Germany Gives Blank Check to Austria-Hungary

July 6, 1914

Keiser Wilhelm II gives his unconditional support of Austria-Hungary, often called a "blank check." Austria declares war on Serbia after.

Source: 25-1 Chancellor Theobald Von Bethmann-Hollweg, "Telegram to the German Ambassador at Vienna" p. 403.

World War I

July 28, 1914 - November 11, 1918

Fought between the Central Powers and Allied Powers. Characterized by trench warfare, high death tolls, and poison gas attacks. Was also a "total war" where all resources and industry were militarized.

Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

Required Germany to take blame for starting the war as well as pay reparations. The treaty was criticized for not addressing economic restoration postwar.

Source: 26-3 John Maynard Keynes, "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" p. 427

Nuremberg Laws


Hitler's formal steps to achieving a Jew-free Germany.

Source: 27-6 The Nuremberg Laws: The Centerpiece of Nazi Racial Legislation. p. 450

World War II

September 1, 1939 - May 8, 1945

Fought between the Allies and the Axis Powers, after Germany invaded Poland. Allied victory against Japanese, German, and Italian aggression. Characterized by civilian attacks and use of nuclear weapons.

United Nations Formed

October 24, 1945

Formed due to the previous League of Nations failing to prevent WWII. Achieved universal recognition of human rights.


Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840


1916 - 1923

Artistic movement in the early 20th century made popular post WW1. It was essentially an anti-war movement where many works highlighted post-war social and economic issues.

The Roaring 20's

1920 - 1929

Age of the flapper, redefined womanhood, jazz, and promiscuity. Ended when the Great Depression hit in 1929.

Culture of Paranoia


Period in the Soviet Union where Joseph Stalin used extreme force in undermining any attempts at "sabotage" against his plan of turning Russia into an industrial state.

Source: 27-2 Vladimir Tchernavin, "I Speak for the Silent" p. 442.

Ministry of Enlightenment and Propaganda Established

1933 - 1945

Hitler believed in propaganda being understood by the masses and appealing to emotions. By using propaganda, he was able to build a strong following and military base.

Source: 27-3 Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf: The Art of Propaganda. p. 445

American Consumerism

1945 - 1968

Prevalent ideology after WWII which was seen as patriotic. Americans focused on buying products, starting families, and having children.


Universal Declaration of Human Rights

December 16, 1948

Adopted by the United Nations declaring that all humans have inherent rights. Direct cause of WWII.

African-American Civil Rights Movement

1954 - 1968

A movement to end segregation, discrimination, and gain full african american suffrage in the United States.

National Organization for Women Founded


Asked for the inclusion of women into society as equals with equal pay and rights.

Source: 29-4 Betty Friedan "Statement of Purpose of the National Organization for Women: Defining Full Equality" p. 481