal System obeys Stalin

1933 - 1934

Centralisation of:
civilian police
secret police
labour camps
border guards

FYP 2

1933 - 1937

More realistic targets
Bad organisation and regional competition meant hold ups in some areas
Spare parts for machines weren't made

USSR joins League of Nations

1934

Post Kirov Purges

1934 - 1936

Kirov's murder allowed Stalin to pass a decree giving the NKVD complete freedom

Stakhanovite Movement

1935

Huge propaganda mission to celebrate a man who had overshot his target

The Great Purge

1936 - 1939

Purges included:
Party
People
Army

Anti-Cominterm Pact

1936

FYP 3

1938 - 1941

Failure to improve living conditions
Focus on heavy industry and communications

Later Purges

1941 - 1953

Included supposed war criminals and german spies

Doctors Plot: focused on the jewish dominated medical sector

Novikov Telegram

Sept 1946

Expressed concerns about US using its wealth to act like an imperialist power, for world domination.

Stalinisation of Europe

1947 - 1949

Cominform implement one-party states loyal to the USSR

First Atom Bomb

1949

Comecon

1949

A response to Marshall Aid. Comecon gave assistance to Eastern Bloc countries.

Uprisings in Eastern Europe

1953

Civil unrest in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and East Germany.

Stalin dies

march 1953

Russia gives up military bases in Finland

1954

New Leader: Khrushchev

1955

His temperament was unpredictable and he was prone to bursts of anger and exaggeration.

Policies:
Primary aim to improve economy with defence cuts
His attitude to diplomacy was erratic
Building relationships with pro-Soviet governments in the Third World

Warsaw Pact

May 1955

A military Alliance formed in respond to NATO between the Eastern Bloc countries and Soviet Russia.

De-Stalinisation Speech

February 1956

Criticised Stalin for developing a cult of personality and for abusing his power.

Polish Unrest

June 1956

Protests focused on poor conditions and food shortages.
Gomulka wanted reform but made it clear that it would stay loyal to the USSR and would not leave the Warsaw Pact.

Hungarian Uprising

October 1956 - November 1956

The student movement began heavy pressure for widespread reform, including freedom of the press and elections.

Nagy's reforms went too far and on November Soviet troops moved in to crush the rising.

Sputnik

October 1957

Cuban Revolution

Jan 1959

New Leader: Brezhnev

1964

Invades Czechoslovakia

1968

Beginning of the Brezhnev Doctrine

1st Pope Visit

1979

Nicaragua becomes Communist

1979

Polish Crisis

1980 - 1981

Martial law

Solidarity Emerges

1980

First free trade union in Easter Europe

2nd Pope Visit

1983

New Leader: Gorbachev

1985

NEW THINKING:
Perestroika: less money on military to boost the economy
Glasnost: freedom
End to the arms race
End to the Brezhnev Doctrine

3rd Pope Visit

1987

Sinatra Doctrine

1988

End of the Brezhnev Doctrine and to the interference in the Eastern Bloc

Polish Revolution

1989

Poland disregards communism

Hungary Becomes Democratic

1990

Encouraged by Gorbachev, they hold elections

Fall of USSR

1991

Conflict and Agreements

Russo Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Huge embarrassment for Russia.

WWI

July 1914 - November 1918

WWII

September 1939 - September 1945

Tehran

1943

Britain would station troops in Greece
USSR would station troops in Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary

Yalta

February 1945

Poland to remain in USSR sphere and Germany to remain weak.
Acceptance of UN once Russia has right of veto.
Russia will enter war against Japan once t has finish its campaign in Europe.

Potsdam

July 1945

Divided Germany into 4 zones, with any further decisions to be made by everyone.
Stalin refuses acceptance of democratic Polish government.

Moscow

March 1947

US proposal for monetary reform in Berlin to stimulate industrial development was seen as a threat by the Soveits.

Berlin Blockade & Airlift

June 1948 - May 1949

Currency reform in Western Germany and Berlin was met with a blockade of West Berlin.
Supplies were flown in by the Western Allies.

