Pan-European Security

Main

Atlantic Charter

14 august 1941

-no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people; restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; reduction of trade restrictions; global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all; freedom from fear and want; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations.
-in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, the Allies of World War II pledged adherence to this charter's principles.
-it set goals for the post-war world and inspired many of the international agreements that shaped the world thereafter.
-the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the post-war independence of European colonies, and much more are derived from the Atlantic Charter.

Teheran Conference

28 november 1943 - 1 december 1943

Truman - president

1945 - 1953

Yalta Conference

4 february 1945 - 11 february 1945

1st atomic test in U.S.

July 1945

Potsdam Conference

17 july 1945 - 2 august 1945

Churchill iron curtain speech

5 march 1946

Economic Warfare

1947 - 1967

Denial of all goods that might be adapted for weapons (from U.S. to S.U.)
+ list of emargoed goods by Western Europe

Voice of America

1947

Truman doctrine speech

12 march 1947

Marshal Plan announced

5 june 1947

Europen Recovery Program (ERP) lasted 4 years

NATO

4 april 1949 - 04/16/2014

Radio Free Europe

1950

National Security Council Report (NSC-68)

14 april 1950

Containment policy as a priority for U.S.
Rollback policy

Korean war

25 june 1950 - 27 july 1953

Psychological Strategy Board

april 1951

for the spread and propaganda - undercutting Soviet power in Eastern Europe

Eisenhower - president

20 january 1953 - 20 january 1961
  • Easing trade restictions
  • he was sceptical about agressive rollback (also because it was costly)
  • after EaGerman uprising and its suppression by soviet - it shattered the notion of agressive rollback
  • instead, supported growth of nationalist sentiments

Suez crisis

29 october 1956 - 7 november 1956

Vietnam war

December 1956 - 30 april 1979

Decision to Bomb North Vietnam in feb 1965

Charles de Gaulle

23 november 1959

"Yes, it is Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals, it is the whole of Europe, that will decide the destiny of the world"
His vision stood in contrast to the Atlanticism of the United States and Britain, preferring instead a Europe that would act as a third pole between the United States and the Soviet Union. By including in his ideal of Europe all the territory up to the Urals, de Gaulle was implicitly offering détente to the Soviets.

Non-Aligned Movement

1961

Kennedy

20 january 1961 - 22 november 1963

Bay of Pigs

April 1961

Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT)

5 august 1963

US, UK, SU
in order to contain Germany and China

Johnson-President

22 november 1963 - 20 january 1969

1966-68 > detentr policy

Chinese detonated first nuclear bomb

1964

1966 - tested a ballistic missile

Nuclear non-proliferation Treaty

1968

Negotiations were opened by SU and US
In force from 1970

Ostpolitik

1969 - 1974

Willy Brandt in W.Germany
accepted borders of Polan and EaGermany
1.accepting the status quo of powers
2.removed soviet argument about german danger
3.improved Ea-W relations
-W.Germany remains since that time in a cooperative framework with East
-made CSCE and Helsinki process - possible
(when Soviet accepted the US role in Europe and W.Germans accepted the status quo > foundation for all-European security conference)
-NATO and the West(Fr.) were afraid of W.Germany moving eastwards, they tried to connect W.Germany by all means to the West.

Nixon - President

20 january 1969 - 9 august 1974

with Kissinger
to disentangle from Vietnam
China card - to split the communist block
Underestimating local circumstances of 3rd World
Tend to slow down the presence in 3rd World

Treaty of Warsaw

7 december 1970

accepted the existing border—the Oder-Neisse line, imposed on Germany by the Allied powers at the 1945 Potsdam Conference

Abolition of Breton-Woods system

1971

(no more $ conversation into gold)
-because i was a big inflation
-this step allowed to export inflation into Europe (Fr. was furious)

So fear was created in Europe that US will not lead a free world

SALT 1

26 may 1972

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
Nixon & Brezhnev

Four Power Agreement on Berlin

3 june 1972

accepting the status quo

Recognition between two Germanys

21 December 1972

Oil crisis

1973

Yom Kippur crisis

1973

part of Arab-Israel conflicts
-Both US and SU didn't want to allow each other's presence in the Middle East
-one of the highest tensions of the Cold War

Ford

9 august 1974 - 20 january 1977

Carter - President

20 january 1977 - 20 january 1981

-undercut secretive diplomacy practiced by Nixon and Kissinger
-appointed anti-communist Brzezinski as a national security adviser
-an extreme supporter of human rights

USA's "China card"

1978

???

