The English Civil War

English Civil War

Magna Carta

June 15 1215

Sealed by King John under oath at Runnymede, on the River Thames in England. The rules of England at the time. Everyone obeyed the Magna Carta.

Queen Elizabeth I

November 17 1558 - March 24 1603

Queen Elizabeth died about forty years before the English Civil War. When she died, her cousin had taken the throne in 1603, James I of England.

Elizabeth I of England

Oliver Cromwell

April 25 1599 - September 3 1658

Oliver Cromwell was a political leader and later a Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Oliver Cromwell

James I was King of England

1603 - 1625

His royalty was very important in this time period. James became King of England after his first cousin died, Elizabeth.

Divine Right of Kings


The Divine right of kings became the substitute for the Magna Carta in 1603. James I was a strong believer in the Divine right of Kings.

Charles I was king

1625 - 1649

Second son of James. Charles believed in the Divine Right of Kings.

Charles married Henrietta

June 13 1625

This was a problem because she was a Catholic nobody appreciated the marriage.

New Parliament


The King assembled a new, successful Parliament. The elected members included Oliver Cromwell and Edward Coke.

Oliver Cromwell

Thirty-Nine Articles


Charles restored the Thirty-Nine Articles in the Church of England and people were worried that he had become more Catholic.

Three Resolutions

March 1629

1.That they would condemn any move to change religion.
2. That they would condemn any taxation levied without Parliament's authority.
3. That any merchant who paid 'illegal' taxes betrayed the liberty of England.
Charles dismissed Parliament.

MPs arrested

March 1629

Charles arrested nine members of Commons for offences against the state. Three were imprisoned.

William Laud

August 1633

Charles appointed William as Archbishop of Canterbury, which was another scare about Catholic.

William Laud

Laud's views


John Bastwick, Henry Burton and William Prynne got their ears cut off for creating pamphlets against Laud's views.

The Pillory - Where the three men got cropped. Although this is not the exact one, there was one like this at the time.

Book of Common Prayer

February 1638

Charles demanded Book of Common Prayer used in the Scottish Kirk.

Book of Common Prayer in London - 1689

Bishops War

1639 - 1640

King Charles joined to end rebellion.

Treaty of Ripon

October 26 1640

The Treaty of Ripon was a treaty between Scotland and England. It allowed the Scots to stay in Durham and Northumberland until settlement was concluded.

House of Commons


Accompanied by 400 soldiers, Charles attempted to arrest five members of the House of Commons on a charge of treason.

House of Commons

Charles on the move

January 1642

A few days after Charles was unable to arrest 5 members of the House of Commons, he left the London area worried about the safety of his family, decided to move North.

Battle of Marston Moor

June 1644

This was the largest battle of the Civil War involving 45,000 soldiers. The Royalists were outnumbered but they decided to fight anyway. They were defeated by Parliament.

Battle of Naseby

June 14 1645

The battle was decisive in the first Civil War.King Charles I and his army was destroyed by the Parliamentarians new army commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell.

Battle of Worcester

1651 - 1652

This was the final battle in the English Civil war. 2,8000 soldiers from the Cromwell's forces were very strong surprising the Royalists.

Cromwell's death


Oliver Cromwell died of natural causes (Malaria and stone) but 2 years after he had died, on January 30 1661 his body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey. Hung in chains at Tyburn then thrown into a pit. His severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster hall until 1685.