Carthage founded by Phoenician colonists
The Carthaginian Empire streches across north Africa, the Belearic Islands, Sardinia, Corsica, and most of Scicily.
A dispute erupts in the Sicilian city of Messana. Scicilians on one side call for the help of Carthage. The other side gains support of Rome. First Punic War begins
262 Rome gains control of most of Sicily after laying siege to Agrigentum.
As the Romans were inexperienced at naval warfare, they were defeated in the Lipara Islands. At the Battle of Mylae the Romans gained a victory by outfitting their ships with hinged planks. This allowed them to make use of their excellent infanry in naval engagements.
Naval Battle of Cape Economus- Roman force lead by M.Atilius Regulus and L.Manlius defeat Carthaginians lead by Hamilcar Barca. Roman army invades Africa.
Battle of Tunes- Romans in Africa defeated.
Carthaginian Army returns to Sicily
Battle of Panormus- Roman victory
Battle of Drepanum- Carthaginian victory on land and sea.
Romans continue attacks on Sicily repulsed by Hamilcar.
Lilybaeum and Drepanum captured by the Romans
Battle of Aegates Islands- Carthaginian fleet defeated. The peace treaty forces Carthage to give up Sicily and to pay retribution money to Rome.
Carthage loses Sardinia to the Romans
The Gauls, having invaded italy as allies of Carthage, are pushed out by the Romans.
Corsica is taken by the Romans.
Hannibal, Hamilcar's son, lays siege to the Spanish city of Saguntum. The city was a greek colony allied to Rome. This sparks the Second Punic War. Legions are sent to deal with Hannibal, but the Carthaginians escape.
Hannibal leads an army over the Pyrenees and the Alps into Italy. He brought 34 elephants with him, but only 7 survived the journey through the mountains.
November: Battle of Ticinus- Romans lead by consul Scipio defeated.
December: Battle of Trebia- Hannibal defeats Ti.Sempronius Longus and his Romans
April: Battle of Lake Trasimene- Carthaginians soundly beat the army of consul, C.Flaminius. Summer: Battle of Geronium- A draw.
August: The Battle of Cannae- Although being vastly superoior in numbers, the Romans under C. Terentius Varro suffer a terrible defeat. Roman city of Capua defects.
Battle of Nola- Hannibal repulsed.
Macedonia becomes allied with Carthage. First Macedonian War begins.
Second Battle of Nola. Hannibal is pushed back again.
Third Battle of Nora results in a stalemate.
M.Claudius Marcellus Roman legions lay siege to Syracuse and is victorious
Hannibal takes Tarentum, the largest port in Italy. Capua is put under siege by the Romans. At the battles of Capua and Herdonia the Paetorian amries are defeated.
Carthaginian forces defeat two roman armies, thus gaining control of all of Spain south of the Ebro. Hanibal marches on Rome without much sffect. In italy, Capua is retaken by the Romans
Battle of Herdonia- Hannibal destroys two Roman consular armies (roughly 3 legions each) At the Battle of Numistro the Romans are defeated again.
In Spain, Scipio Africanus captures new Carthage. Roman forces under M.Claudius Marcellus are defeated by Hannibal. Raerntum is retaken by Rome.
Hannibal's younger brother, Hasdrubal Barca is defeated by Scipio at the battle of Baecula.
Hasdrubal Barca crosses the Alps into Italy. Hannibal marches north to meet him. Before they could join, Hasdrubal's army is stopped at the Metaurus River and is defeated by the romans under M.Livius Salinator and C.Claudius Nero. Hasdrubal is killed and Hannibal flees south again.
Battle of Ilipa- Scipio Africanus defeats the Carthaginians commanded by Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisgo in Spain.
P.Cornelius Scipio Africanus lands troops in Africa.
Battle of the Great Palins- Two Carthaginian armies under Syphax (a Numidian) and Hasdrubal Gisgo are defeated. Hannibal manages to sneak his army out of Italy and arrives to the defend of Carthage.
Battle of Zama-After a failed elephant charge, Hannibal's army is completely defeated. Carthage surrenders. Rome requires the Carthaginians to give up Spain, the islands, North Africa, her navy, and her army.
Carthage had recovered economically from the penalties placed on her. Jealous of this, the Roman senate decided that Carthage had broken the reaty and the third Punic War was declared. A descendant of Scipio Africanus, Scipio Aemilianus blockades Carthage.
The walls of Carthage were breached and the starving defenders lead by M. or C. Vetilius were slaughtered. The city was burned to the ground and its civilians were sold into slavery.