History of the World

6 Eras

Early Complex Societies

8000 BCE - 500 BCE

Rise of India, China, Israel, Mesopotamia, Persia, Greece, Indus River Valley etc., technological and environmental transformations

Classical Era

500 BCE - 500 CE

Spread of Religion, Law, and Trade on Silk Road

Post-Classical Era

500 CE - 1492

Golden Age of East, Dark Ages of Europe, regional/transregional interactions

Early Modern Era

1492 - 1750

Globe becomes interconnected (Columbus, slavery etc.)

Age of Revolutions

1750 - 1914

Industrialization and Global integration, "Modern Era"

Globalization

1914 - Present

WW1 to modern day, "The Modern World", accelerating global change and realignments

Key Events

Neolithic Revolution

8000 BCE - 3000 BCE

Pastoralism and agriculture are introduced, domestication of animals, surplus (therefore social stratification etc.). irrigation, mining etc. Villages and eventually cities. AKA "Agricultural Revolution"

The Bronze Age

3500 BCE - 1200 BCE

As metallurgy spread, bronze became top used metal (copper + tin), ended with introduction of iron

The Iron Age

1200 BCE - 550 BCE

Persian Wars

499 BCE - 449 BCE

Greek city-states vs. Persians

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE - 401 BCE

Athens vs. Sparta

Punic Wars

264 BCE - 146

Carthage (N. Africa) vs. Rome

Silk Road

130 BCE - 1453

Woodblock printing

200

china, major innovation

Edict of Milan

313

Constantine legalizes Christianity

Battle of Makizert

1071

Crusades

1096 - 1270

Magna Carta

1215

Bubonic Plague

1347 - 1352

Black Death

Renaissance

1350 - 1600

started in Italy

Key People

Sargon

2370 BCE - 2315 BCE

Akkadian ruler

Hammurabi

1792 BCE - 1750 BCE

wrote first law code's in cuneiform (Sumerian), Babylonian king

Hatshepsut

1479 BCE - 1458 BCE

Women pharaoh during New Kingdom

Ramses II

1304 BCE - 1237 BCE

Egyptian pharaoh during New Kingdom

Nebuchadnezzer

634 BCE - 562 BCE

reestablished Babylon, exiled Jews from Jerusalem

Laozi

604 BCE - 531 BCE

founder daoism

Siddharta Gautama

563 BCE - 483 BCE

Buddha

Confucius

551 BCE - 479 BCE

AKA Kong Fuzi

Socrates

470 BCE - 399 BCE

Alexander the Great

356 BCE - 323 BCE

Ashoka

269 BCE - 231 BCE

Mauryan empire, converted to Buddhism

Wu Ti

156 BCE - 87 BCE

fierce Han warrior emperor

Jesus

4 BCE - 29 CE

Shapur I

239 - 272

Sassanid ruler

Constantine

272 - 337

legalized, then adopted Christianity in Byzantine

Justinian

527 - 565

Mohammed

570 - 632

Wu Zhao

624 - 705

female Tang empress

Charlemagne

748 - 814

Frankish king, Carolingian empire, Otto I formed the Holy Roman Empire

Ghengis Khan

1162 - 1227

Kublai Khan

1215 - 1294

Osman I

1280 - 1326

Mansa Musa

1280 - 1337

Tamerlane

1336 - 1405

Joan of Arc

1412 - 1431

Ivan the Terrible

1530 - 1584

Middle East (Southwest Asia)

Sumer

3500 BCE - 2350 BCE

first true civilization, Mesopotamia ("b/w the rivers"), developed cuneiform (first writing), polytheistic (temples = ziggurats)

Old Kingdom Egypt

2575 BCE - 2134 BCE

Egypt, built on Nile, declined through civil war. Developed hieroglyphics (wrote on papyrus)

Akkadians

2334 BCE - 2193 BCE

founded by Sargon, took over Sumer

Middle Kingdom Egypt

2040 BCE - 1640 BCE

Reunited Egypt, more culturally dynamic, defeated by Hyksos (armed with chariots, bows)

Hebrews

2000 BCE - Present

developed Judaism, settled Israel

Babylonians

1900 BCE - 1600 BCE

Mesopotamia, overtook Akkadians

Phoenicians

1550 BCE - 300 BCE

maritime, Lebanon, developed alphabet

New Kingdom Egypt

1532 BCE - 1070 BCE

Rebelled against Hyksos, reestablished Egyptian rule. Conquered vast areas including Nubian areas. Fell due to internal struggles and external invasions

Hittites

1300 BCE - 1200 BCE

Mesopotamia, good with iron, chariots, overtook Babylonians

Assyrians

911 BCE - 612 BCE

Mesopotamia, conquered using force

Achaemenid Empire

550 BCE - 330 BCE

Persia, rulers--> Cyrus then Darius, "Royal Road", 23 satrapies/provinces, fell through Persian wars vs. Greeks, Alexander, conquered Lydians (invented coinage) etc.

