Events (mulitple years)

King Philips War

1675 - 1678

Natives attacked English towns b/c settlers prosecuted Natives and took land, crushed by Mohawks helping English

Leisler's Rebellion

1689 - 1691

fight against the patroon-ship structure, land tracts given to higher classes, ruined system

First Great Awakening

1739 - 1744

religious revival, puritan church membership was decreasing, Halfway Covenant- lower standards, "old" vs. "new" school, 1st shared experience, inc religious diversity

French-Indian War

1754 - 1763

France try to push into NW (Ohio Valley) Territory and tried to take it away from US colonies and GB, moves to Euro, colonists can defend themselves, open W, lead to AmRev.

Pontiac Rebellion

1763 - 1764

reaction to Proclamation of 1763, colonists mad they can't go past Appalachians

1st Phase Am Rev.

1775 - 1776

New England- thought local, colonists showed they were a force, GB want move to MidAtlantic

2nd Phase Am Rev.

1776 - 1778

GB winning but war not ending, Constitutional Convention is the gov., troops getting trained, America able to hang on until Saratoga

3rd Phase Am Rev.

1778 - 1783

GB purposely move S- where loyalists are, many join on continental side, guerilla/sharpshooters/snipers, trap Cornwallis on land-France on sea

Shay's Rebellion

1786 - 1798

protests by Am farmers against state & local law enforcement, too many taxes to pay war debt

Alexander Hamiltons Plan

1790 - 1800

plan for recovery after Am Rev.

Quasi War

1798 - 1800

undeclared naval war with France

Barbary War

1801 - 1805

fight with Africa because America refuses to pay for stolen crew, lost more money in the end

War of 1812

1812 - 1814

GB never accepted that we were sovereign; GB dumping, impressment, incite natives

Hartford Convention

1814 - 1815

death of Federalist party, Essex Junto

Market Revolution

1815 - 1860

N=industry, S=cotton king, W-farm; interdependence; Am System; transportation; labor-immig, slave labor

Era of Good Feelings

1816 - 1824

only one political party (DR), everyone got along

American System

1820 - 1830

Monroe, Era Good Feelings, economic & internal improvement, Clay author, 3 parts Hamilton's, gov. intervene in econ/fund roads/canals, broke Jeff agrarian

Second Great Awakening

1820 - 1860

religious revival, personal conversion, picture God=loving, camp meetings, perfectionism-Finney, fragmentation, W community, inc role of woment, Antebellum reform

RR Era Begins

1830 - 1840

begin to fuel expansion, Market Econ possible, not transcontinental yet

Manifest Destiny

1840 - 1850

God given right to expand form sea to sea, encouraged masses to move W, justify Indian Removal and Mex-Am war

Mexican-Am War

1846 - 1848

b/c US annex Texas, dispute over border line, Mex lose, US get CA & NM

Gold Rush

1848 - 1858

mass movement W for gold mining

Civil War

1860 - 1865

N vs. S over slavery

Lincoln's Reconstruction


hope S surrender, 10% plan- pop need to pledge allegiance, full pres pardons to S- oath/accept 13th, "soft peace"- heal quickly

Wade Davis Reconstruction


congress plan, majority pledge loyalty, abolish slaver/repudiate the war, congress in charge of reconstruction, need to be punished

Johnson Reconstruction


loyalty oath, doesn't accept high planter class/aristocracy, repudiate secession/debt, no black vote, allow black codes, accept 13th amend

Military Reconstruction

1867 - 1877

"hard peace", split into 5 districts, confed leaders can't vote/hold office, black get vote (15th amend), ratify 14th amend, run by congress

Knights of Labor

1869 - 1888

unskilled labor, include everyone but Chinese, criticize capitalism--> socialist, 8hr workday, dec hours/week, improve working conditions- safety & pay, end child labor, boycott, organize/negotiate, only strike if necessary

Grange Movement


height of politics, fraternal organ for farmers, secret rituals, devoted to edu & social gatherings- fight social isolation, against RR/low product prices, Granger Laws-aid farmers, coop purchasing, pool savings, crop subtreasury, manufacture farm equip, failed in industry/RR/overproduction, farmers organize/men&women equal