NATO decided to deploy missiles in W.Eu.

12 december 1979

SU - Afghanistan on the same day

Reagan - President

20 january 1981 - 20 january 1989

-anti-communist "crusade"
-largest defense buildup since Korean War
-1st application to religion - SU as "emperial evil"
-much more assertive foreign policy - to help everybody against communism (support Afgan., Kambogia, Nikaragua, Ethiopia)
-Huge investmet, adding 35% of exp. in military, now with a clear enemy
-Deployment of missiles into Europe
-launching SDI, this idea was never abandoned, now it is not "national" but missile defense because it spreads for Europe.
-charismatic leader
1983 - peak of tensions

Deployment of intermediate range nuclear missiles in W.Eu.

1983

SU as "an evil empire"

8 march 1983

Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)

23 march 1983

"Star wars"
-space-based missile defense program that could protect the country from a large-scale nuclear attack
-violation of the 1972 Antiballistic Missile
-SU might feel forced to attack before the US could complete the system

NATO military exercises in W.Eu.

2 november 1983 - 11 november 1983

Hightened alert of Warsaw Pact forces, as Soviet observers believed it might be a real thing

Reagan's Peace Speech

16 january 1984

Crucial shift in rethoric.
He called for constructive cooperation, to avoid war and reduce lvls of arms

Thatcher about Gorbachev

17 december 1984

I like Mr Gorbachev. We can do business together
(in interview to BBC)

Geneva Summit

november 1985

-Rea&Gor improvement of relations
-only 6 moths after Chernenko's death (before the internal leadership situation could not effectively "react" on Reagan's shift towards)

Washington Consensus

1989

-the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries
-policies in such areas as macroeconomic stabilization, economic opening with respect to both trade and investment, and the expansion of market forces within the domestic economy.

Bush - President

20 january 1989 - 20 january 1993

-Uruguay round of GATT > WTO
-NAFTA negotiations

Poland elections

june 1989

Showed opposite to Marxist theory - possibility of a peaceful transition from one system to another

Tiananmen Square (China)

4 june 1989

brutal use of force

Hungary opened borders with Austria

10 september 1989

It opened a way for EaGerman refugees

made the Berlin Wall pointless 2 months before it was opened up

Asia-Pacific Economic cooperation (APEC)

november 1989

Kohl's 10 point plan

28 November 1989

thought they will be lucku to achieve unification "with 5 or 10 years", but it was very fast, as germans were highly willing to unite

Bush&Gorb - Germany q-n

june 1990

Bush convinced G. to agree that unined Germany should decide for itself in which alliance she would like to participate
In return - Bush sighned an agreement eliminating most of the Cold War restrictions on the Soviet trade

Reunification of Germany

3 october 1990

Same day - member of NATO
Reagan reassured Gorbachev that NATO itself would not go further
Without US backing the unification of Germany would not appear

Clinton - President

20 january 1993 - 20 january 2001

Somalia, Bosnia, Haiti (?)
More forceful in supportin democracy-seeking states fighting from a communict Yugoslav federation (in contrast to Bush)

NAFTA

1 january 1994

agreement officially came into force
North American Free Trade Agreement

GATT transformed into WTO

1 january 1995

with Russia
WTO marked a major step in establishing a judicial basis for international trade law

Responsibility to protect (R2P)

2001

As an emerging norm that sovereignty is not a right, but that states must protect their populations from mass atrocity crimes—namely genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and ethnic cleansing.
-state has a responsibility to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and ethnic cleansing.
-the international community has a responsibility to assist the state to fulfill its primary responsibility.
-if the state manifestly fails to protect its citizens from the four above mass atrocities and peaceful measures have failed, the international community has the responsibility to intervene through coercive measures such as economic sanctions. Military intervention is considered the last resort.
-R2P is a norm and not a law
-International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) report in 2001
-Criticisms: ‘humanitarian interventions’, which often conceal the true strategic motives

