Europe from 1908-1968

Political

Age of Imperialism (Latter End)

1908 - 1914

With superior military strength and strong authoritarian rule, Western Europeans conquered new peoples, claiming new territories in Asia and Africa.(Textbook 796 & Sources 393)

World War 1

1914 - 1918

The world's first total war that consisted of deadly battles fought with high destructive weapons produced by a highly industrialized society. (Textbook 839)

Post War Economic Crisis & Great Depression

1919 - 1939

Post WWI, economic activity was in ruins within Europe, and the world's economy only further worsened after the US’ stock market crash in 1929. Countries experienced stripped wealth, economic insecurity, and rise of inflation and unemployment. (Source 430 & 432)

Hitler Appointed Chancellor in Germany

1933

Hitler comes into official German power. Also in 1933, Hitler garnered more power when the Nazis pushed the Enabling Act through the Reichstag. This granted Hitler absolute dictatorial power. (Textbook 916)

World War II

1939 - 1945

Beginning with Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939, WWII was a battle between two powerful groups: the Allies, such as England, France, Poland, and the U.S., versus the Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan. World War II lasted until both the Germans and the Japanese had surrendered to the Allies in 1945. (Textbook 922)

Decolonization

1947 - 1968

Upon the destruction of WWII and the onset of the Cold War, colonies in Africa and Asia under European rule one-by-one gained national independence. (Textbook 963)

Marhsall Plan Aid Begins

1947 - 1951

Europe was devastated as a result of WWI, facing famine, poverty, and an economic crisis. The Marshall Plan was an American initiative that provided aid to Europe. The Marshall plan established the US as a global superpower postwar as well as aimed at ridding the world of communism. (Textbook 947).

Cultural

Stream of Consciousness Literature Technique

1913 - 1927

After the war, Western literature was deeply influenced by the period's pessimism and alienation. The Stream of consciousness technique relied on internal monologues to explore the human psyche. (Textbook 878)

Dadaism - New Artistic Movement

1916 - 1925

Dadaism was a reactionary art movement as a result of the war. Since the war had shown life was meaningless, Dadaists tried to capture this same meaningless in their "anti-art." (Textbook 877)

Cinema Becomes Mass Medium

1920

The 1920s was the golden age of silent film, and film making become a big business on an international scale. Motion pictures were the main source of entertainment until after WWII. (Textbook 884)

Arrival of the Radio

1920

The radio became a mass medium in the 1920s. Major public broadcasts of news and special events first appeared in 1920 in Great Britain and the US. (Textbook 883-884)

Political Propaganda Frenzy

1924 - 1945

The 1920s art and culture become heavily politicized as upcoming political parties such as the German Communist Party, the Nazis, and the Soviet Communist Party desire power. These parties' propaganda tried to provoke strong emotions from their countries' citizens in favor for their political party. (Sources 436 & 446)

Collective Rights

Rights for Women (Part 1)

1909 - 1917

In years immediately preceding the war, the campaign for women's suffrage grew. And feminists regarded WWI as an opportunity for women to improve their social, economic, and political status as more women entered the workforce and left the household sphere. (Sources 408 & Textbook 844)

Rights for Colonized People

1920 - 1968

Beginning with Ghandi's civil disobedience movement in the 1920s and 1930s,non-Western peoples in Africa and Asia demanded national self-determination, racial equality, and personal dignity. The campaign for rights of colonized peoples strengthened greatly after WWII's end in 1945. (Sources 467 and Textbook 966)

Rights for Women (Part 2)

1945 - 1960

In the 20th century, European women achieved many goals of the nineteenth century’s feminists, including the right to vote and own property. Yet, women and their allies wanted true social equality, not just political, in society as well. (Sources 471)