Green Back Party


paper money--> "cheap" money, not backed by specie, big influence on population

Farmers Alliance

1880 - 1890

organ by region, segregation by race, women encouraged to join, want cooperation, antimonopoly-gov own RR & telegraph-radical, subtreasury of crops, free & unlimit coinage of silver, took over after grange decrease


1888 - 1955

separate by craft or trade, exclude blacks/women/chinese- would lose power and dec pay, want strength to negotiate- want to be taken seriously, striking is last resort- need political allies/bargaining, strong capitalism (not Populist), Sam Gompers

Spanish American War


Mckinley, sink USS Maine, econ investment in Cuba, needed naval base, US gets Cuba/Puerto Rico/Hawaii/Samoa, tell Philippines independ, Platt Amend, foreign debate, imperialist

Philippino War

1899 - 1901

revolt against Am troops, guerrilla warfare, Am water cure & concentration camps, Taft= governor, gov put $ into roads, sanitation, & public health

Panama Canal

1904 - 1914

easier movement/defense for navy, helped Panama revolt against Columbia control, but a new Prime Minister in charge in US favor, we get rights to build/own canal, look like we stole from Columbia


1905 - 1930

industrial workers of the world, radical, communism, struggle b/t capitalists and workers, include women/chinese/blacks

Great White Fleet

1907 - 1909

naval show by TR, impress Japan, round the world trip, Japan gov warmly received them


1914 - 1918

war econ- attempt mobilize, many strikes, silencing dissent- espionage act, sedition act, eugene debs- socialist

WWI US out

1914 - 1917

isolationist mood, Russian only ally, disagreement, profit from neutrality, Wilson pledge to keep US out of war


1917 - 1918

US enters war for about 6 months, US scared and divided, many believe entering war was a mistake, provide fresh troops, propaganda to encourage enlistment

Palmer Raids

1918 - 1920

AG Mitch Palmer use Sedition Act to arrest "radicals" aided by Hoover, no due process


1921 - 1925

got publicity from HofR investigation, 100% americanism, protestantism, charity, motherhood, morality, temperance, education, target- RomCath/Jews/AfmAm, nativism- immig quotas (1921/194)


1928 - 1932

poor areas during GD, making fun of Hoover and his bad image during the era

First New Deal

1932 - 1934

includes First 100 days, 3 R': Relief/recovery/reform, relief and get people back to work

Second New Deal

1934 - 1938

response to critics saying FDR not doing enough, women/poor, more radical, welfare, unions, tax rich

Spanish CW

1936 - 1939

US refuse to sell munitions to rebels in Spain, but stood aside as they took over


1937 - 1945

allies (US,GB,FRANCE, USSR) vs Germ & Japan




Columbus arrives in the W Hemisphere



First permanent GB colony



First pilgrims land in America, begin relations w/ Wampanoags

Great Pilgrim Migration


Large wave of Pilgrims come from Europe, make relations with Natives strained



Thomas Hooker- 1st written constitution, church members vote, limit government

Providence Rhode Island


safe haven for Christians- Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson

Bacon's Rebellion


W farmers rebel against favoritism towards E elite famers

Pueblo's Rebellion


Native uprising against Spanish Catholicizing them, forced Spaniards out of Mexico-- Spain became less harsh



Quakers, William Penn, most diverse- ethnical and religious toleration, Enlightened

Height of Slavery


Proclamation Line


create line that prevents colonists from going W, colonists angry, want land

Sugar Act


molasses and sugar, protested & boycotted

Stamp Act


paper, dice, cards, newspapers; Stamp Act congress- structure to protest and boycott

Declaratory Act


GB repeal Stamp Act, but only people that can make law is GB

Townshend Act


way to get revenue, tax on tea, tax w/o representation, colonists hostile, boycotts

Boston Massacre


GB soldiers took jobs, colonists taunting, GB soldiers shot into crowd, propaganda for GB's cruelty- added hype for cause

Committee of Correspondence


elitist groups from all colonies, protesting/letter writing group, don't actually meet

Boston Tea Party


sons of liberty organize tea party, tax/monopoly on tea, colonists lose money, GB done dealing with colonists

