Spanish expand across New World, taking control, killing natives, converting to Christianity etc...
August 3, 1492 - August 4, 1492
Spanish settlement into the New World
Lost Colony - Roanoke
England's first settlement in America at Roanoke (Now North Carolina). Led by Sir Walter Raleigh.
Puritans flee England
Puritans persecuted in England, move to Holland first then settle for New World later.
British settlement at Jamestown. First since Roanoke. Almost had the same fate until help from Captain John Smith. His ruling led to starvation and he wound up getting removed.
French in Quebec
First permanent French Settlement in New World.
Dutch in NY
1614 - 1664
Settled in N.A. and called it New Amsterdam and New Netherland. In 1664 it became a British colony and was renamed New York after the Duke of York.
Pocahontas marries John Wolfe
The natives thought this would ease tensions with the colonists. Didn't work out too well in the long run.
This gave 50 acres of land to any settler or potential colonist.
First use of slaves by the English.
House of Burgesses
Any white, property-holding male could now vote. Established by Virginia.
First Puritans settle at Plymouth. Additionally, Mayflower Compact was signed (Established a basic legal system)
Bigger colony established by Puritans who wanted to reform church from within. This led to the Great Puritan Migration.
Great Puritan Migration
1629 - 1642
First proprietorship. First written constitution in British North America - Fundamental Orders. Other colonies that followed were: Maryland, New York and New Jersey.
1636 - 1637
Pequot Indians weren't content with English expansion. They attacked English, they attacked back. Short war ensued.
Act of Toleration
Protected the religious freedom of most Christians. Still led to a Civil War in Maryland for the rest of the century.
Age of Salutary Neglect
1650 - 1763
England regulated trade and the government as little as possible due to the distance. Colonies were self-governing for the most part. Beginnings of American culture and a fledgling economy.
1651 - 1673
Colonists could only buy goods from England. English control over colonial commerce.
King Philip's War
Colonists tried to blot out Native American life with English culture and religion.
To prevent white on white conflicts, Nathaniel Bacon led former and current indentured servants to attack the Doeg and Susquehannock tribes.
Dominion of New England
1679 - 1715
William Penn wanted to treat the Natives more fairly. Had mixed results.
Military-style courts to try the violation of the Navigation Acts.
Boards of Trade
To regulate colonial commerce.
Salem Witch Trials
Many people accused of being witches. Caused mass hysteria. (think: Crucible)
Rate of Growth Inrease
1700 - 1750
from 250,000 to 1,250,000. Many immigrants such as Scotch-Irish, Scots, and Germans
Split into North and South Carolina
1730 - 1740
Age of religious revivalism
First and most successful slave rebellion.
The Road to Independence
Albany Plan of Union
The plan provided for an inter-colonial government and a system for collecting taxes. The plan was rejected because they didn't want to united under one colonial legislature and they didn't want to lose control of self-taxation.
Seven Year's War
1754 - 1763
A.K.A. French and Indian War. War for empire between French and British. Indians sided with the French.
In response to the growing British expansion, Indian chief of war, Pontiac, led tribes to attack outposts in the Ohio Valley.
Proclamation of 1763
Forbade settlement west of the rivers running through the Appalachians. It didn't work too well and led to the agitation of colonial settlers. It was seen as unwarranted British interference in colonial affairs.
Stricter enforcement so that smugglers were less able to evade taxation. Colonist's saw Parliament as overstepping it's authority and violating their rights as Englishmen.
Forbade colonies to issue paper money.
Sons of Liberty
Protests groups that formed after the recent Acts placed.
1765 - 1766
Tax aimed at raising revenue, broad-based tax covering all legal documents and licenses. Also, it was a tax on goods produced within the colonies.
Asserted the British government's right to tax and legislate.
1767 - 1770
Taxed goods directly imported from Britain
Some of the taxes collected went to pay the tax collectors
Created even more vice-admiralty courts and new government offices to enforce the crown's will.
Massachusetts Circular Letter
Letter that was asked to be sent to all assemblies asking that they protest the new measures in unison.
