Peacemaking and peace keeping 1918-1936

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Treaties

Paris Peace Treaties

1919 - 1923

Paris Peace Settlement

1919

The representatives of 32 countries met in 1919 in Paris to draw up the peace settlement.
The "Big Three" (France, USA and Britain) leaders were mostly in command of the decision makings and so was Italy but to a lesser extent.
The settlement was created from five treaties; the Treaty of Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevres/Lausanne.
The Treaty of Versailles dealt specifically with Germany and was the major discussion during the draw up of the peace settlement whereas the other treaties dealt with the geo-political and economic future of Europe.
The agreement containing the principles on which the League of Nations was to operate on took into account all five treaties.

Treaty of Versaille

June 1919

June 1919
Treaty with Germany
Was signed in the Palace of Versailles
Germany had to agree to accept full responsibility for the outbreak of the First World War
Territorial loses:

The Saar administered by the League of Nations
The creation of an independent Polish state
West Prussia and Posen were given to Poland
Alsace-Lorraine was given back to France
Danzig was appointed as an international city
Plebiscites in Upper Silesia, West Prussia and Schleswig
Germany lost colonies and investments
Military Restrictions on Germany:

Was only allowed a regular army that was limited to 100,000 military personnel
Was not allowed an airforce and only a very small fleet
End of compulsory enlistment into the armed forces
Rhineland to be occupied for 15 years by the allied military forces
All commissions in Germany controlled by the allies until 1927
Reparations:

Germany to pay £6,600 million (132 billion gold marks)
Reparations where to be paid in regular instalments, some in gold and some in goods
The Allies struggled to get payments from Germany from 1921 to 1923
Dawes Commission 1924
France took over Ruhr in 1923
League of Nations:

The USA refused to join which weakened the league
Collective security
New mandate principles
Germany and the defeated nations were at first left out

The Treaty of St. Germain

September 1919

September 1919
Treaty with Austria
Dalmatia, Slovenia and Bosnia were given to Yugoslavia
South Tyrol, Trentino, Trieste and Istria were given to Italy
Bohemia and Moravia were given to Czechoslovakia
Galicia was given to Poland
Bukovina was given to Romania
Austria was not allowed to unify with Germany

The Treaty Neuilly

November 1919

Treaty with Bulgaria
Western Thrace was given to Greece
Dobrudja was given to Romania
Northern Macedonia was given to Yugoslavia

Treaty of Sevres

1920

Treaty with Turkey
The Straits of the Dardanelles to be controlled by the allies
Saudi Arabia became independent
Turkey lost the rights to Sudan and Libya
Eastern Thrace and some Turkish Aegean Islands were given to Greece
Mesopotamia, Palestine and Syria became League of Nation mandates and were to be run by France and Britain.

The Treaty of Trianon

June 1920

Treaty with Hungary
Hungary losses 2/3 of its territory
Slovakia and Ruthenia were given to Czechoslovakia
Transylvania was given to Romania
Burgenland was given to Austria
Slovenia and Croatia were given to Yugoslavia

Treaty of Lausanne

1923

Treaty of Sevres was altered at Lausanne
The Greeks were expelled
Constantinople was given back to Turkey

League of Nations

Economic

Ruhr Crisis

1923

France was afraid for its security after the Anglo-American Guarantee was denied and disagreed with Britain about how to deal with Germany. Britain wanted Germany to be able to rebuild its economy so that it could benefit from the trade.
France's goal was to weaken the German economy has much as possible through reparations
France also needed these reparations to pay its debts to the USA
When Germany missed a delivery of timber as part of her reparations, France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr region
Britain was strongly against this
The goal of France was to collect the missed payment from the Germans by taking the goods from the mines and factories and shipping them to France
The German workers did not co-operate with the French, instead they protested by destroying the goods, the mines and the factories
The event broke out into a violent conflict and resulted in inflation
The Weimar Government which already had a serious inflation problem made things worse by printing more money to help support the workers which resulted in disastrous inflation

Locarno Spring

1925

France was afraid for its security after the Anglo-American Guarantee was denied and disagreed with Britain about how to deal with Germany. Britain wanted Germany to be able to rebuild its economy so that it could benefit from the trade.
France's goal was to weaken the German economy has much as possible through reparations
France also needed these reparations to pay its debts to the USA
When Germany missed a delivery of timber as part of her reparations, France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr region
Britain was strongly against this
The goal of France was to collect the missed payment from the Germans by taking the goods from the mines and factories and shipping them to France
The German workers did not co-operate with the French, instead they protested by destroying the goods, the mines and the factories
The event broke out into a violent conflict and resulted in inflation
The Weimar Government which already had a serious inflation problem made things worse by printing more money to help support the workers which resulted in disastrous inflation

Locarno Treaty

1927

The Locarno Treaty resulted in a sense of excitement and optimism
Tension between the Allies and Germany was finally resolving which meant that a sense of peace was present
Germany obtained a permanent seat on the League council
The Allied troops from the left bank the Rhine where removed
The supervision of Germany's disarmament stopped in 1927
By 1930 Germany was an independent state again
However Germany was still in co-operation with the USSR in the Treaty of Rapallo
This meant that Germany could still avoid the disarmament that had been imposed on it
Germany had not agreed on its eastern borders and it was co-operating with the USSR who's goal was to redraw the map of Europe
This meant that even though the Locarno Treaty had been successful in bringing about peace, the League of Nations was not strengthened and the collective security remained uncertain