Intolerable Acts


close Boston Port, town meetings illegal, no jury

Quebec Act


French gave land to Catholics to practice faith

First Continental Congress


organize non-import & boycotts, not war making, collective action

Lexington & Concord


GB go to Boston to take down rebel leaders and gun powder, colonists fight back, "shot heard round the world", first major battle in AmRev

Bunker Hill


GB frontal attack-thought it would be easy win, colonists would have won but ran out of ammunition

Olive Branch Petition


colonists peace offering to GB, proclaim loyalty to king, king reject- colonists declare rebellious

Second Continental Congress


prepare/organize for war, appoint George Washington

Declaration of Independence


official break b/t colonists and GB, natural rights, list of grievances to king

"Common Sense"


Thomas Paine, small country should't rule a larger one, growth of call for independence

Articles of Confederation


got US through war; no courts, enforcement, president; states ignored; no power for taxes, or regulate commerce



GB forced to surrender, turning point in war, France joined to support colonists

Treaty of Paris


GB recognize Am independence, no longer pay royal taxes

Northwest Ordinance


deal w/ colonies, when territory gets enough people become state, forbade slavery in NW

Constitutional Convention


revising Articles, decide to start over, rep in gov, Big vs Small states, 3/5 compromise-slavery, create president

George Washington


Washington first president of the US

Citizen Genet


minister from France, went over head of Washington and told Am to ignore him

Neutrality Proclamation


Washington decides to not take sides in French Revolution

Whiskey Rebellion


Hamilton's plan put tax on whiskey, farmers hostile, Ham sent militia to Penn to stop, gov keep order and force laws

Pickney's Treaty


Spain says US can have access to New Orleans fort, want good relations, we are weak and do anything to survive

Jay's Treaty


reach out to GB, help econ & prevent war, create some peace, GB agree to move forts but never did

XYZ Affair


France leaders make US pay to negotiate, increase federalist popularity

Alien & Sedition Acts


can't speak bad against gov, will go to jail or shipped back to country

Kentucky & VA Resolutions


states have right to veto law, 9th and 10th amendment

Revolution of 1800


election of 1800, peaceful move of power over to DRs

Marbury vs. Madison


judicial review, SC = #1, decides constitutionality

Louisiana Purchase


height of rule, country 2 times larger, Lewis & Clark

Embargo Act


cut off trade from Europe, want favorable balance of trade, bad for Jeff leadership

Non-Intercourse Act


cut off trade with just GB and France

Macon Bill #2


halt embargo for 30 days



if GB or France stop harassing us we'll only trade with them and stop with the foe

Treaty of Ghent


sovereignty recognized, GB remove forts

Tallmadge Amendment


MO problems, diff view on slaves, no more slaves added to MO, scared the S, division between N/S

Adam-Onis Treaty


US give up texas, Jackson goes to get Florida w/o permission, Spain give us Florida

Panic of 1819


land speculation and overextension of credit, bank failures, dec prices

Missouri Compromise


Clay, drew imaginary line, N=free, S=slave

Monroe Doctrine


isolationist, Euro stay away & we stay away, we aren't taken seriously

Corrupt Bargain


JQA and Jackson, Clay went behind closed doors and got JQA elected

Tariff of Abominations


supposed to be for JQA- Jack gets, favored N&W, S hates, SC revolt, Jack threatens troops, Clay intervene and compromise

Indian Removal Act


extend common man beliefs, land hungry citizens, Marshall Court said unconsit.- Jack ignored

Bank War


Jack vetoes recharter National Bank, put fed $ in pet/state banks, specie circular issued- buy land w/ gold/silver

Panic of 1837


result of Jack's unstable $ & land speculation, led to bank failures, Divorce Bill- separate gov and banking, doesn't work

Compromise of 1850


dispute over N not enforcing Fugitive Slave laws, N gain more, CA=free, NM/Utah= pop sovereignty, S- Fugitive Slave law- slaves denied jury/representation, not enforced

Uncle Tom's Cabin


uncover horrors of slavery, never actually witnessed slavery, N decide not enforce Fugitive Slave Law



Douglass- to end W Expan deadlock, Neb divided into 2 territories, pop sovereignty decide free or slave, destroys unity of MO compromise