British soldiers fired at rowdy colonists which got interpreted as unprovoked killing. Led to big propaganda campaigns.
Committees of Correspondence
Set up to convince colonists to take an active interest in the conflict. Also to inform people of the political mood.
1773 - 1776
Series of Acts passed in response to the Tea Party.
Boston Tea Party
Destruction of 10,000 pounds worth of tea in protest to the newly imposed taxes.
First Continental Congress
All colonies except for Georgia were there. They developed a strategy to address their grievances and decided to boycott British goods. Also agreed to set up a Continental Association and set up committees of observation in towns.
Granted greater liberties to Catholics and extended the boundaries of the Quebec Territory. - Didn't make colonists happy.
Acts of insubordination
1774 - 1775
Collected taxes, disrupted court sessions, organized militias and stockpiled weapons.
Olive Branch Petition
Last-ditch attempt to avoid armed conflict. King George denied it with his own reasons.
Second Continental Congress
Congress prepared for a war by building the Continental Army, printing money and creating government offices to supervise policy.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
British trying to confiscate the colonists' weapons. Led to shots being fired. "The shot heard 'round the world"
Thomas Paine's way to advocate colonial independence and argued the merits of republicanism over monarchy.
DECLARATION OF INDEPENENCE
July 4, 1776
Written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the United States of America a country. Turned the Revolutionary War into a war for independence.
Creating a Functioning Government
1760 - 1830
New technology being invented primarily from hand made to industrially made.
Articles of Confederation
1777 - 1789
First national constitutions. Little to no central government, National government could not tax or regulate trade.
1786 - 1787
Farmers who pretested a number of unfair policies, both economic and political. Sign that revolution wasn't completely over. Showed that Articles were quite powerless to stop such rebellions.
War with Northwestern tribes
1787 - 1795
Tribes were mad because the Northwest Ordinance also claimed land without consent, so they attacked Americans.
Meeting in Philadelphia
Congress approved of this meeting and it eventually became the Constitutional Convention. Some wanted small changes, some wanted to re-write it completely.
Not many people attended. Alexander Hamilton wanted to make some changes to the Articles of Confederation.
A slave only counts as 3/5 of a person
Blended the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. Now a bicameral legislature and the Constitution.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Contained a bill of rights guaranteeing trial by jury, freedom of religion, and freedom from excessive punishment. Abolished slavery in Northwest territories. Additional conditions for applying for statehood.
1789 - 1799
Revolution that ended French Monarchy
1789 - 1797
Women's roles being reevaluated. They were to be the teachers and producers of virtuous male citizens.
First National Bank Chartered
Bill of Rights added
USA would remain "friendly and impartial toward belligerent powers."
Preserved US neutrality with Britain
Farmers resisted an excise tax on whiskey. With the new constitution, Washington was able to send in militias to stop the problems.
Full access of Mississippi river as well as removal of Spanish forts as well as protection from Native tribes in area.
1797 - 1801
Alien and Sedition Acts
Allowed government to forcibly expel foreigners and to jail newspaper editors for "scandalous and malicious writing"
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Declared that states had the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws. Led to nullification and declared the Alien and Sedition Acts void.
French officials demanded a huge bribe before even considering negotiations. Adams returned to US shortly after and called it the XYZ affair
Second Great Awakening
1800 - 1840
1800 - 1823
20 year long span of Republican-Democrat control
Revolution of 1800
Federalist party was split. Democratic-Republicans had a shot at presidency. Jefferson vs. Burr tied. Called a revolution because there was change regarding the party into presidency. Also called "bloodless revolution".
Right before handing over the presidency, Adams hired as many Federalist government workers as possible. Most got removed.
1801 - 1809
Marbury v. Madison
William Marbury, one of Adams' last-minute appointees, had sued Secretary of State James Madison for refusing to certify his appointment to the federal bench.
Purchased from the French, it doubled America's size. Jefferson had positive and negative critics.
Ruling of Marbury v. Madison by Chief Justice John Marshall was that the Supreme Court should have Judicial Review.
