Hist 140

Events

Opium War

1839

British exploited the Chinese by trading opium with them. Chinese government wanted British opium traders to stay out of China, led to war.

Scramble for Africa Begins

1871

Actually might have been a little later, but this is when Henry Morton Stanley "found" Dr. Livingstone in Africa. King Leopold of Belgium then asked Stanley about colonizing Africa. Once other countries like Germany, France, and England caught on, the scramble ensued

WWI

1914 - 1918

Caused by:
National Competition
Violent Nationalism
Belief that war is "purifying"

Allies: Britain, France, Russia (Best friend ron)
Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary (A-Hole George)

Russian (Bolshevik) Revolution

1917

End of the Russian Civil war; Marxist-Leninists won

League of Nations

1919

Wilson met with leaders of Britain and France and created at the Paris Peace Conference after the first World War. Established international law.

Depression

1930 - 1939

"Death of Liberalism" after Wilson's term ends.
Russia is booming right now under Bolshevik rule.

Germany Annexes Austria

1938

Munich Agreement

1938

European leaders gathered in Munich, Germany and decided that Germany could annex parts of Czechoslovakia (Czech govt was not present).

WWII

1939 - 1945

Germany invades Poland in Sept. 1939. D-Day in 1944, Germans surrender in 1945

Soviet Union "Liberates" Poland

1944

Bretton Woods

1944

Created IMF and World Bank... Made the USD the basis for the world's money and established that if a country needed money, another country should loan it to them. Mostly seen as FDR's attempt to put the US in control the world's banks.

Also implied that participants should be capitalist. Soviets were invited but refused to participate because they saw it as imperialism.

Yalta & Potsdam

1945

Attempts at pace after WWII
-Yalta: FDR, Churchill, and Stalin agreed that the "Iron Curtain" would be the division of ideological influence in Europe. "Percentage Agreement"
-Potsdam: Truman and Stalin agreed that Germany would be divided into Russian Germany, US Germany, French Germany, and British Germany. Goal was to fix the minority problem.

Kennan Telegram, Truman Doctrine, & Marshall Plan

1946

George Kennan sent a telegram saying that the US had to "Contain" communism. Truman took this seriously and it became his main goal.
Marshall Plan: Truman started giving lots of money to England, Greece and Turkey to prevent them from falling to communism. Soviets saw it as imperialism.

Cold War

1947 - 1980

Tension between the US and USSR. No actual fighting because both countries knew that everyone had nuclear weapons. "MAD" - Mutual Assured Destruction.

Cominform

1947

Zhdanov gave a speech to Communist leaders telling them that the US was forcing them to be more aggressive. Said that the communists had to take complete control and establish socialism/Stalinism across Europe.

India gains Independence

1948 - 1949

Secret Speech

1956

Nikita Kruschev gives a secret speech to leaders saying that there are some bad parts of Stalinism that need to be fixed. Opens the door for reform.

Leaders

Marx Dies and is replaced by Lenin

1883

Wilson

1913 - 1921

Liberalism
-Economic: Free market, supply/demand economy, private property.
-Political: Rule of law, representative govt, freedom

Gave speeches while the US was still neutral in the war to spread these ideals

Equality of Nations & Self-Determination...
Lots of countries were inspired to pursue independence because of Wilson.

Hitler Gains Power (After WWI)

1919

Fascist leader
-Wanted to defeat Communism & restore Germany's power after WWI
-Anti-Equality. Believed Germans were the superior race

Lenin dies and is replaced by Stalin

1924

Stalin's rule in Russia:
-Collectivization
-Command Economy
-5-Year Plan
-Mass starvation, poverty

FDR

1933 - 1945

President through most of WWII

Truman

1945 - 1953

Took office after FDR was assassinated
-Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan

Boleslav Beruit

1947 - 1956

Communist leader of Poland. Rigged election in 1947.
Imposed Stalinist system: One-party state, Collectivization, 5 year plans, Industrialization, Command Economy, Politics of terror.
Lots of industrialization but not enough housing or food; people were homeless and hungry.

Stalin dies and Khruschev takes power

1953

Wladislav Gomulka

1956

Took over after Beruit in Poland, saw the bad in Stalinism and advocated reform. Had lost his job in '47 but came bak to power.

Documents

Karl Marx writes the Communist Manifesto

1848

Beginning of Marxism -> Class Struggle (Bourgeoise vs. Proletariat, goal was Equality

Kipling: "The White Man's Burden"

1899

Lenin Writes...

1916 - 1917

On Imperialism: 1916
On the state of the revolution: 1917

Orwell writes on Shooting an Elephant

1931 - 1936

(Somewhere b/t those 2 dates