Ostend Manifesto


Pierce want Cuba for slave population, we say we'll go to war for territory, favors S, N thought it would extend slavery

Gardner Case


runaway slaves, mother kills daughter so she doesn't have to go back to slavery, highlight horror of slavery- S always said slavery good/happy

Caning of Sumner


Sumner verbally attacked Butler's wife, attacks Sumner w/ cane, S sent him more canes

Bleeding Kansas


mini CW b/t Free Soilers and proslavery S, forces broke out

Dred Scott


slaves=property, can't deny someone their property- he's not free, MO compromise= unconstitutional

Lecompton Constitution


Buchanen asks Congress to make proslavery constitution in new states w/o consent, they dont listen, proslavery rejected in Kansas

"Impending Crisis of the South"


Hinton Helper, slavery hurts white men in S, plantation society keep land in small class

Panic of 1857


RR bankruptcy, halts W expansion

John Brown's Harpers Ferry Raid


N attacks federal arsenal- want to arm/free slaves, abolitionists like him, some Rep condemn

Election 1860


lincoln win, S thinks they lost their voice, SC secedes, begins CW

Bull Run


Union attack, thought would be easy, confed stood strong, first battle of war, psych/polit consequences, S scared, N need to organize

Fort Sumter


only fort left in S for Union, first shots fred, lincoln call volunteers/naval force, electrify N, S saw aggressive- block sea ports



McClellan vs. Lee, Mc knew battle plans and stopped Lee, bloodiest day, military draw, Lee retreat- Union victory, what lincoln need for emanc. procl.

Vicksburg Campaign


S sentinel protecting lifeline to W resources, spinal cord of Confed., Grant severed, cut off S trade routes, tipped favor to N

Emancipation Proclamation


"forever free" slaves in Confed states still rebelling, no include border states, didn't actually free any slaves, strengthen N morale, foreshadow end of slavery, remove chance of negotiation

Homestead Act


land to settlers if they irrigated it, pushed natives out



Lee attack Union, U stood strong- regained lost land, Heavy loss, 2nd invasion failed, last chance for S to win

Sherman's March to the Sea


Union charge of conquest of Georgia, captured/burned Atlanta, destroyed homes/supplies/moral, total war, brutal attacks, shortened war struggle

Freedman's Bureau


give food, clothing, medical care, education to freedmen, success=reading, hated by S

Black Codes


regulate lives of freedman, replace slave codes, Rep hate them, no jury/vote, base for Jim Crow

Appomattox Court House


Lee surrender to Grant, Lee out of supplies and surrounded, U won, begin reconciliation, slavery legally comes to end

13th Amendment


outlawed slavery forever, everywhere; all needed to accept it

Transcontinental RR


building transcontinental RR to reach and connect all areas of the country

14th Amendment


civil liberties to all blacks, citizenship

Concentration Policy


US gov. don't recognize tribes as separate entities & wont negotiate with chief, undermine reservations

15th Amendment


black right to vote

Panic of 1873


value of silver decrease, nationwide struggle; US gov stop coining silver- credit & $ not affordable for farmers, populists growing

Slaughter House Cases


labor was not a federal responsibility, cries for help, gov. says they don't have to help

Election of 1876


End reconstruction, S Dem- Redeemers, committee behind closed doors, Hayes president if troops leave S and fund trans RR

Great RR Strike


10% wage cut, start local spreads nationwide, shut down RR, Hayes uses troops in Penn to stop, gov. intervention is norm- support business over union workers

Plessey vs. Ferguson


legalized Jim Crow

Pendleton Civil Service Act


take test to show qualification for gov. jobs, root out corruption

Dawes Severalty Act


dissolve tribal status, divides communal land into private lots, lost sovereignty, would give some land if agreed to assimilate, decay Indian culture

Interstate Commerce Act


attempt to curb unfair practices of RR, not enforced

Haymarket Riot


Chicago meat packing industry, police brutal against workers, threw bomb- seen as anarchy, KOL present- seen as radical, downfall of group

"Influence of Sea Power on History"


Alfred Mahan, sea power nations-great nations of history, US should dominate Caribbean & Pacific, colonies provide naval bases