Seleucid Empire

323 BCE - 83 BCE

after Alexander conquered Persia, split his empire into three this was one

Parthians

247 BCE - 224 CE

persian dynasty, took over selucid (alexander), mixed persian and greek culture

Sassanid Empire

224 - 651

Persia, toppled Parthians

Sunni/Shiite Split

656 - 661

Umayyad Caliphate

661 - 750

Islam

Abbasid Caliphate

750 - 1250

Battle of Talas

751

Abbasid vs. Tang

Ottoman Empire

1299 - 1923

Safavid

1501 - 1736

Mughal

1526 - 1857

North America

American Revoution

1765 - 1783

Latin America

Olmecs

1400 BCE - 400 BCE

Mesoamerica and Mexico, can be compared to Sumer (both "mother nations" in region, script undeciphered, DID NOT rely on water source like other civilizations, (large stone heads) art represents culture and religion etc., polytheistic, human sacrafice

Chavin

1000 BCE - 300 BCE

Mysterious but very popular South American civilization, Andean, record keeping called quipu using knots, no script, no major river, llama, modern Peru, elaborate textiles

Teotihuacan

100 BCE - 750 CE

city-state near modern Mexico city, population of 200,000 , oligarchy, agriculture (chinampas/"floating islands" intensive farming, fell b/c of revolts

Moche

200 - 700

present day Peru, south, Andes mountains, used quipu, lived in clans called ayllu, used mita system (compelled by warrior priests, kind of like serfdom), nice textiles and ceramics

Maya

250 - 900

mesoamerican, comprised of about 40 city-states, Chichen Itza, polytheistic etc. advanced writing for time/place, zero, calendar (2012), unknown why they fell

Columbus Arrives

1492

Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1920

Cuban Revolution

1959

Europe

Minoans/Mycenaeans

2000 BCE - 1500 BCE

Island of Crete, influenced Greeks, worshiped bull,

Ancient Greek

1150 BCE - 800 BCE

Archaic Age of Greece

800 BCE - 500 BCE

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 27 BCE

civil war conflict etc. caused it to fall apart, politics (consuls, republic) faltered

Classical Greece

500 BCE - 323 BCE

ends with Alexander

Hellenistic Greek

323 BCE - 146 BCE

Roman Empire

27 BCE - 476

Augustus led as monarch after Caesar assassinated., senate still there but emperor more powerful. Pax Romana (golden age till 200's. Fell due to epidemic, bad emperors, etc. split into two (Byzantine and Western), rome (West) sacked in 476

Byzantine Empire

330 - 1453

Eastern Roman Empire,

Reconquista

718 - 1482

Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1806

Otto I, caesaropapism, after Charlemagne

Great Schism

1054

split of Christianity

Norman Conquest

1066

Magna Carta

1215

Golden Horde

1240 - 1502

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

England Vs. France

30 Year War

1618 - 1648

China (East Asia)

Shang Dynasty

1600 BCE - 1046 BCE

followed Xia (if they existed), China, along Huang He/Yellow River and Yangzi, used chariots (cultural diffusion), traded extensively, silk monopoly, pictographs as writing form, ancestor veneration,

Zhou dynasty

1046 BCE - 221 BCE

Rebelled against Shang, ruled through feudalism, crumbled internally leading to "Warring States" period, preserved Shang culture, iron, bureaucracy, Mandate of Heaven

Warring States Period

480 BCE - 221 BCE

China, civil strife during Zhou

Qin Dynasty

221 BCE - 206 BCE

unified north and south China for first time (no more feudal of warring states), favored Legalism under founder Shi Huangdi, harsh, Great Wall of China, fell b/c of peasant revolts

Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

built on Qin, expanded China (tributary system), repelled nomads -- Xiongnu -- with superior tech (crossbow, cavalry), Confucianism, collapsed due to internal and external (disease, nomads etc.) causes

Sui dynasty

589 - 618

reunified China (after Han), Yang Jian claimed Mandate of Heaven, great construction efforts (The Grand Canal)

Tang dynasty

618 - 907

followed the Sui, made china powerful, , still centralized, equal-feild system redistributed land, bureaucracy based on merit

Song dynasty

960 - 1279

after Tang, not such a strong dynasty even though it was long, civil service exams at peak (started with Han), fell to Mongols b/c of military and financial problems

Yuan dynasty

1279 - 1368

Mongol rule in china

Ming dynasty

1368 - 1644

Qing dynasty

1644 - 1912

Taiping Rebellion

1851 - 1864

Boxer Rebellion

1899

Rape of Nanjing

1937 - 1938

South Asia (India)

Indus Valley Civilization

2600 BCE - 1900 BCE

In modern day Pakistan, major cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, river flooded regularly, written language not deciphered, traded with Mesopotamia, how it ended is unclear

Aryans

1500 BCE - 700 BCE

Indo-European (migrating pastoralists) group, invaded modern India around 1500 BCE

Mauryan dynasty

322 BCE - 185 BCE

South Asia, Ashoka (grandson of Chandragupta Maurya) converted to Buddhism, capital - Pataliputra, pillars of Ashoka, fell from external forces

Gupta Empire

320 - 550

first ruler Chandra Gupta, imitated Mauryan, decimal system, zero, pi etc. developed. sati, 25 % tax, Hindu, fell by hands of White Huns

Delhi Sultanate

1206 - 1520

Sepoy Mutiny

1857

Southeast Asia

Central Asia

Africa

Nubia

3000 BCE - 1500 BCE

South of Egypt, along Nile, important tradewise

Bantu migrations

1500 BCE - 1000

migrating pastoralists, migrated down Niger River, spread throughout sub-Saharan Africa, influential linguistically

Ghana

400 - 1200

West Africa

Mali

1230 - 1600

West Africa

Boer War

1899 - 1902

Oceania

East Asia (except China)

Taika Reforms

645

Tokugawa Shogunate

1603 - 1868