-no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people; restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; reduction of trade restrictions; global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all; freedom from fear and want; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations.
-in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, the Allies of World War II pledged adherence to this charter's principles.
-it set goals for the post-war world and inspired many of the international agreements that shaped the world thereafter.
-the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the post-war independence of European colonies, and much more are derived from the Atlantic Charter.
Denial of all goods that might be adapted for weapons (from U.S. to S.U.)
+ list of emargoed goods by Western Europe
Europen Recovery Program (ERP) lasted 4 years
Containment policy as a priority for U.S.
for the spread and propaganda - undercutting Soviet power in Eastern Europe
Decision to Bomb North Vietnam in feb 1965
"Yes, it is Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals, it is the whole of Europe, that will decide the destiny of the world"
His vision stood in contrast to the Atlanticism of the United States and Britain, preferring instead a Europe that would act as a third pole between the United States and the Soviet Union. By including in his ideal of Europe all the territory up to the Urals, de Gaulle was implicitly offering détente to the Soviets.
US, UK, SU
in order to contain Germany and China
1966-68 > detentr policy
1966 - tested a ballistic missile
Negotiations were opened by SU and US
In force from 1970
Willy Brandt in W.Germany
accepted borders of Polan and EaGermany
1.accepting the status quo of powers
2.removed soviet argument about german danger
3.improved Ea-W relations
-W.Germany remains since that time in a cooperative framework with East
-made CSCE and Helsinki process - possible
(when Soviet accepted the US role in Europe and W.Germans accepted the status quo > foundation for all-European security conference)
-NATO and the West(Fr.) were afraid of W.Germany moving eastwards, they tried to connect W.Germany by all means to the West.
to disentangle from Vietnam
China card - to split the communist block
Underestimating local circumstances of 3rd World
Tend to slow down the presence in 3rd World
accepted the existing border—the Oder-Neisse line, imposed on Germany by the Allied powers at the 1945 Potsdam Conference
(no more $ conversation into gold)
-because i was a big inflation
-this step allowed to export inflation into Europe (Fr. was furious)
So fear was created in Europe that US will not lead a free world
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
Nixon & Brezhnev
accepting the status quo
part of Arab-Israel conflicts
-Both US and SU didn't want to allow each other's presence in the Middle East
-one of the highest tensions of the Cold War
-undercut secretive diplomacy practiced by Nixon and Kissinger
-appointed anti-communist Brzezinski as a national security adviser
-an extreme supporter of human rights
SU - Afghanistan on the same day
-largest defense buildup since Korean War
-1st application to religion - SU as "emperial evil"
-much more assertive foreign policy - to help everybody against communism (support Afgan., Kambogia, Nikaragua, Ethiopia)
-Huge investmet, adding 35% of exp. in military, now with a clear enemy
-Deployment of missiles into Europe
-launching SDI, this idea was never abandoned, now it is not "national" but missile defense because it spreads for Europe.
1983 - peak of tensions
-space-based missile defense program that could protect the country from a large-scale nuclear attack
-violation of the 1972 Antiballistic Missile
-SU might feel forced to attack before the US could complete the system
Hightened alert of Warsaw Pact forces, as Soviet observers believed it might be a real thing
Crucial shift in rethoric.
He called for constructive cooperation, to avoid war and reduce lvls of arms
I like Mr Gorbachev. We can do business together
(in interview to BBC)
-Rea&Gor improvement of relations
-only 6 moths after Chernenko's death (before the internal leadership situation could not effectively "react" on Reagan's shift towards)
-the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries
-policies in such areas as macroeconomic stabilization, economic opening with respect to both trade and investment, and the expansion of market forces within the domestic economy.
-Uruguay round of GATT > WTO
Showed opposite to Marxist theory - possibility of a peaceful transition from one system to another
brutal use of force
It opened a way for EaGerman refugees
made the Berlin Wall pointless 2 months before it was opened up
thought they will be lucku to achieve unification "with 5 or 10 years", but it was very fast, as germans were highly willing to unite
Bush convinced G. to agree that unined Germany should decide for itself in which alliance she would like to participate
In return - Bush sighned an agreement eliminating most of the Cold War restrictions on the Soviet trade
Same day - member of NATO
Reagan reassured Gorbachev that NATO itself would not go further
Without US backing the unification of Germany would not appear
Somalia, Bosnia, Haiti (?)
More forceful in supportin democracy-seeking states fighting from a communict Yugoslav federation (in contrast to Bush)
agreement officially came into force
North American Free Trade Agreement
WTO marked a major step in establishing a judicial basis for international trade law
As an emerging norm that sovereignty is not a right, but that states must protect their populations from mass atrocity crimes—namely genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and ethnic cleansing.