Battle at Wounded Knee


Indian resistance on reservations, large massacre of Natives, white greed/ignorance/little tolerance in addition to Indian massacre leads to massacres/fighting

Sherman Silver Purchase


re-est silver, pressure by farmers, after Panic of 1873

McKinley Tariff


40% on foreign goods, one of highest, Harrison

Omaha Platform


Populist ideals, free ballot & counting votes, limit emmigration, graduate income tax, alien ownership of land prohibited, silver coinage, gov. own RR, one term Pres & VP, shorter term lengths, 8hr workday, gov own RR, no more mercenaries used by gov

Homestead Strike


Carnegie plant- 20% wage reduction, revolt while he's gone- Frick (middle management) is in charge, attempt to build fence to control workers, Pinkertons brought in to watch workers- sparks violence, shooting, nothing gained, made Carnegie look bad

Panic of 1893


Cleveland blame silver purchase & Populists, repeals silver purchase, industry& RR expand beyond demand, large unemployment, farmers organize & protest

Pullman Strike


sleeper cars RR worker strike, led by Eugene Debs, 1/3 pay cut, cars overturned and burned, police came and arrested Debs, strikes made illegal

Cuban Revolt


Spanish brutal to Cubans, concentration camps, cubans rebel, asked US for help



USS Maine explodes, US blames Spanish, but it was really from ammo in storage

Open Door China


John Hay, respect Chinese rights & fair competition, didn't want markets under Euro control,

Platt Amendment


reverse Teller Amend, US military will withdraw as long as Cuba agrees to US intervention when it sees fit

Elkins Act


fines for rebates (money back) given by RR to customers

Roosevelt Corollary


Monroe doctrine, feared increase of Euro presence in Am as LA debt grew, "preventative intervention"- US intervene on LA behalf

Hepburn Act


free passes restricted, ICC got teeth & regulate pipelines and sleeping car companies

Pure Food & Drug Act


not Upton's intent, under Roosevelt, monitor factories

"The Jungle"


Upton Sinclair, investigative journalism,

Payne Aldrich Act


high protective tariff

Triangle Shirtwaist Co Fire


company owners broke fire safety codes-women locked in, fire started, many workers burned/jumped, strikes by women, stronger laws for worker conditions

Federal Reserve Act


federal reserve system- modern bank system to keep up w/ industry, gov involved in econ, federal reserve board-pres appoint/senate approve, 12 bankers bank-gov owned, public set rates and amount of currency, stabilize econ in rough times

16th Amendment


graduated income tax

17th Amendment


direct election of Senators

Second American Indust Rev


electric motors, increase durable goods, auto industry, assembly line, Ford raises wages & limits hours to increase consumer base, shift from war to consumer goods, increase productivity, advertising, leisure, middle management, technolog

Clayton Anti-Trust Act


lengthened Sherman Act, price discrimination & interlocking directorates, conferred benefits on labor, exempt labor & agricultural organ, legalize strikes & picketing

Federal Trade Commission Act


find industries engaged in interstate commerce, commissioners crush monopoly by finding out unfair practices, unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulturation, bribery



sunk by Germans, memory makes US want to go to war

Sussex Pledge


unrestricted submarine warfare reversal, German said we wouldn't attack until we let you know, violated

CREEL Committee


Exec Order 2594, sell America on war, sell world on Wilson idealism, propaganda, passion & volunteerism, "Four Minute Men"- movie to instill enlistment & patriotism

Russian Revolution


US watches, sees communism is radical/unstable/violent, connects to labor, unrest, immig, "un-american"

Zimmerman Note


German aid Mexico against US in war, want Texas back, US intercept note

Wilson 14 Points


ideals for world beyond war, abolish secret treaties/alliances, self determination, anti-colonial, justification for entry into war, make world safe for democracy

Selective Service Act


method for ensuring all groups called into war (men 18), small amount of actual US fighting

Treaty of Versailles


French want harsh punishment for Germany, Germany disarmed/stop colonies/admit guilt/reparations, self determination for rest of Euro, League of Nations

Great Migration


AfAm come up from S to work in factories, many job openings while men fighting, became strike breakers

