ARC 150 State-Level Societies Timeline

Mesopotamia

Chalcolithic - use of chopper as a major trend

6,500 BC - 4,200 BC

Ubaid culture - Large sites like Eridu have massive temples

5,900 BC - 4,200 BC

Uruk culture - constructed two large temples Eanna and Anu

4,200 BC - 3,000 BC

Bronze Age - appearance of Royal Burials (e.g. Tombs of Ur)

3300 BC - 1200 BC

Sumerian culture - Ur becomes largest city, supports outside farmers

3100 BC - 2334 BC

Akkadian culture - Ruler of Kish, Sargon overthrows Uruk

2334 BC - 2230 BC

Babylonian culture - Code of Hammurabai, first complete written laws

2004 BC - 1595 BC

Hittite culture - Hattusa, capital city of Hittites

1650 BC - 1200 BC

Iron Age - Iron replaces bronze as more powerful/ plentiful source of metal

1200 BC - 550 BC

Phoenician culture - Invented an alphabet (basis of modern English)

1000 BC - 700 BC

Assyrian culture - 671 BC Assyrians conquer Egypt

911 BC - 612 BC

Neo-Babylonian culture - Captured Ninevah through King Nebuchadnezzar

612 BC - 539 BC

Indus Valley/Harappan Culture

Early Indus Period - Citadels on elevated platforms built in Rahman Dehri

3500 BC - 2600 BC

Mature Indus Period - Large communities knocked down/burned then rebuilt

2600 BC - 1900 BC

Mediterranean

Minoan Culture - Palace of Minos at Knossos built by 1930 BC

3200 BC - 1400 BC

Pre-palatial Period - Cultivation of cereal along with olives and vines

3200 BC - 2100 BC

First/ Old Palace Period - 1700 BC first royal residence destroyed by earthquake

2100 BC - 1700 BC

Second/ New Palace Period - volcanic explosion devastated Santorini in 1650 BC

1700 BC - 1400 BC

Mycenaean culture - By 1380 BC Mycenaean's take control of Knossos

1600 BC - 1050 BC

Egyptian Culture

Pre-Dynastic Period (0) - 3050 BC King Narmer was first ruler to unify Egypt

4500 BC - 2920 BC

Early Dynastic Period (1-2) - Appearance of royal palaces, state control

2950 BC - 2580 BC

Old Kingdom (3-6) - Snefru commissioned construction of Red Pyramid

2580 BC - 2134 BC

First Intermediate Period (7-11) - Thebes built at end of political strife

2134 BC - 2040 BC

Middle Kingdom (11-13) - Mentuhotep reunified Egypt

2040 BC - 1640 BC

Second Intermediate Period (14-17) - Egypt split, Hyksos take Lower Egypt

1640 BC - 1550 BC

New Kingdom (18-20) - 1550 BC Anmose comes to power, drives out Hyksos

1550 BC - 1070 BC

Third Intermediate Period (21-24) - 24th Dynasty influenced by Mesopotamia

1070 BC - 730 BC

Late Period (25-31) - Nubian King, Piye sacks Thebes, takes control of Egypt

730 BC - 332 BC

Chinese Culture

Xia Dynasty - Erlitou largest city in Dynasty, lacked a city wall

2000 BC - 1500 BC

Shang Dynasty - Founded by Tang who erected city Po (perhaps Zhengzhou)

1750 BC - 1027 BC

Zhou Dynasty - Move capital further east to Luoyang, violence increases

1100 BC - 221 BC

Lowland Mesoamerica

Olmec culture - Best known for iconography and artwork (e.g. Were-Jaguar)

1500 BC - 500 BC

Maya culture - Woven-mat motif documents Maya elites as earlier as 400 BC

1000 BC - 1520 AD

Pre-Classic Period - Cuello, a Maya ceremonial center, earliest evidence of Maya

1000 BC - 200 AD

Classic Period - Earliest recorded monarch, Yax Ch'aketl Xok reigned by AD 200

200 AD - 900 AD

Post-Classic Period - With collapse of Tikal, Chichen Itza came to power

900 AD - 1520 AD

Highland Mesoamerica

Monte Alban culture - Largest site in Valley of Oaxaca during this period

800 BC - 700 AD

Teotihuacan culture - At least 80,000 people lived in the city by AD 100

200 BC - 750 AD

Toltec culture - Ruler Topiltzin Quetzalcotl moved Toltec capital to Tollan

650 AD - 1200 AD

Aztec culture - Founded twin capitals Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco after 1325 AD

1200 AD - 1521 AD

South America

Initial Period - Saw development of coastal and highland societies in Andean

1800 BC - 900 BC

Early Horizon - Chavin de Huantar, four-stage artificial mountain for rituals

900 BC - 200 BC

Moche Culture - Known for their warrior-priests who drank war captive's blood

200 BC - 700 AD

Early Intermediate Period - Period known for the Moche culture

200 AD - 600 AD

Tiwanaku culture - By 450 AD Tiwanaku was a major population center

600 AD - 1000 AD

Middle Horizon - Beginnings of monumental building at Tiwanaku

600 AD - 1000 AD

Wari culture - Expert traders who expanded their influence through conquest

600 AD - 1000 AD

Late Intermediate Period - 1375 AD Chimu state overthrew Sican

700 AD - 1460 AD

Chimu culture - Chan Chan, complex of walled compounds foucs of Chimu

1100 AD - 1460 AD

Inca culture - 1438 AD warrior Cusi Inca Yupanqui was crowned Inca

1438 AD - 1534 AD

Late Horizon - shortest period encompassing the glory of Inca Empire

1476 AD - 1534 AD