USSR policy

Percentages agreement

october 1944

Zhdanov "Two camps policy"

september 1947

Insisted on mimicing the CP of the SU

COMINFORM

september 1947 - april 1956

As a response to Marshall Plan

Communists got full control in CPs of EaEu

1948

Social democratic parties were forcibly merged with Communist Parties

Coup in Czechoslovakia

25 february 1948

Orchestrated by SU
Spurred Republican Congress to pass the legislation to implement the Marshal plan

Berlin blockade

24 june 1948 - 12 may 1949

Tito-Stalin split

28 june 1948

COMECON (CMEA)

5 january 1949 - 28 june 1991

As an alternative to European Economic Community (EEC)

Atomic bomb by S.U.

August 1949

Stalin&Mao Pact

January 1950

Stalin's death

march 1953

Berlin uprising

June 1953

Khrushcev

13 september 1953 - 14 october 1964

Warsaw Pact (WTO)

14 may 1955 - 1 july 1991

Qualitative change - multilateral regular meetings were established

Austrian State Treaty

15 may 1955

Neutrality and end of four-power occupation

20th Congress - Khr on Peaceful Coexistence

february 1956
  • different roads to socialism

Khruschev's secret speech

25 february 1956

Hungarian revolution

23 october 1956 - 10 november 1956

Kadar instead of Nagy

Berlin wall

August 1961

Cuban missile crisis

14 october 1962 - 28 october 1962

creation of "hot line"
final acceptance of spheres of influence

Grain harvest disappointment

1963

SU started to buy grain from capitalists

Brezhnev

14 october 1964 - 10 november 1982

-Strategic parity with US achieved in early 70's > arms-control agreements from a "position of strength"
-60's-70's crusial for 3rd world - independency
-In 3rd World - shift from economic to military aid (zero sum game in the end)
-70's economic growth rates bagan to decline in Communist camp (lag in technology also)
-In Afganistan, Soviet military, economic and technological shortcomings bacame evident

Invasion of Czechoslovakia

20 august 1968 - 20 september 1968

As a Warsaw Pact forces

Border clashes at Damansky Island

1969

1966 chenese launched Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

Non-agression pact with W.Germany

12 august 1970

The Moscow Treaty

Soviet-Indian Treaty of Friendship

August 1971

Helsinki Agreement

1 august 1975

Invasion of Afghanistan

12 december 1979

Gorbacev

11 march 1985 - 24 august 1991

-"young" politician, education in law, not from periphery
-rejected the use of forse
-wanted to change within SU framework
-economic reforms
-was deeply influenced by invasion of Cz-Sl.
-Czech reformer,Zdenek Mlynar-students with Gorbachev at MGU in 50-55
-"European home" as a rethoric, shared values.

Chernobyl crisis

1986

Doctrine of "universal human values"

1986

Gorbacev's shift from the Doctrine of "class struggle"
on 27th Party Congress

Rea&Gor meeting in Reykjavik

october 1986

-Opened an unprecedented discussion of complete nuclear disarmament
-events after this reflected choices not about whether to end the C.War, but about how to end it

Intermed.RangeNuc.ForcesTreaty(INF)

8 december 1987

US&SU - eliminated the medium.range missiles in Europe (entire class of weapons)(that had contributed so much to Ea-We tension since the late 70's)

Gorbachev at UN-troops withdrawal

7 december 1988

-international relations should be free from ideology (shift from ideological struggle to common values of humanity)
-cut 500k soldiers from Soviet Army
-reduce of 50k men and 5k tanks from EaEu

Domestic pressures

1989 - 1991

Tbilisi 9 april 1989
Baku 19 january 1990
13 january 1991 Vilnius
These military crackdowns increased nationalist fervor in Soviet Republics. More radical and popular within Georgia,Azerb,Lith.