League of Nations


international peacekeeping group, no troops, senators don't like giving Euro that much power, article X- repel aggression

18th Amendment





increase organized crime, uneven compliance, Al Capone- gangster, bootlegger

19th Amendment


women's suffrage

Washington Naval Conference


invites major naval powers, naval disarmament

Tea Pot Dome Scandal


Fall (Sec of Navy) transfer valuable properties to Interior Depart., leased lands to oilmen for a bribe

Dawes Plan


US give money to Germany to pay back reparations to Allies (GB and France) who pay back war debt to US

Scopes Monkey Trial


Scope taught evolution (against law- can only teach creation), Darrow vs. WJB (Fundamentalism vs. Modern), WJB won but looks like fool- question is fundamental beliefs & bible stories

Sacco and Vanzetti Trial


robbery & murders, arrested 2 italians, trial divided america- lack of evidence, many felt they were found guilt based on politics/race, not for the crime

Hawley-Smoot Tariff


protective to assist farmers, one of highest protective tariffs

Glass Stegall Act


separate commercial from investment banks, limit freedom of banks

Bank Holiday


closed all banks, federal gov in charge of reopening banks

"Good Neighbor"


US declare non-intervention, independence for Philip, peace w/ Mex, give up Cuba/Haiti, LA

Emergency Banking Act


gov regulate banks, sort out strong & weak banks and determine which will be reopened and when

London Economic Conference


want organize international attack on global depression, FDR refuse, want US to stay on gold standard, help America at home



federal to state to provide welfare/food/clothing, Hopkins- social worker,



young men back to work, environmental projects, raise self esteem

Off Gold


FDR takes the US off the gold standard, criticized for manipulating value of $, debt paid w/ paper not gold, reject London Econ Conference



federal deposit insurance corp, banks pay small perecent of deposits into common fund from which payouts would be made to help losses in failed banks



Tenn value, most depressed area, project to prevent flooding, build dam, get electricity, employ ppl, criticism- socialist

Reverse Prohibition


21st amend bring back alcohol. let the people have their beer, domestic industry



national recovery, complex coding system, control wage/production/prices/employment, seen unconstitutional



agriculture, mortgage assistance, subsidized scarcity, loans- deemed unconstitutional, extend gov power



civil works, job creation, small short term, public works projects

Fireside Chats


get ppl to have faith in gov and banking system, put money back in banks, everyday ppl understand econ



public works, schools, dams, bridges, hospitals



regulate stock market practices

Social Security Act


to most at risk ppl, unemployed, children, handicapped, elderly

Wagner Act


replace NRA, working conditions, unions right to bargain & strike, protect unions, banned child labor/ est min wage



loans to sharecroppers/tenant farmers, camps for migrant workers



employment, wages, skilled workers- artists, writers, theatre, teachers, entertainment

Japan Invade China


Japan set off explosion and invaded china, started WWII

Hitler takes Austria


Austria/Rhineland/Czech, begins conquering and killing jews

Munich Conference


Euro gave Hitler Sudetenland to make him happy, hoping he'd stop, promised he would

Invade Poland


hitler takes poland, France & GB allied w/, GB& France officilaly declare war

Neutrality Act


Euro democracies can buy Am supplies but on "cash-and-carry" basis

Hitler-Stalin Pact


USSR signed nonaggression treaty w/ Germ, become allies

Bases for Destroyers


US give GB 50 destroyers for 8 defensive bases, favors GB rather than staying "neutral"

Fall France


GB only strong democracy left, US needs to help

Lend-Lease Bill


US send supply of arms to victims of aggressors (Germany), then give it back when youre done

Pearl Harbor


japan bombs pearl harbor, US united in entering war

Atlantic Charter


FDR and Churchill, similar to wilson's 14 points, outlined goals for better world after war

Japanese Internment


Exec order 9066, move Japanese to relocation camps on W coast, large prejudice to race, afraid of spies,

Big Ideas


1492 - 1763

First Two-Party System

1780 - 1801

Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans

Immigration- Market Rev.

