Untitled timeline

Political

Revolution in French Colonies

1797

Independence movements were taking place in the islands of the Caribbean, especially on Saint-Domingue where Toussaint L'Ouverture was a leader in getting equal rights for slaves. L'Ouverture wrote a letter to France trying to convince them to prevent slavery, and to uphold the slaves newfound liberty. Source: Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture, "A Black Revolutionary Leader in Haiti" in Sources pg 309

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

After Napoleon was exiled, the aristocratic monarchies who made up the Quadruple Alliance (Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain) convened to establish peace by setting measures to prevent future French aggression. They were lenient on the French, but still set up defensive measures against them. They also settled disputes between each other by taking, and giving up, territories. Source: "The Aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars" in McKay pg. 688

Second Treaty of Paris

1815

After Napoleon returned from exile and was defeated at Waterloo, the Second Treaty of Paris was signed forcing France to give up some territory and pay war reparations. King Louis XVIII returned to the throne in France. Source: "The Aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars" in McKay pg. 689

Holy Alliance

1815

Austria, Prussia, and Russia formed an alliance to stifle revolutionary movements and reforms, like what was happening in America and France. Due to their conservative ideologies, they wanted to prevent civil rights and freedoms, as well as stop pushes for national independence. Source: "Repressing the Revolutionary Spirit" in McKay pg. 692

The People's Charter

1838

The People's Charter was a list of demands presented to Britain's Parliament by the working-class for better voting rights. Since the working-class had little say in elections, this list represented a political movement to get the government to make changes. Source: "The People's Charter" in Sources pg. 349

Cultural

Success of Steam Engines

1788

James Watt and Matthew Boulton perfected the steam engine, and it drove the Industrial Revolution. The steam engine allowed for railroads to boom, and other forms of transportation. It was used to power many machines, allowing for the expanded growth of industrialization. Source: "The Steam Engine Breakthrough" in McKay pg. 660

Period of Romanticism

1790 - 1840

Romanticism contradicted much of the restraint that defined the Enlightenment period, yet intellectual diversity was a big part of it. It explored the intense emotions of art and life, while focusing a lot on the beauty of nature. It was characterized as a movement and a lifestyle, and reinforced the feelings of early nationalism. Source: "The Romantic Movement" in McKay pg. 701-703

Luddites destroying machines

1811

Industrialization brought new machinery that was replacing the jobs of people. Workers responded by destroying the machines that were taking their jobs. Edward Ludd claimed to be the first to destroy a machine, so the workers who did this adopted the name Luddites. Source: Ned Ludd, "Yorkshire Textile Workers Threaten a Factory Owner" in Sources pg. 324

Liberty Leading the People

1830

France was undergoing a revolution, as portrayed in this painting. People from different classes were fighting together, while the figure Marianne leads them towards the liberty and freedom that is France's future. Source: Eugene Delacroix, "Liberty Leading the People" in Sources pg. 349

Outcry against Child Labor

1842

It was traditional for children to begin working once they were capable of doing the work. However, factories during industrialization had children working in terrible conditions for many hours of the day. This image represents the focus that turned to child labor, and the outcry to prohibit it in factories. Source: "The Child of the Factory" in Sources pg. 330

Rights

Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen

1789

In response to fear that the nobility were going to prevent the Revolution, the National Assembly ended feudalism and laid out rules for how the government would operate to have a successful relationship with the citizens of France. In the Declaration, equal rights were established, as well as many other liberties. Source: National Assembly of France, "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen" in Sources pg. 298

The Napoleonic Code

1804

Using many of the reforms from the 1789 National Assembly, Napoleon established a new law code for France giving greater equality for men. However, it clearly discriminates between men and women, focusing on the authority of men over women. Source: Napoleon Bonaparte, "The Napoleonic Code" in Sources pg. 303

Slaves freed in British Territories

1833

A large part of the Industrial Revolution was attached to the world of slavery, since the slave trade allowed for the development of economies and the production of various goods. In 1833 though, the British Parliament freed all slaves in the British Territories; 26 years after abolishing the slave trade. Source: "The Impact of Slavery" in McKay pg. 684

The Mines Act

1842

This Act banned women, girls, and boys under ten from working underground in the coal mines. The extreme child labor illustrated by a drawing of a girl dragging a coal wagon through tunnels, surprised the public and led to support of The Mines Act. Source: "The New Sexual Division of Labor" in McKay pg. 678

Factory Rules in Berlin

1844

Factory workers had tough jobs with ridiculously strict rules. The owners of the factories imposed this strict discipline in order to maximize efficiency and profits. This is placed in the "rights" timeline because it shows how their was a lack of regulating work conditions, and it shows what the owners could get away with at the time. Source: "Factory Rules in Berlin" in Sources pg. 322