Ethnic Studies Timeline

Timeline of various court acts and laws pertaining to the events covered in ES 112.

Main/Other

African Slavery In US

1526

African slavery first introduced to US

No Interracial Marriage

1691

White women could be whipped or enslaved for marrying African or Indian

Voting Rights Denied

1723

Non-whites, even if free and property owning, could not vote

Civil War

1861 - 1865

World War I

1914 - 1918

World War II

1939 - 1945

Little Rock Nine

1957

Nine black students denied access to white school they were enrolled in. National Guard ordered to come in and protect students, they stayed all year.

Busing Program

1970 - 1990

Students bused to schools outside neighborhood district to increase diversity levels.

Deregulation by Regan

1980

legal protection and regulations reduced, cuts in federal social spending

Asian American Population Growth

1990 - 2000

Population grew by 48%
In California alone, grew by 1/3 to 3.7 million

Boarding School Healing Project

2000

Individual and collective benefits. Healing services, language revitalization etc

Economic Recession Starts

2008

Court Cases

Roberts v City of Boston

1849 - 1850

Sarah Roberts tried to enroll in white only school. Verdict was all should stand equal before the law

People v Hall

1854

California Supreme Court extended existing statements denying Indians, Negroes and Mulattos from testifying in any court case involving a white person to Chinese

Dred Scott v Sandford

1857

Blacks born in the US should be considered citizens and be allowed to vote. US Supreme Court denied on stance that US founders never intended non-whites to be included in "rights for all men"

Bradwell v Illinois

1873

Women not allowed to practice law, considered to be in the "domestic sphere"

Minor v Happersett

1874

Women should be allowed to vote because they are US citizens, court denied on stance that the 14th Amendment applied only to men

Elk v Wilkins

1884

Native Americans should be able to vote because they were naturally born in the US, court denied.

Plessy v Fergusen

1896

Segregation is okay, everything must be separate but equal. Louisiana.
Legal language treated the white man's reputation of superiority as property and that blacks were trespassing on it. Blacks have no reputation.

Alston v Norforlk

1940

Certified black teacher was paid less than lowest white employee. Case won.

Mendez v Westminster

1947

Cousins in Mexican family couldn't attend same school because of "whiteness." Case won. California governor (Earl Warren) extended designation to Asians and Native Americans.

Sipuel v University of Oklahoma

1948

Blacks couldn't get into law school, schools not equal in "separate but equal" stance because there was no black only law school

Sweatt v Painter

1950

Segregating black and white students in unhelpful towards their education and development (blacks need exposure to whites since court law is mostly white)

McLaurin v Oklahoma

1950

Not allowed to separate black students that are accepted to a white college

Brown v Board of Education

1952 - 1955

Collection of 5 cases relating to bus/transportation of black students to schools or the quality of the black schools. Earl Warren appointed Chief Justice half way through and create unanimous agreement to end segregation. Brown II states it must be done with "all deliberate speed"

Susie G Phipps vs Louisiana

1982 - 1983

Susan Guillroy Phipps vs the Louisiana Vital Records Bureau: Wanted to claim her race as "white" instead of "black" but was denied because 1/32 black. Hypo-descent (white or not white, no in between, Marvin Harris) and "one-drop rule"

Vincent Chin

1982

Chinese man was beat to death because two men thought he was Japanese and were jealous of the Japanese auto industry. The two men were fined but ultimately served no jail time despite clear evidence of murder

Zephier v United States

2003 - 2004

Case for all persons abused by boarding schools. Case was dismissed.

Laws and Acts

Declaration of Independence

07/04/1776

"all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness"

Civilization Fund Act

1819

Assimilation of Natives to white culture and Christian life. Established the 1824 Bureau of Indian Affairs

Indian Removal Act

1830 - 1838

All Native Americans forcibly moved to lands west of the Mississippi (mostly Oklahoma area).
Includes the Trail of Tears during which 3-4K Cherokee Indians died. Andrew Jackson was President during this time.

Anti Teaching State Laws

1830

State Laws (ex. North Carolina) prohibited teaching slaves to read or write.

Indian Removal Act

1830

Massachusettes Bans Segregated Schools

1855

First time in US

Emancipation Proclamation

1862

Emancipation Proclamation declared all slaves in rebelling states and areas during the Civil War free.

Thirteenth Amendment

1865

End of all slavery in the US

Fourteenth Amendment

1868

Anyone born in the US is considered a US citizen and will have all rights promised to them

Fifteenth Amendment

1870

Black men allowed to vote

Civil Rights Act

1875 - 1883

Combined with 14th Amendment to generate equal protection for blacks and prohibit exclusion.
Mostly symbolic, found unconstitutional by denying private rights of all citizens

Carlisle Indian School

1879

First off reservation boarding school, government funded. Founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt whose motto was "kill the indian, save the man."

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882 - 1940

Chinese could not legally come to the US for work opportunities only

Marshall Trilogy Update

1883

Tribes are considered independent entities (tribal sovereignty), but still must be tried by white government for crimes (other than a few specific cases). Similar "white superiority" language used as with black slavery. Natives are wards of the US gov, can't own the land.

General Allotment Act

1887

Dawes Act

1887

Native Americans given status as US citizens

Sun Dance Outlawed

1892

Despite religious freedom and harm being done only to the individual performing, practices like the Native American Sun Dance are outlawed

Mandatory Indian Education

1893

Children required to go to school (hope was to separate from their culture). Started school at 6 years old, forcibly removed and parents jailed if there was resistance.

Nineteenth Amendment

1920

Women allowed to vote

Indian Reorganization Act

1934

Based off the Meriam Report from 1928, John Collier argued for social reform.

Indian Schools Closed

1935

All but 8 off reservation boarding schools closed down.

Japanese Internment

1940 - 1950

Due to WWII, 112K Japanese American citizens (70K of which were US citizens) were "relocated" from the West Coast.
Civilian Exclusion Orders No. 34 (curfew) and No. 9066 (relocation)

US Indians Claims Commision

1946

Provided monetary compensation to Natives, no land return, deducted boarding school costs

Civil Rights Act

1963

No discrimination based on color, sex, religion, or origin. Did not protect against police brutality or private employment discrimination however

1/32 Black Blood State Law

1970

Title IX

1972

No discrimination against women or mentally challenged.

Japanese Americans Reparation

1999

Given $20K each for internment issue. Mostly symbolic gesture.