1815 - 1860

Irish- poor, cities, politics; Germans- W, land, scattered, impact but not politics

Women- 2nd GA

1820 - 1860

Increase role in society, active in Antebellum reform

Mass Democracy

1824 - 1840

Mass Democracy, sectionalism, expansion

Second Two-Party System

1832 - 1850

Democrats vs Whigs

Women- CW

1860 - 1865

become labor leaders, work=burdensome, farms/factories/plantations, nursing, big responsibilities lead to change, Clara Barton- Red Cross, missing person registry

Econ- Gilded Age

1865 - 1900

inc oil, steel, RR; horiz/vert integration, trusts, low skill workers, separation of owner & laborer, unsuccessful strikes,ups & downs (panics), business & gov. work together, public sees unions as problems

Immigration- Gilded Age

1865 - 1900

New immig, S/E Euro- chinese, Judaism, Polish, Italians; don't assimilate well- diff religion, ethnic enclaves, don't unionize- struggle w/ labor, tenement housing, disease spreads

Political Parties-Gilded Age

1865 - 1900

Rep- N business, Prot, stop immig; Dem- S, immig, state, farmers- Grange/Populists; factions-- Stalwerts/Half Breeds- well off, elite warfare; Mugwumps- reform Rep

West- Gilded Age

1865 - 1900

end of the frontier, mass settlement W, Indian wars/removal, begin Populist movement, RR- mining/cattle/farming, safety valve theory


1865 - 1877

transition between CW and Gilded Age, plans for the S post war

New South

1865 - 1900

S try to out-industrialize the N, doesn't work, share- cropping, tenant farmers, crop lien system- debt cycle

Gilded Age

1865 - 1900

political change, mostly run by congress

Jim Crow

1877 - 1900

legal segregation in the S


1880 - 1890

return of nativism, against new immig


1890 - 1896

Height of populist movement, WJB leader, accused of being radical- socialist ideas, party ended when WJB went Dem, omaha platform


1898 - 1920

start late-slavery hurt foreign policy, first tries rejected, GB/France/Japan/Russia we reject their policies


1898 - 1920

caused by Gilded Age corruption, want order and to understand the world, different from Antebellum because includes everyday ppl, state/local, national/federal

Causes GD

1914 - 1929

overproduction, lack diverse econ (auto/housing), Hawley-Smoot, prices on wheat & cotton decrease, buying machines on credit, bad farm land, large consumer spending- no money/credit, goods very cheap, rich got richer, speculation, buy on margin, banks default, stock market crash

Consumerism 20s

1920 - 1930

labor saver appliances- fridges, microwave, washing machine, increase standard of cleanliness, automobiles popular, advertising/magazines, supermarket, spending even if they don't have money


1920 - 1930

fundamentalism- WJB, believe every word of bible is literal truth, rural/W- fundamentalism, modern threatens value system, urban/E- urban life, new culture

Popular Culture 20s

1920 - 1930

generation gap- reject elders values, drink, jazz, movies, radio, Harlem Ren, spectator sports, daredevils, home appliances

Women 20s

1920 - 1930

fashion important, shorter skirts, drink in public, sexual frankness, make up, divorce, short hair, smoke, vote, frustration- not much progress, flapper

AfAm 20s

1920 - 1930

Harlem Ren but no one cares about equality, riots, lynching, NAACP

Political 20s

1920 - 1930

Divided Dem, rural-prohibition,KKK, fundamentalist, traditional; urban- Catholic, factory workers, immigrant; progressives get little attention

Econ 20s

1920 - 1930

back to Gilded Age, gov step out, "good old days", free labor & radical conflict, laissez-faire, more hands off but recognize need for guidance, decrease tax, income, inheritance, corporation, trim budget, voluntary action


1929 - 1941

more unemployment, cotton market collapsed, NAACP- don't be strike breakers-join unions, last hired/first fired

Family GD

1929 - 1941

women "stay home", lower point of women's movement, support husband/family, kids forced to quit school to help family, divorce decrease- can't afford it, suicides-depression, self made theory-work hard enough will get american dream- don't want ppl to see struggle

Mex GD

1929 - 1941

less institutional support than blacks, repatriation, denied relief/entrance in hospitals, migrants organize, move to cities

Econ GD

1929 - 1941

massive unemployment, $30 billion lost, stock values drop, banks closed, tax revenue decrease