Morrill Act/Hatch Act


Gave generous land grants to states for education, leading to state universities. And provided funds for establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land grant colleges.

First Transcontinental Railroad


Authorized during the civil war when the southern part of congress was absent. It linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west.

Panic of 1873

1873 - 1879

Over-speculation. In a boom of railroads, mines, farms, and factories, the market couldn't handle all the companies. Banks made loans, but the companies couldn't profit enough.

Gold Standard Act


Signed by McKinley. Said that all paper money must be backed by gold ONLY. Eliminated silver coins in circulation. The government had to hold large gold reserves.


Compromise of 1877


Settled the presidential election deadlock between Hayes and Tilden.
Hayes takes office, but military reconstruction ends in the south, allowing for Jim Crow Laws.

Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act


Started during the Chester Arthur administration. In response to growing corruption of government officials and the basis upon which people were appointed to office, this act stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit. The Act created the United States Civil Service Commission to enforce it.

Dawes Severalty Act


Dismantled American Indian Tribes, set up 160 acres per family or 80 acres per individual. Tried to assimilate the Indian population into white culture. Many Indians refused to settle and own a boundary of land.

Billion Dollar Congress

1889 - 1891

It's legislation was expensive: Increased civil war pensions, passed the McKinley Tariff, Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Forest Reserve Act, Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act.

Civil Rights

Grandfather Clause


Part of the voting registration laws, allowing people to vote is they or their ancestors voted before 1867, even if they did not meet registration requirements. Was a way to keep blacks from voting and make sure whites can.

Chinese Exclusion Act


Vetoed by President Hayes, but later signed by President Arthur. It barred nearly all Chinese from immigration for 60 years.

American Protective Organization


Anti-Catholic and anti-foriegner secret society. Made large accusations and propaganda against Roman Catholics and other groups to urge against voting for them.

Plessy v. Ferguson


Supreme Court case about Jim Crow laws. The Court decided that it was constitutional to have "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites.


Knights of Labor

1869 - 1887

Large national labor union led by Terence Powderly. The Knights promoted the status of the workingman, rejected Socialism, and demanded the eight-hour day.

Haymarket Square Riot


A May Day rally turned into a violent riot when someone threw a bomb into the crowd, killing both citizens and police. 8 anarchists were arrested for conspiracy.

American Federation of Labor


Allowed only SKILLED workers to be members, and focused only on wages, hours, and working conditions. Had NO radical or extreme intentions.

Wounded Knee Massacre


In fear of the Ghost Dance, a group of christian reformists brought troops with them to an Indian tribe while they tried to convert them. A gun went off and troops stormed the reservation.