Spanish expand across New World, taking control, killing natives, converting to Christianity etc...
Spanish settlement into the New World
England's first settlement in America at Roanoke (Now North Carolina). Led by Sir Walter Raleigh.
Puritans persecuted in England, move to Holland first then settle for New World later.
British settlement at Jamestown. First since Roanoke. Almost had the same fate until help from Captain John Smith. His ruling led to starvation and he wound up getting removed.
First permanent French Settlement in New World.
The natives thought this would ease tensions with the colonists. Didn't work out too well in the long run.
Settled in N.A. and called it New Amsterdam and New Netherland. In 1664 it became a British colony and was renamed New York after the Duke of York.
This gave 50 acres of land to any settler or potential colonist.
First use of slaves by the English.
Any white, property-holding male could now vote. Established by Virginia.
First Puritans settle at Plymouth. Additionally, Mayflower Compact was signed (Established a basic legal system)
Bigger colony established by Puritans who wanted to reform church from within. This led to the Great Puritan Migration.
First proprietorship. First written constitution in British North America - Fundamental Orders. Other colonies that followed were: Maryland, New York and New Jersey.
Pequot Indians weren't content with English expansion. They attacked English, they attacked back. Short war ensued.
Protected the religious freedom of most Christians. Still led to a Civil War in Maryland for the rest of the century.
England regulated trade and the government as little as possible due to the distance. Colonies were self-governing for the most part. Beginnings of American culture and a fledgling economy.
Colonists could only buy goods from England. English control over colonial commerce.
Colonists tried to blot out Native American life with English culture and religion.
To prevent white on white conflicts, Nathaniel Bacon led former and current indentured servants to attack the Doeg and Susquehannock tribes.
William Penn wanted to treat the Natives more fairly. Had mixed results.
To regulate colonial commerce.
Military-style courts to try the violation of the Navigation Acts.
Many people accused of being witches. Caused mass hysteria. (think: Crucible)
from 250,000 to 1,250,000. Many immigrants such as Scotch-Irish, Scots, and Germans
Split into North and South Carolina
Age of religious revivalism
First and most successful slave rebellion.
A.K.A. French and Indian War. War for empire between French and British. Indians sided with the French.
The plan provided for an inter-colonial government and a system for collecting taxes. The plan was rejected because they didn't want to united under one colonial legislature and they didn't want to lose control of self-taxation.
In response to the growing British expansion, Indian chief of war, Pontiac, led tribes to attack outposts in the Ohio Valley.
Forbade settlement west of the rivers running through the Appalachians. It didn't work too well and led to the agitation of colonial settlers. It was seen as unwarranted British interference in colonial affairs.
Forbade colonies to issue paper money.
Stricter enforcement so that smugglers were less able to evade taxation. Colonist's saw Parliament as overstepping it's authority and violating their rights as Englishmen.
Tax aimed at raising revenue, broad-based tax covering all legal documents and licenses. Also, it was a tax on goods produced within the colonies.
Protests groups that formed after the recent Acts placed.
Asserted the British government's right to tax and legislate.
Letter that was asked to be sent to all assemblies asking that they protest the new measures in unison.
British soldiers fired at rowdy colonists which got interpreted as unprovoked killing. Led to big propaganda campaigns.
Set up to convince colonists to take an active interest in the conflict. Also to inform people of the political mood.
Destruction of 10,000 pounds worth of tea in protest to the newly imposed taxes.
Series of Acts passed in response to the Tea Party.
All colonies except for Georgia were there. They developed a strategy to address their grievances and decided to boycott British goods. Also agreed to set up a Continental Association and set up committees of observation in towns.
Collected taxes, disrupted court sessions, organized militias and stockpiled weapons.
Granted greater liberties to Catholics and extended the boundaries of the Quebec Territory. - Didn't make colonists happy.
British trying to confiscate the colonists' weapons. Led to shots being fired. "The shot heard 'round the world"
Congress prepared for a war by building the Continental Army, printing money and creating government offices to supervise policy.
Last-ditch attempt to avoid armed conflict. King George denied it with his own reasons.
Thomas Paine's way to advocate colonial independence and argued the merits of republicanism over monarchy.
Written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the United States of America a country. Turned the Revolutionary War into a war for independence.
New technology being invented primarily from hand made to industrially made.
First national constitutions. Little to no central government, National government could not tax or regulate trade.
Farmers who pretested a number of unfair policies, both economic and political. Sign that revolution wasn't completely over. Showed that Articles were quite powerless to stop such rebellions.
Contained a bill of rights guaranteeing trial by jury, freedom of religion, and freedom from excessive punishment. Abolished slavery in Northwest territories. Additional conditions for applying for statehood.
Blended the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. Now a bicameral legislature and the Constitution.
A slave only counts as 3/5 of a person
Not many people attended. Alexander Hamilton wanted to make some changes to the Articles of Confederation.
Congress approved of this meeting and it eventually became the Constitutional Convention. Some wanted small changes, some wanted to re-write it completely.
Tribes were mad because the Northwest Ordinance also claimed land without consent, so they attacked Americans.
Revolution that ended French Monarchy
Women's roles being reevaluated. They were to be the teachers and producers of virtuous male citizens.
First National Bank Chartered
USA would remain "friendly and impartial toward belligerent powers."
Farmers resisted an excise tax on whiskey. With the new constitution, Washington was able to send in militias to stop the problems.
Preserved US neutrality with Britain
Full access of Mississippi river as well as removal of Spanish forts as well as protection from Native tribes in area.
French officials demanded a huge bribe before even considering negotiations. Adams returned to US shortly after and called it the XYZ affair
Declared that states had the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws. Led to nullification and declared the Alien and Sedition Acts void.
