1908-1968

Rights

Britain’s Parliament passes the Eligibility of Women Act

November 21, 1918

Many women's suffrage movements proved successful following World War I because of the vital role women played during the war. This was the first time women were eligible to be voted into Parliament. Many European countries, and the United States of America, granted women suffrage in the years after World War I. Source: Women's Suffrage Movement, http://www.historynet.com/womens-suffrage-movement.

Simone de Beauvoir publishes The Second Sex: Existential Feminism

1949

Simone de Beauvoir was part of a new wave of feminists who wanted full inclusion in society for women. Most women had been granted suffrage, but this did not translate to social equality. Women still could not live a good and financially comfortable life independent of a man. Source: The Second Sex: Existential Feminism in Sources reader, page 552.

Alexander Dubček attempts to reform communism in Czechoslovakia

April 5, 1968

During this period of time, known as the Prague Spring, Alexander Dubček attempted to give communism a "human face," by removing censorship and reducing its totalitarian reach. The Soviet Union quickly shut down the Prague Spring, proving unwilling to tolerate any loosening of totalitarian government on Warsaw Pact countries. Source: Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia, http://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/soviet-invasion-czechoslavkia.

Cultural

Einstein develops his theory of General Relativity

1915

Ten years after publishing his theory of Special Relativity, showing Newton's Laws of Motion to be only approximate (breaking down near the speed of light), Einstein's theory of General Relativity also questions Newton's previous findings. This time, Newton's Law of Gravitation is found to break down near very strong gravitational fields. Source: Albert Einstein and the Theory of Relativity, http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/einstein.html.

Marcel Duchamp submits "Fountain" under the alias "R. Mutt"

1917

Duchamp submits one of his readymades to the Society of Independent Artists under an alias. Despite being on the committee, his piece is rejected, and "R. Mutt" publicly responds in the newspaper. Source: Marcel Duchamp - Biography, http://www.egs.edu/library/marcel-duchamp/biography/.

Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf: The Art of Propaganda

1924

Adolf Hilter dictated his autobiography while in prison for a failed coup attempt in 1923. He argued Germany was defeated not by the Allied armies, but by their more effective propaganda. Hitler later established the Ministry for Enlightenment and Propaganda as one of his first acts as chancellor. Source: Mein Kampf: The Art of Propaganda in Sources reader, page 523.

Pond's Vanishing and Cold Creams publishes the ad British Beauty

1926

The early 20th century was marked by an increasing emphasis on mass marketing and beauty. Urbanization led to an increased pace of life and a greater importance of first impressions. Source: British Beauty in Sources reader, page 508.

Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his speech, "I Have a Dream," at Lincoln Memorial

August 28, 1963

Martin Luther King, Jr. advocated for the full freedom of blacks living in America. One hundred years after the emancipation of slaves, blacks were still not free, and Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech exemplified the burning desire for equality for minorities in America and Europe. Source: "I Have a Dream," http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm.

Political

Germany pledges Austria-Hungary support in their actions against Serbia

July 6, 1914

Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany sent a telegram to the German ambassador at Vienna, which became known as the "blank check." This telegram pledged Germany's unconditional support of Austria-Hungary in whatever action they took against Serbia. Source: Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg in Sources reader, page 465.

Germany signs Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

Created without their input, Germany was reluctant to sign the Treaty of Versailles. However, by June of 1919, the German army had been entirely demobilized, and civilian starvation and death led them to accept the terms of the Allies and sign the treaty. Source: A Defeated Germany Contemplates the Peace Treaty in Sources reader, page 487.

Nuremberg Laws take effect in Germany

September 15, 1935

These laws were the first legal restrictions placed on German Jews by the Nazi regime, and the first step in eliminating Jews from Aryan society. Source: The Nuremberg Laws: The Centerpiece of Nazi Racial Legislation in Sources reader, page 525.

United Nations is formed to maintain peace after World War II

October 24, 1945

After the failure of the League of Nations to prevent another war, the United Nations was formed in order to prevent future escalation into world war. Source: History of the United Nations, http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/history/.

George C. Marshall proposes a plan to rebuild Europe

June 5, 1947

The Marshall Plan proposed spending billions to rebuild Europe and prevent another war. The plan was rejected by communist Eastern European countries, including the Soviet Union, for fear that the plan would reduce Soviet control. Source: George C. Marshall in Sources reader, page 533.