Timeline of various court acts and laws pertaining to the events covered in ES 112.
African slavery first introduced to US
White women could be whipped or enslaved for marrying African or Indian
Non-whites, even if free and property owning, could not vote
Nine black students denied access to white school they were enrolled in. National Guard ordered to come in and protect students, they stayed all year.
Students bused to schools outside neighborhood district to increase diversity levels.
legal protection and regulations reduced, cuts in federal social spending
Population grew by 48%
In California alone, grew by 1/3 to 3.7 million
Individual and collective benefits. Healing services, language revitalization etc
Sarah Roberts tried to enroll in white only school. Verdict was all should stand equal before the law
California Supreme Court extended existing statements denying Indians, Negroes and Mulattos from testifying in any court case involving a white person to Chinese
Blacks born in the US should be considered citizens and be allowed to vote. US Supreme Court denied on stance that US founders never intended non-whites to be included in "rights for all men"
Women not allowed to practice law, considered to be in the "domestic sphere"
Women should be allowed to vote because they are US citizens, court denied on stance that the 14th Amendment applied only to men
Native Americans should be able to vote because they were naturally born in the US, court denied.
Segregation is okay, everything must be separate but equal. Louisiana.
Legal language treated the white man's reputation of superiority as property and that blacks were trespassing on it. Blacks have no reputation.
Certified black teacher was paid less than lowest white employee. Case won.
Cousins in Mexican family couldn't attend same school because of "whiteness." Case won. California governor (Earl Warren) extended designation to Asians and Native Americans.
Blacks couldn't get into law school, schools not equal in "separate but equal" stance because there was no black only law school
Segregating black and white students in unhelpful towards their education and development (blacks need exposure to whites since court law is mostly white)
Not allowed to separate black students that are accepted to a white college
Collection of 5 cases relating to bus/transportation of black students to schools or the quality of the black schools. Earl Warren appointed Chief Justice half way through and create unanimous agreement to end segregation. Brown II states it must be done with "all deliberate speed"
Susan Guillroy Phipps vs the Louisiana Vital Records Bureau: Wanted to claim her race as "white" instead of "black" but was denied because 1/32 black. Hypo-descent (white or not white, no in between, Marvin Harris) and "one-drop rule"
Chinese man was beat to death because two men thought he was Japanese and were jealous of the Japanese auto industry. The two men were fined but ultimately served no jail time despite clear evidence of murder
Case for all persons abused by boarding schools. Case was dismissed.
"all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness"
Assimilation of Natives to white culture and Christian life. Established the 1824 Bureau of Indian Affairs
All Native Americans forcibly moved to lands west of the Mississippi (mostly Oklahoma area).
Includes the Trail of Tears during which 3-4K Cherokee Indians died. Andrew Jackson was President during this time.
State Laws (ex. North Carolina) prohibited teaching slaves to read or write.
First time in US
Emancipation Proclamation declared all slaves in rebelling states and areas during the Civil War free.
End of all slavery in the US
Anyone born in the US is considered a US citizen and will have all rights promised to them
Black men allowed to vote
Combined with 14th Amendment to generate equal protection for blacks and prohibit exclusion.
Mostly symbolic, found unconstitutional by denying private rights of all citizens
First off reservation boarding school, government funded. Founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt whose motto was "kill the indian, save the man."
Chinese could not legally come to the US for work opportunities only
Tribes are considered independent entities (tribal sovereignty), but still must be tried by white government for crimes (other than a few specific cases). Similar "white superiority" language used as with black slavery. Natives are wards of the US gov, can't own the land.
Native Americans given status as US citizens
Despite religious freedom and harm being done only to the individual performing, practices like the Native American Sun Dance are outlawed
Children required to go to school (hope was to separate from their culture). Started school at 6 years old, forcibly removed and parents jailed if there was resistance.
Women allowed to vote
Based off the Meriam Report from 1928, John Collier argued for social reform.
All but 8 off reservation boarding schools closed down.
Due to WWII, 112K Japanese American citizens (70K of which were US citizens) were "relocated" from the West Coast.
Civilian Exclusion Orders No. 34 (curfew) and No. 9066 (relocation)
Provided monetary compensation to Natives, no land return, deducted boarding school costs
No discrimination based on color, sex, religion, or origin. Did not protect against police brutality or private employment discrimination however
No discrimination against women or mentally challenged.
Given $20K each for internment issue. Mostly symbolic gesture.