Allowed government to forcibly expel foreigners and to jail newspaper editors for "scandalous and malicious writing"
Federalist party was split. Democratic-Republicans had a shot at presidency. Jefferson vs. Burr tied. Called a revolution because there was change regarding the party into presidency. Also called "bloodless revolution".
20 year long span of Republican-Democrat control
Right before handing over the presidency, Adams hired as many Federalist government workers as possible. Most got removed.
Ruling of Marbury v. Madison by Chief Justice John Marshall was that the Supreme Court should have Judicial Review.
Purchased from the French, it doubled America's size. Jefferson had positive and negative critics.
William Marbury, one of Adams' last-minute appointees, had sued Secretary of State James Madison for refusing to certify his appointment to the federal bench.
Expedition to explore western territories
Allowed electors to vote for a party ticket so that a president wouldn't have a VP that he didn't want
Shut down America's import and export business. Had disastrous economic results
reopened trade with most nations except Britain and France.
War with Britain, however, after Treaty of Ghent was signed, Jackson won a battle in New Orleans because news of the treaty wasn't announced to him yet. (only battle essentially won by America)
Federalists opposed to the war because it disrupted trade met in Hartford and considered a massive overhaul of the Constitution or secession. After that, they were considered traitors and the party dissolved.
Second National Bank Chartered
Ended by Jackson in Florida
Big economic failure after loans couldn't be repaid to banks.
Florida goes to USA
Policy of mutual non-interference. America could intervene in any issue in the Western Hemisphere.
Made machine production faster and more productive
Made cotton production faster, sparked a larger textile economy
Big boost in textile production
Independent from Spain
Erie canal set it off.
Destructive to the South's economy but designed to protect the economy.
Written anonymously by John C. Calhoun
Proposed by Monroe, enacted by Jackson. Gold was found on Cherokee land and the Georgians made them move to Oklahoma.
Led slaves to kill whites after being 'enlightened'
William Garrison's Newspaper - abolitionist
Failed to lower tariffs to an acceptable rate.
Thousands of Cherokees moved, thousands died.
Suppressed the discussion of the slavery issue.
Led to panic of 1837. Buyers had to pay hard cash (gold coins etc) Caused a money shortage and a decrease in the treasury.
Made labor plentiful.
Frederick Douglass's newspaper
USA now has Oregon, Washington, parts of Idaho, Wyoming and Montana.
Ended with treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo where US got Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada and Utah for 15 mil dollars.
Abolished slave Trade, not slavery.
Essentially replaced the Whig party
Very focused on immigrants
Opened the two territories to slavery and repealed the Missouri Compromise. Final stake to the Whig Party, so they joined Northern Democrats and former free-soilers to form the Republicans.
Taney declared that slaves were property and that no black person could ever be a citizen. Also, congress could not regulate slavery in the territories.
Debates for the Senate spot. Turned into debate for presidency
7 others follow to form the Confederate States of America
South's decision that required small farmers to fight
National Currency for the North
Government would liberate all salves residing in those states still "in rebellion"
Republican's betterment of Lincoln's 10 percent plan. More aggressive
Help newly liberated blacks establish a place in postwar society
Required each state to ratify 14th amendment. Forced states to allow blacks to vote for convention delegates.
Required states to enfranchise black men.
Pardoned many of the rebels allowing them to reenter public life
160 Acres to anyone who would homestead it for five years
Relatively same as Homestead Act
Building Lincoln's dream
Thomas Edison's greatest invention. Led to developments of power plants and started the age of invention
Start coming from South and East Europe
Addressed the mistreatment of Natives
Supervise RR activities and regulate unfair and unethical practices.
N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Washington, Montana
Forbidden and combination or conspiracy in the restrain of trade.
Wyoming and Idaho
At the end (treaty of paris number 3) Spain granted Cuba its independence and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States.
Ruled that Constitution did not follow the flag
Urban, middle-class reformers who wanted to increase the role of government in reform while maintaining a capitalist economy.
Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation without US approval, and the US had the right to intervene in Cuba's affairs if domestic order dissolved.
Created the Federal Reserve System which gave the government greater control over the nation's finances
Prohibited anyone from using the US mail system to interfere with the war effort and draft
Placed Russia under communist control
Federal Bureau of Investigation created to prevent radicals from taking over
Instituted the draft upon entry in WW1
Devastating, helped end progressivism in addition to war
Illegal to try to prevent the sale of war bonds or to speak disparagingly of the government, the flag, the military, or the Constitution
Harsh to Germany. US didn't sign and didn't join League of Nations
resulting treaty set limits on stockpiling armaments and reaffirmed the Open Door Policy toward China
Discriminated against southern and eastern European immigrants
Condemned war as a means of foreign policy
Created Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Towards Latin America
Second set of help to country
1935 - prohibited sales of arms to belligerents at war (china and japan)
1937 - sidestepped by FDR - said it wasn't a war
Lend Lease Act (1941) - Permitted US to lend supplies to England
Created the first peacetime draft ever
Declared the allies' war aims
Government could take over businesses
redrew the world map
Decided how to implement agreements of Yalta. Beginning of Russian-American bickering
Provided an allowance for educational and living expenses for returning soldiers and veterans who wished to earn their high school diploma or attend college
Laborers and consumers that were angry help bring Republicans in control of it
Regarding civil rights within schools
Divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel
Governor of Arkansas sent in the National Guard to prevent 9 blacks from enrolling into public schools in Little Rock
Men and women get equal pay for equal work
Led to boost in immigration (especially hispanic and asian)
Egypt VS Israel
Right-wing evangelists spreading literal interpretation of the bible
Shirley Chisholm first black woman elected to Congress
Prevent any future president from involving the military in another undeclared war