White women could be whipped or enslaved for marrying African or Indian
Voting Rights Denied
Non-whites, even if free and property owning, could not vote
1861 - 1865
World War I
1914 - 1918
World War II
1939 - 1945
Little Rock Nine
Nine black students denied access to white school they were enrolled in. National Guard ordered to come in and protect students, they stayed all year.
1970 - 1990
Students bused to schools outside neighborhood district to increase diversity levels.
Deregulation by Regan
legal protection and regulations reduced, cuts in federal social spending
Asian American Population Growth
1990 - 2000
Population grew by 48%
In California alone, grew by 1/3 to 3.7 million
Boarding School Healing Project
Individual and collective benefits. Healing services, language revitalization etc
Economic Recession Starts
Roberts v City of Boston
1849 - 1850
Sarah Roberts tried to enroll in white only school. Verdict was all should stand equal before the law
People v Hall
California Supreme Court extended existing statements denying Indians, Negroes and Mulattos from testifying in any court case involving a white person to Chinese
Dred Scott v Sandford
Blacks born in the US should be considered citizens and be allowed to vote. US Supreme Court denied on stance that US founders never intended non-whites to be included in "rights for all men"
Bradwell v Illinois
Women not allowed to practice law, considered to be in the "domestic sphere"
Minor v Happersett
Women should be allowed to vote because they are US citizens, court denied on stance that the 14th Amendment applied only to men
Elk v Wilkins
Native Americans should be able to vote because they were naturally born in the US, court denied.
Plessy v Fergusen
Segregation is okay, everything must be separate but equal. Louisiana.
Legal language treated the white man's reputation of superiority as property and that blacks were trespassing on it. Blacks have no reputation.
Alston v Norforlk
Certified black teacher was paid less than lowest white employee. Case won.
Mendez v Westminster
Cousins in Mexican family couldn't attend same school because of "whiteness." Case won. California governor (Earl Warren) extended designation to Asians and Native Americans.
Sipuel v University of Oklahoma
Blacks couldn't get into law school, schools not equal in "separate but equal" stance because there was no black only law school
McLaurin v Oklahoma
Not allowed to separate black students that are accepted to a white college
Sweatt v Painter
Segregating black and white students in unhelpful towards their education and development (blacks need exposure to whites since court law is mostly white)
Brown v Board of Education
1952 - 1955
Collection of 5 cases relating to bus/transportation of black students to schools or the quality of the black schools. Earl Warren appointed Chief Justice half way through and create unanimous agreement to end segregation. Brown II states it must be done with "all deliberate speed"
Susie G Phipps vs Louisiana
1982 - 1983
Susan Guillroy Phipps vs the Louisiana Vital Records Bureau: Wanted to claim her race as "white" instead of "black" but was denied because 1/32 black. Hypo-descent (white or not white, no in between, Marvin Harris) and "one-drop rule"
Chinese man was beat to death because two men thought he was Japanese and were jealous of the Japanese auto industry. The two men were fined but ultimately served no jail time despite clear evidence of murder
Zephier v United States
2003 - 2004
Case for all persons abused by boarding schools. Case was dismissed.
Laws and Acts
Declaration of Independence
"all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness"
Civilization Fund Act
Assimilation of Natives to white culture and Christian life. Established the 1824 Bureau of Indian Affairs
Anti Teaching State Laws
State Laws (ex. North Carolina) prohibited teaching slaves to read or write.
Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act
1830 - 1838
All Native Americans forcibly moved to lands west of the Mississippi (mostly Oklahoma area).
Includes the Trail of Tears during which 3-4K Cherokee Indians died. Andrew Jackson was President during this time.
Massachusettes Bans Segregated Schools
First time in US
Emancipation Proclamation declared all slaves in rebelling states and areas during the Civil War free.
End of all slavery in the US
Anyone born in the US is considered a US citizen and will have all rights promised to them
Black men allowed to vote
Civil Rights Act
1875 - 1883
Combined with 14th Amendment to generate equal protection for blacks and prohibit exclusion.
Mostly symbolic, found unconstitutional by denying private rights of all citizens
Carlisle Indian School
First off reservation boarding school, government funded. Founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt whose motto was "kill the indian, save the man."
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 - 1940
Chinese could not legally come to the US for work opportunities only
Marshall Trilogy Update
Tribes are considered independent entities (tribal sovereignty), but still must be tried by white government for crimes (other than a few specific cases). Similar "white superiority" language used as with black slavery. Natives are wards of the US gov, can't own the land.
Native Americans given status as US citizens
General Allotment Act
Sun Dance Outlawed
Despite religious freedom and harm being done only to the individual performing, practices like the Native American Sun Dance are outlawed
Mandatory Indian Education
Children required to go to school (hope was to separate from their culture). Started school at 6 years old, forcibly removed and parents jailed if there was resistance.
Women allowed to vote
Indian Reorganization Act
Based off the Meriam Report from 1928, John Collier argued for social reform.
Indian Schools Closed
All but 8 off reservation boarding schools closed down.
1940 - 1950
Due to WWII, 112K Japanese American citizens (70K of which were US citizens) were "relocated" from the West Coast.
Civilian Exclusion Orders No. 34 (curfew) and No. 9066 (relocation)
US Indians Claims Commision
Provided monetary compensation to Natives, no land return, deducted boarding school costs
Civil Rights Act
No discrimination based on color, sex, religion, or origin. Did not protect against police brutality or private employment discrimination however
1/32 Black Blood State Law
No discrimination against women or mentally challenged.
Japanese Americans Reparation
Given $20K each for internment issue. Mostly symbolic gesture.