Allowed electors to vote for a party ticket so that a president wouldn't have a VP that he didn't want
Louis and Clark
1804 - 1805
Expedition to explore western territories
Shut down America's import and export business. Had disastrous economic results
reopened trade with most nations except Britain and France.
1809 - 1817
War of 1812
1812 - 1814
War with Britain, however, after Treaty of Ghent was signed, Jackson won a battle in New Orleans because news of the treaty wasn't announced to him yet. (only battle essentially won by America)
Federalists opposed to the war because it disrupted trade met in Hartford and considered a massive overhaul of the Constitution or secession. After that, they were considered traitors and the party dissolved.
Second National Bank Chartered
1817 - 1825
1817 - 1818
Ended by Jackson in Florida
Florida goes to USA
Panic of 1819
Big economic failure after loans couldn't be repaid to banks.
admitted Missouri as a slave state
Made Maine a free state
Drew a line along the 36*30' parallel across Louisiana Territory
Southern border of Missouri as anything south of that in West as northernmost point for a slave state.
Policy of mutual non-interference. America could intervene in any issue in the Western Hemisphere.
Beginnings of Modern American Democracy
Made cotton production faster, sparked a larger textile economy
Made machine production faster and more productive
Big boost in textile production
Independent from Spain
End of Caucus System
1825 - 1850
Erie canal set it off.
1825 - 1829
The South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Written anonymously by John C. Calhoun
Tariff of Abominations (1828)
Destructive to the South's economy but designed to protect the economy.
1829 - 1837
1830 - 1853
Indian Removal Act
Proposed by Monroe, enacted by Jackson. Gold was found on Cherokee land and the Georgians made them move to Oklahoma.
William Garrison's Newspaper - abolitionist
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Led slaves to kill whites after being 'enlightened'
Tariff of 1832
Failed to lower tariffs to an acceptable rate.
American Anti-Slavery Society
Trail of Tears
1835 - 1838
Thousands of Cherokees moved, thousands died.
1836 - 1844
Suppressed the discussion of the slavery issue.
Republic of Texas
1836 - 1845
Led to panic of 1837. Buyers had to pay hard cash (gold coins etc) Caused a money shortage and a decrease in the treasury.
Panic of 1837
1837 - 1841
1837 - 1841
The North Star
Frederick Douglass's newspaper
1840 - 1850
Made labor plentiful.
1841 - 1845
1845 - 1855
Women's Right Convention
National Woman Suffrage Association
Heading Toward the Civil War and Reconstruction
1845 - 1849
1846 - 1848
Ended with treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo where US got Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada and Utah for 15 mil dollars.
USA now has Oregon, Washington, parts of Idaho, Wyoming and Montana.
Free Soil Party
1849 - 1850
1850 - 1853
Compromise of 1850
Abolished slave Trade, not slavery.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1853 - 1857
Opened the two territories to slavery and repealed the Missouri Compromise. Final stake to the Whig Party, so they joined Northern Democrats and former free-soilers to form the Republicans.
Very focused on immigrants
Essentially replaced the Whig party
Dred Scott Case
Taney declared that slaves were property and that no black person could ever be a citizen. Also, congress could not regulate slavery in the territories.
1857 - 1861
Debates for the Senate spot. Turned into debate for presidency
John Brown's Raid
South Carolina Secedes
7 others follow to form the Confederate States of America
1861 - 1865
April 12 1861 - April 1865
National Currency for the North
South's decision that required small farmers to fight
Government would liberate all salves residing in those states still "in rebellion"
Republican's betterment of Lincoln's 10 percent plan. More aggressive
1865 - 1869
1865 - 1877
Help newly liberated blacks establish a place in postwar society
Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
Required each state to ratify 14th amendment. Forced states to allow blacks to vote for convention delegates.
If born in US, then you are a US citizen
Prohibited states from depriving any citizen of "life, liberty and property"
Can't deny any citizen "equal protection of the law"
states have choice to give freedmen the vote or to not count them as voters
barred prominent confederates from holding political office
excused the Condederacy's war debt
Required states to enfranchise black men.