-state has a responsibility to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and ethnic cleansing.
-the international community has a responsibility to assist the state to fulfill its primary responsibility.
-if the state manifestly fails to protect its citizens from the four above mass atrocities and peaceful measures have failed, the international community has the responsibility to intervene through coercive measures such as economic sanctions. Military intervention is considered the last resort.
-R2P is a norm and not a law
-International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) report in 2001
-Criticisms: ‘humanitarian interventions’, which often conceal the true strategic motives
Insisted on mimicing the CP of the SU
As a response to Marshall Plan
Social democratic parties were forcibly merged with Communist Parties
Orchestrated by SU
Spurred Republican Congress to pass the legislation to implement the Marshal plan
As an alternative to European Economic Community (EEC)
Qualitative change - multilateral regular meetings were established
Neutrality and end of four-power occupation
Kadar instead of Nagy
creation of "hot line"
final acceptance of spheres of influence
SU started to buy grain from capitalists
-Strategic parity with US achieved in early 70's > arms-control agreements from a "position of strength"
-60's-70's crusial for 3rd world - independency
-In 3rd World - shift from economic to military aid (zero sum game in the end)
-70's economic growth rates bagan to decline in Communist camp (lag in technology also)
-In Afganistan, Soviet military, economic and technological shortcomings bacame evident
As a Warsaw Pact forces
1966 chenese launched Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
The Moscow Treaty
-"young" politician, education in law, not from periphery
-rejected the use of forse
-wanted to change within SU framework
-was deeply influenced by invasion of Cz-Sl.
-Czech reformer,Zdenek Mlynar-students with Gorbachev at MGU in 50-55
-"European home" as a rethoric, shared values.
Gorbacev's shift from the Doctrine of "class struggle"
on 27th Party Congress
-Opened an unprecedented discussion of complete nuclear disarmament
-events after this reflected choices not about whether to end the C.War, but about how to end it
US&SU - eliminated the medium.range missiles in Europe (entire class of weapons)(that had contributed so much to Ea-We tension since the late 70's)
-international relations should be free from ideology (shift from ideological struggle to common values of humanity)
-cut 500k soldiers from Soviet Army
-reduce of 50k men and 5k tanks from EaEu
Tbilisi 9 april 1989
Baku 19 january 1990
13 january 1991 Vilnius
These military crackdowns increased nationalist fervor in Soviet Republics. More radical and popular within Georgia,Azerb,Lith.
stated by Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadi Gerasimov on american tv programe
-it was a permanent parliament
-was abolished in October 1993 (after the events of Russia's 1993 constitutional crisis) and replaced by the Federal Assembly of Russia (consists of the Federation Council of Russia and State Duma), whose powers are weaker than Supreme Soviet ones
-abolition made russian diplomacy to act more independently in international relations without parliamentary control
eliminated many of the military structures that had long devided Ea&W
-US&SU It laid the foundation to significant cut in the conventional forces in Europe
-"race to disarm"
reduced nucler arcenal:
59% to Yelzin
failed because of popular opposition on the streets as well as within military + Yelzin resistance
Yeltsin managed to push through his new constitution, creating a strong presidency and giving the president sweeping powers to issue decrees
-The premier, for example, is appointed, and in effect freely dismissed, by the president
-Adoption of rethoric of nationalism
created, like in russia, conditions for rule by one person - president
in 1992 - another constitution
Serbia was the last among former republics to have free elections
between the Slovenian Territorial Defence and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA)
Same day of referendum
By European Economic Community
United Nations did so in May 1992
Recognition started by Ukraine and Latvia, then germany - in december 1991
US agreed to participate in it
Declaration of independence (?)
-Serbia and Montenegro
-gained UN membership on 2 November 2000
In december additional forces were added to UN peace-keeping
-american soldiers were killed and wounded
-made clear that American ground troop deployments were virtually impossible in Bosnia, it ensured that no serious UN pease-keeping force could be fielded to support an overall Bosnian settlement
-White House turned its attention to problems closer to home: Haiti, Cuba, Mexico and domestic politics
acceptance of war results
before he was a President of Serbia (11 January 1991 – 23 July 1997)
-he needed to find new legitimation of power - nationalism
-he abolished autonomy of Kosovo&Vojevodina
-was willing to keep Yugo united
-during the Kosovo War
-the operation was not authorised by the United Nations and was the first time that NATO used military force without the approval of the UN Security Council and against a sovereign nation that did not pose a threat to members of the alliance