Trizonia

April 1949

The Western Allies agree to merge their three sections of Germany.

Sino-Soviet Pact

1950

China accepts Soviet leadership of communist world
China has lots of aid (paid back with interest)
Mongolia is in Soviet influence

Korean War

June 1950 - July 1953

Taiwan Crisis

1954 - 1958

US vowed to protect Taiwan, where the Chinese nationalists were based.
Khrushchev did not back Mao

Austrian Treaty

1955

Divided since the end of the war, Austria was now recognised as neutral.

Geneva Summit

July 1955

USSR proposed uniting a neutral Germany: US rejected this
USSR proposed disbanding of NATO an Warsaw Pact: US rejected this
US suggested 'open skies': USSR rejected this

Acceptance that neither side wanted war.

Vietnam War

December 1956 - April 1975

Paris Summit

1960

A failure as Khrushchev walks out after not receiving an apology from Eisenhower.

U2 Plane

1960

A U2 spy plane is shot down over USSR territory. America is hugely embarrassed when its cover story turns out to be a lie.

Vienna Summit

1961

Khrushchev saw Berlin was a top priority.
US saw disarmament a priority.
Khrushchev bullies Kennedy, and Kennedy threatens the use of nuclear weapons over Berlin.

Berlin Wall

aug 1961

Cuban Missile Crisis

oct 1962

A naval blockade was established to stop further missiles being stationed in Cuba
A secret agreement was made to remove missiles from Turkey

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

1963

Banned:
tests in the air
tests in space
tests under water

No reduction of armaments

Moscow Meeting

1964

Unsuccessful talks between China and the USSR

Sino-Soviet Border Clash

1969

Moscow Summit

1972

SALT 1
Basic Principles Agreement

Shanghai Communique

feb 1972

No single power should dominate Asia
US would not tolerate a Soviet invasion of China
US-China trade, culture, educational links

Nixon visits China

feb 1972

China then began to downplay its struggle for world revolution and criticise the Soviet Union

SALT 1

may 1972

Oil Crisis

1973

First time that oil was used as a strategic weapon on this scale

Bad for US
Good for USSR

Led to perception of US as weak and led to criticisms of detente

Helsinki Accords

1975

BASKET 1:
acceptance of USSR borders

BASKET 2:
trade and technology

BASKET 3:
human rights

Invasion of Afghanistan

december 1979

this drained the USSR economy for many years

Geneva Summit

1985

Nuclear reductions

Reykjavik Summit

oct 1986

no agreement

INF Treaty

1987

Gorbachev had realised that SDI would never work and so this was focuses on the removal of intermediate missile from Europe

Moscow Summit

1988

Trade and technology links

Berlin Wall falls

Nov 1989

Germany Reunited

oct 1990

America and the West

New President: Truman

1945

Kennan Telegram

Feb 1946

Telegram to US gov. stating fears that the USSR was preparing for world domination.
Argues for containment.

Truman Doctrine

March 1947

Committed US to provide aid to war-torn countries.

Marshall Plan

June 1947

Gave huge amounts of aid to European countries to provide a stable base for American trade and protect against the allure of communism.

NATO formed

April 1949

New President: Eisenhower

January 1953

Promises to stand up to communism.
Foreign Policy:
Defence of democracy
Geographical territory
Cutting conventional forces whilst increasing nuclear spending
Massive retaliation
Covert & Overt operations to stop the spread of communism in the third world

West Germany joins NATO

October 1954

Soviet leaders see this as a threat.

