British exploited the Chinese by trading opium with them. Chinese government wanted British opium traders to stay out of China, led to war.
Actually might have been a little later, but this is when Henry Morton Stanley "found" Dr. Livingstone in Africa. King Leopold of Belgium then asked Stanley about colonizing Africa. Once other countries like Germany, France, and England caught on, the scramble ensued
Belief that war is "purifying"
Allies: Britain, France, Russia (Best friend ron)
Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary (A-Hole George)
End of the Russian Civil war; Marxist-Leninists won
Wilson met with leaders of Britain and France and created at the Paris Peace Conference after the first World War. Established international law.
"Death of Liberalism" after Wilson's term ends.
Russia is booming right now under Bolshevik rule.
European leaders gathered in Munich, Germany and decided that Germany could annex parts of Czechoslovakia (Czech govt was not present).
Germany invades Poland in Sept. 1939. D-Day in 1944, Germans surrender in 1945
Created IMF and World Bank... Made the USD the basis for the world's money and established that if a country needed money, another country should loan it to them. Mostly seen as FDR's attempt to put the US in control the world's banks.
Also implied that participants should be capitalist. Soviets were invited but refused to participate because they saw it as imperialism.
Attempts at pace after WWII
-Yalta: FDR, Churchill, and Stalin agreed that the "Iron Curtain" would be the division of ideological influence in Europe. "Percentage Agreement"
-Potsdam: Truman and Stalin agreed that Germany would be divided into Russian Germany, US Germany, French Germany, and British Germany. Goal was to fix the minority problem.
George Kennan sent a telegram saying that the US had to "Contain" communism. Truman took this seriously and it became his main goal.
Marshall Plan: Truman started giving lots of money to England, Greece and Turkey to prevent them from falling to communism. Soviets saw it as imperialism.
Tension between the US and USSR. No actual fighting because both countries knew that everyone had nuclear weapons. "MAD" - Mutual Assured Destruction.
Zhdanov gave a speech to Communist leaders telling them that the US was forcing them to be more aggressive. Said that the communists had to take complete control and establish socialism/Stalinism across Europe.
Nikita Kruschev gives a secret speech to leaders saying that there are some bad parts of Stalinism that need to be fixed. Opens the door for reform.
-Economic: Free market, supply/demand economy, private property.
-Political: Rule of law, representative govt, freedom
Gave speeches while the US was still neutral in the war to spread these ideals
Equality of Nations & Self-Determination...
Lots of countries were inspired to pursue independence because of Wilson.
-Wanted to defeat Communism & restore Germany's power after WWI
-Anti-Equality. Believed Germans were the superior race
Stalin's rule in Russia:
-Mass starvation, poverty
President through most of WWII
Took office after FDR was assassinated
-Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan
Communist leader of Poland. Rigged election in 1947.
Imposed Stalinist system: One-party state, Collectivization, 5 year plans, Industrialization, Command Economy, Politics of terror.
Lots of industrialization but not enough housing or food; people were homeless and hungry.
Took over after Beruit in Poland, saw the bad in Stalinism and advocated reform. Had lost his job in '47 but came bak to power.
Beginning of Marxism -> Class Struggle (Bourgeoise vs. Proletariat, goal was Equality
On Imperialism: 1916
On the state of the revolution: 1917
(Somewhere b/t those 2 dates