Punic Wars

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8th Century

800 BC

Carthage founded by Phoenician colonists

3rd Century

300 BC

The Carthaginian Empire streches across north Africa, the Belearic Islands, Sardinia, Corsica, and most of Scicily.

1st Punic War

265 BC - 241 BC

264 BC

264 BC

A dispute erupts in the Sicilian city of Messana. Scicilians on one side call for the help of Carthage. The other side gains support of Rome. First Punic War begins

262 BC

262 BC

262 Rome gains control of most of Sicily after laying siege to Agrigentum.

260 BC

260 BC

As the Romans were inexperienced at naval warfare, they were defeated in the Lipara Islands. At the Battle of Mylae the Romans gained a victory by outfitting their ships with hinged planks. This allowed them to make use of their excellent infanry in naval engagements.

256 BC

256 BC

Naval Battle of Cape Economus- Roman force lead by M.Atilius Regulus and L.Manlius defeat Carthaginians lead by Hamilcar Barca. Roman army invades Africa.

255 BC

255 BC

Battle of Tunes- Romans in Africa defeated.

254 BC

254 BC

Carthaginian Army returns to Sicily

251 BC

251 BC

Battle of Panormus- Roman victory

249 BC

249 BC

Battle of Drepanum- Carthaginian victory on land and sea.

247-242 BC

247 BC - 242 BC

Romans continue attacks on Sicily repulsed by Hamilcar.

242 BC

242 BC

Lilybaeum and Drepanum captured by the Romans

241 BC

241 BC

Battle of Aegates Islands- Carthaginian fleet defeated. The peace treaty forces Carthage to give up Sicily and to pay retribution money to Rome.

238 BC

238 BC

Carthage loses Sardinia to the Romans

225 BC

225 BC - 222 BC

The Gauls, having invaded italy as allies of Carthage, are pushed out by the Romans.

220's BC

220 BC

Corsica is taken by the Romans.

2nd Punic War

219 BC - 202 BC

219 BC

219 BC

Hannibal, Hamilcar's son, lays siege to the Spanish city of Saguntum. The city was a greek colony allied to Rome. This sparks the Second Punic War. Legions are sent to deal with Hannibal, but the Carthaginians escape.

218 BC

218 BC

Hannibal leads an army over the Pyrenees and the Alps into Italy. He brought 34 elephants with him, but only 7 survived the journey through the mountains.
November: Battle of Ticinus- Romans lead by consul Scipio defeated.
December: Battle of Trebia- Hannibal defeats Ti.Sempronius Longus and his Romans

217 BC

217 BC

April: Battle of Lake Trasimene- Carthaginians soundly beat the army of consul, C.Flaminius. Summer: Battle of Geronium- A draw.

216 BC

216 BC

August: The Battle of Cannae- Although being vastly superoior in numbers, the Romans under C. Terentius Varro suffer a terrible defeat. Roman city of Capua defects.
Battle of Nola- Hannibal repulsed.

215 BC

215 BC - 205 BC

Macedonia becomes allied with Carthage. First Macedonian War begins.

215 BC

215 BC

Second Battle of Nola. Hannibal is pushed back again.

214 BC

214 BC

Third Battle of Nora results in a stalemate.

213 BC

213 BC - 211 BC

M.Claudius Marcellus Roman legions lay siege to Syracuse and is victorious

212 BC

212 BC

Hannibal takes Tarentum, the largest port in Italy. Capua is put under siege by the Romans. At the battles of Capua and Herdonia the Paetorian amries are defeated.

211 BC

211 BC

Carthaginian forces defeat two roman armies, thus gaining control of all of Spain south of the Ebro. Hanibal marches on Rome without much sffect. In italy, Capua is retaken by the Romans

210 BC

210 BC

Battle of Herdonia- Hannibal destroys two Roman consular armies (roughly 3 legions each) At the Battle of Numistro the Romans are defeated again.

209 BC

209 BC

In Spain, Scipio Africanus captures new Carthage. Roman forces under M.Claudius Marcellus are defeated by Hannibal. Raerntum is retaken by Rome.

208 BC

208 BC

Hannibal's younger brother, Hasdrubal Barca is defeated by Scipio at the battle of Baecula.

207 BC

207 BC

Hasdrubal Barca crosses the Alps into Italy. Hannibal marches north to meet him. Before they could join, Hasdrubal's army is stopped at the Metaurus River and is defeated by the romans under M.Livius Salinator and C.Claudius Nero. Hasdrubal is killed and Hannibal flees south again.

206 BC

206 BC

Battle of Ilipa- Scipio Africanus defeats the Carthaginians commanded by Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisgo in Spain.

204 BC

204 BC

P.Cornelius Scipio Africanus lands troops in Africa.

203 BC

203 BC

Battle of the Great Palins- Two Carthaginian armies under Syphax (a Numidian) and Hasdrubal Gisgo are defeated. Hannibal manages to sneak his army out of Italy and arrives to the defend of Carthage.

202 BC

202 BC

Battle of Zama-After a failed elephant charge, Hannibal's army is completely defeated. Carthage surrenders. Rome requires the Carthaginians to give up Spain, the islands, North Africa, her navy, and her army.

149 BC

149 BC

Carthage had recovered economically from the penalties placed on her. Jealous of this, the Roman senate decided that Carthage had broken the reaty and the third Punic War was declared. A descendant of Scipio Africanus, Scipio Aemilianus blockades Carthage.

146 BC

146 BC

The walls of Carthage were breached and the starving defenders lead by M. or C. Vetilius were slaughtered. The city was burned to the ground and its civilians were sold into slavery.