New President: Kennedy

1961

Flexible response:
covert/overt operations to stop communism developing in the third world
nuclear weaponry
conventional forces

Bay of Pigs

april 1961

An attempt to invade Cuba and overthrow the communist government there

Ostpolitik

1969

Tried to make allies in the Eastern Bloc countries with the aim of one day re-uniting Germany

New President: Nixon

1969

Involved in the watergate scandal, initiated talks with China

New President: Ford

1973

Struggles to make important decisions because he hasn't been elected

Watergate Scandal

1973

SALT 2

1979

New President: Reagan

1980

Much more hard-line

Restricts trade with USSR

1981 - 1982

Grenada

1983

Troops sent in to deal with communists

SDI (Strategic Defence Initiative)

1984

Britain

Butler Act

1944

Lend-Lease Cancelled

1945

New PM: Attlee

july 1945

Loan from US

dec 1945

National Insurance Act

1946

No means testing
Payments from the employer and employee (not the government)
Minimum contributions had to be made before benefits could be drawn

NHS

1946

Nationalise to replace the confusing and chaotic mix of charity run and private hospitals

Iron Curtain Speech

March 1946

Spoke about two power blocs divided by an Iron Curtain.

Bank of England Nationalised

march 1946

Communications Nationalised

jan 1947

Agriculture Act

1947

Gave farmers price guarantees and grants to encourage modernisation

Rationing Decreases

nov 1947

Marshall Aid

1948

National Assistance Act

1948

Aimed to secure those who weren't covered in 1946
children
married women
pensioners
self employed (under 104 a year)

these WERE means tested

Transport/Electricity Nationalised

1948

New PM: Churchill

1951

Butlers 1st Budget

1952

bank rate goes up

First Atom Bomb

oct 1952

Butlers 2nd Budget

april 1953

Tax cuts

Rationing Ends

1954

New PM: Eden

1955

Rejects EEC

nov 1955

Suez Crisis

1956

New PM: Macmillan

jan 1957

'Never had it so good' Speech

july 1957

Britain applies to the EEC

jul 1961

Night of the Long Knives

july 1962

Macmillan sacks 1/3rd of the cabinet

DeGaulle Vetoes entry to the EEC

jan 1963

Profumo Affair

march 1963

Tax-Cutting Budget

april 1963

New PM: Wilson

oct 1964

End to Capital Punishment

1965

Race Relations Act

1965

Comprehensive School's Encouraged

july 1965

Wage Freeze

1966

Abortion Legalised

oct 1967

Homosexuality Legalised

oct 1967

Devaluation of the Pound

nov 1967

Cuts to Welfare & Defence

1968

'Rivers of Blood' Speech

1968

Censorship Ends

1968

The Troubles

1969 - 1990

'In Place of Strife' Barbara Castle

1969

UDF Founded to protect Protestant Rights

1969

Divorce Made Easier

oct 1969

P-IRA Established

jan 1970

Equal Pay Act

may 1970

New PM: Heath

june 1970

Barber Budget

apr 1971

cuts cuts cuts

Industrial Relations Act becomes Law

aug 1971

NUM Over-Time Ban

nov 1971

Wage Freeze

1972

NUM National Strike

jan 1972

Direct Rule of Ulster

march 1972

Britain joins EEC

jan 1973

Miners Strike

feb 1973

3 Day Week

jan 1974

New PM: Wilson

march 1974

Civil Rights Marsh in Ireland

aug 1974

IRA bomb Birmingham

nov 1974

Referendum on joining Europe

june 1975

Inflation Almost 27%

aug 1975

North Sea Oil Opens

nov 1975

New PM: Callaghan

march 1976

Inflation below 10%

jan 1978

Winter of Discontent

nov 1978

New PM: Thatcher

1979

Howes 1st Budget

june 1979

VAT doubled
Direct taxes cut
Abolition of the price commission
Exchange controls abolished

Steel Strikes

jan 1980

Howes 2nd Budget

march 1980

900 million cut in gov. spending

'The Ladys not for Turning' Speech

oct 1980

Riots

1981

Gang of Four call for realignment

jan 1981

Gives In To Miners

feb 1981

Howes 3rd Budget

march 1981

Falklands War

1982

Unemployment reaches over 3 mil

jan 1982

first time since 1932

Miners Strike

1984 - 1985

Micheal Heseltine Resigns

jan 1986

Stock Market Crash

oct 1987

'Bruges' Speech

sept 1988

opposing further integration with europe

Nigel Lawson Resigns

oct 1989

Geoffrey Howe Resigns

nov 1990

Fall of Thatcher

dec 1990