1869 - 1877
Amnesty Act of 1872
Pardoned many of the rebels allowing them to reenter public life
Panic of 1873
1877 - 1881
The Machine Age
Morrill Land Grant Act
Relatively same as Homestead Act
160 Acres to anyone who would homestead it for five years
1863 - 1869
Building Lincoln's dream
1867 - 1880
Knights of Labor
1869 - 1887
Thomas Edison's greatest invention. Led to developments of power plants and started the age of invention
Migrants from Eastern Europe
Start coming from South and East Europe
1881 - 1885
1885 - 1889
Interstate Commerce Commision
1887 - 1980
Supervise RR activities and regulate unfair and unethical practices.
Dawes Severalty Act
Addressed the mistreatment of Natives
N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Washington, Montana
1889 - 1893
Wyoming and Idaho
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
Forbidden and combination or conspiracy in the restrain of trade.
1893 - 1897
1897 - 1901
At the end (treaty of paris number 3) Spain granted Cuba its independence and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States.
1901 - 1903
Ruled that Constitution did not follow the flag
The Early Twentieth Century
1900 - 1920
Urban, middle-class reformers who wanted to increase the role of government in reform while maintaining a capitalist economy.
1901 - 1909
1903 - 1934
Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation without US approval, and the US had the right to intervene in Cuba's affairs if domestic order dissolved.
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine
1909 - 1913
1913 - 1921
1914 - 1918
Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
Created the Federal Reserve System which gave the government greater control over the nation's finances
Selective Service Act of 1917
Instituted the draft upon entry in WW1
Federal Bureau of Investigation created to prevent radicals from taking over
Placed Russia under communist control
Prohibited anyone from using the US mail system to interfere with the war effort and draft
Treaty of Versailles
Harsh to Germany. US didn't sign and didn't join League of Nations
Illegal to try to prevent the sale of war bonds or to speak disparagingly of the government, the flag, the military, or the Constitution
Devastating, helped end progressivism in addition to war
1921 - 1923
1921 - 1922
resulting treaty set limits on stockpiling armaments and reaffirmed the Open Door Policy toward China
1923 - 1929
Emergency Quota of 1924
Discriminated against southern and eastern European immigrants
Condemned war as a means of foreign policy
1929 - 1933
1929 - 1933
Banking Act of 1933
Created Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
New Deal (1)
1933 - 1945
Good Neighbor Policy
Towards Latin America
1935 - 1941
1935 - prohibited sales of arms to belligerents at war (china and japan)
1937 - sidestepped by FDR - said it wasn't a war
Lend Lease Act (1941) - Permitted US to lend supplies to England
New Deal (2)
Second set of help to country
1939 - 1945
Selective Training and Service Act of 1940
Created the first peacetime draft ever
Atlantic Charter Conference
Declared the allies' war aims
1942 - 1945
Labor Disputes Act of 1943
Government could take over businesses
1945 - 1953
redrew the world map
Decided how to implement agreements of Yalta. Beginning of Russian-American bickering
The Postwar Period and into the 21st Century
G.I. Bill of Rights
Provided an allowance for educational and living expenses for returning soldiers and veterans who wished to earn their high school diploma or attend college
Vietnamese Independence War
1946 - 1954
Laborers and consumers that were angry help bring Republicans in control of it
1950 - 1953
1953 - 1961
Divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel
Brown VS Board of Education
Regarding civil rights within schools
Little Rock Nine
Governor of Arkansas sent in the National Guard to prevent 9 blacks from enrolling into public schools in Little Rock
Castro takes over Cuba
1961 - 1963
1961 - 1989
Bays of pigs invasion
Cuban missile Crisis
Equal Pay Act
Men and women get equal pay for equal work
1963 - 1969
Civil Right's Act of 1964
Immigration Act of 1965
Led to boost in immigration (especially hispanic and asian)
Voting Right's Act of 1965
Six Day War
Egypt VS Israel
1969 - 1974
1970 - 1985
Right-wing evangelists spreading literal interpretation of the bible
Chisholm to Congress
Shirley Chisholm first black woman elected to Congress
War Powers Resolution
Prevent any future president from involving the military in another undeclared war