Andes

Periods

Initial Period

2500 BC - 1800 BC

Sedentary Villages (i.e. Huaca Prieta), cotton weaving and dyes, wave of monumental construction, highlands and coast are distinct societies.

Early Horizon

900 BC - 600 bc

New vision of world, kotosh, possibly long period of unstability

Early intermediate period

200 bc - 600 ce

Middle Horizon

600 ce - 1000 ce

Late intermediate

700 ce - 1476

Late horizon

1476 - 1534

Kindoms and States

Caral Kingdom

2600 bc - 1500 bc

Complex society 5000ya. Platform mounds. Becomes large kingdom. Focus on large scale irrigation (cotton, gourds). Small and powerful elites. Largest for its time and earliest pre-industrial society in Americas.

Moche State

200 bc - 600 ce

Sican

700 ce - 1375

Chimu

1375 - 1460

Inca

1460 - 1534

Sites

Huaca de Los Idolos

3055 bc

Ceremonial centre, Platform mounds.

Paracas

2000 bc

Textiles (earliest date to 4500 BC), Mummies, 190 colours with blue and red most popular. Becomes finer after 2000 BC. Weaving done with backstrap loom.

Huaricoto

2000 bc - 200 bc

Similar to Chavin de Huantar

El Pariso

1800 BC

Start as interacting chiefdom, established trade routes, saddle many environments, first u-shaped platforms, only ceremonial, village society built, kotosh, channeled water (important).

Huaca Florida

1700 bc

Start as interacting chiefdom, established trade routes, saddle many environments, u-shaped platforms, only ceremonial, village society built, kotosh, channeled water (important).

Chavin de Hauntar

1500 Bc

Distinctive art, widespread. Lanzon (jaguar-like human), focus on transformations. Early horizon society.

Chirapa

1400 bc - 100 ce

Sechin Alto

1400 bc

Residential surround ceremonial centre, little ifor social ranking, leadership not hereditary, kin groups had their own shrines.

Pukara

400 bc - 100 ce

Tiwanaku

450 ce - 1200 ce

Wari

800 ce - 900 ce

Rulers

Viricocha Inca

1400

Cusi Inca Yupanqui

1438

Topa Inca

1471 - 1493

Wayna Capac

1493 - 1534