Sinatra Doctrine

25 october 1989

stated by Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadi Gerasimov on american tv programe

Supreme Soviet of Russia

1990 - october 1993

-it was a permanent parliament
-was abolished in October 1993 (after the events of Russia's 1993 constitutional crisis) and replaced by the Federal Assembly of Russia (consists of the Federation Council of Russia and State Duma), whose powers are weaker than Supreme Soviet ones
-abolition made russian diplomacy to act more independently in international relations without parliamentary control

Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE)

november 1990

eliminated many of the military structures that had long devided Ea&W

Malta Summit

december 1990

-US&SU It laid the foundation to significant cut in the conventional forces in Europe
-"race to disarm"

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START1)

1991

reduced nucler arcenal:
-american 25%
-soviet 30%

1st elections

12 june 1991

59% to Yelzin

Coup Attempt

19 august 1991 - 21 AUGUST 1991

failed because of popular opposition on the streets as well as within military + Yelzin resistance

RF

25 december 1991

9 former republics of the USSR admitted to the UN

1992

Russian constitutional crisis

12 december 1993

Yeltsin managed to push through his new constitution, creating a strong presidency and giving the president sweeping powers to issue decrees
-The premier, for example, is appointed, and in effect freely dismissed, by the president
-Adoption of rethoric of nationalism

Yugoslavia

Constitution amandments

april 1990

created, like in russia, conditions for rule by one person - president
in 1992 - another constitution

1st free elections in Serbia

december 1990

Serbia was the last among former republics to have free elections

Croatian War of Independence

31 March 1991 - 2 November 1995

Slovenian&Croatian declaration of independence

25 June 1991

Ten-Day War

27 June 1991 - 7 July 1991

between the Slovenian Territorial Defence and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA)

Brioni Agreement

7 July 1991
  • required the JNA and the TDS to return to their bases -Slovene officials were to control Slovenia's borders alone -both Slovenia and Croatia were to suspend all activities stemming from their declarations of independence for three months -set European Community Monitor Mission (ECMM) tasked with monitoring the disengagement of the JNA and the TDS in Slovenia, and ultimately the withdrawal of the JNA from Slovenia -established the EC's interest in the region -Agreement isolated Marković who tried to preserve the federation, but was ignored by van den Broek who appeared not to comprehend issues presented before him, and the EC delegation tacitly encouraged the dissolution of Yugoslavia -In the end, the EC took credit for a rapid resolution of the armed conflict in Slovenia without realising that its diplomatic efforts had little to do with the situation on the ground

Macedonian declaration of independence

8 september 1991

Same day of referendum

Recognition of Croatia

15 January 1992

By European Economic Community
United Nations did so in May 1992
Recognition started by Ukraine and Latvia, then germany - in december 1991

United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)

february 1992 - march 1995

US agreed to participate in it

Bosnian gov. referendum

1 march 1992

Declaration of independence (?)
Recognition (?)

US recognition of Sloven,Croat and Bosnian

7 april 1992

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

27 april 1992 - 3 june 2006

-Serbia and Montenegro
-gained UN membership on 2 November 2000

US forces deployed to Bosnia

July 1993

In december additional forces were added to UN peace-keeping

Somali fiasco

september 1993

-american soldiers were killed and wounded
-made clear that American ground troop deployments were virtually impossible in Bosnia, it ensured that no serious UN pease-keeping force could be fielded to support an overall Bosnian settlement
-White House turned its attention to problems closer to home: Haiti, Cuba, Mexico and domestic politics

Dayton Agreement

14 December 1995

acceptance of war results

Milošević president of FRY

23 July 1997 - 5 October 2000

before he was a President of Serbia (11 January 1991 – 23 July 1997)
-he needed to find new legitimation of power - nationalism
-he abolished autonomy of Kosovo&Vojevodina
-was willing to keep Yugo united

NATO bombing of Yugoslavia

24 march 1999 - 10 june 1999

-during the Kosovo War
-the operation was not authorised by the United Nations and was the first time that NATO used military force without the approval of the UN Security Council and against a sovereign nation that did not pose a threat to members of the alliance

Montenegro's declaration of independence

3 June 2006

Serbia's declaration of independence

5 June 2006