US History

APUSH Timeline

Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Century.

Spanish control of New World

1492 - 1587

Spanish expand across New World, taking control, killing natives, converting to Christianity etc...

Columbus' Discovery

August 3, 1492 - August 4, 1492

Spanish settlement into the New World

Lost Colony - Roanoke

1587

England's first settlement in America at Roanoke (Now North Carolina). Led by Sir Walter Raleigh.

Puritans flee England

1600

Puritans persecuted in England, move to Holland first then settle for New World later.

Jamestown Settlement

1607

British settlement at Jamestown. First since Roanoke. Almost had the same fate until help from Captain John Smith. His ruling led to starvation and he wound up getting removed.

French in Quebec

1608

First permanent French Settlement in New World.

Pocahontas marries John Wolfe

1614

The natives thought this would ease tensions with the colonists. Didn't work out too well in the long run.

Dutch in NY

1614 - 1664

Settled in N.A. and called it New Amsterdam and New Netherland. In 1664 it became a British colony and was renamed New York after the Duke of York.

Headright System

1618

This gave 50 acres of land to any settler or potential colonist.

First Slaves

1619

First use of slaves by the English.

House of Burgesses

1619

Any white, property-holding male could now vote. Established by Virginia.

Plymouth

1620

First Puritans settle at Plymouth. Additionally, Mayflower Compact was signed (Established a basic legal system)

Great Puritan Migration

1629 - 1642

Massachusetts Bay

1629

Bigger colony established by Puritans who wanted to reform church from within. This led to the Great Puritan Migration.

Connecticut Colony

1635

First proprietorship. First written constitution in British North America - Fundamental Orders. Other colonies that followed were: Maryland, New York and New Jersey.

Pequot War

1636 - 1637

Pequot Indians weren't content with English expansion. They attacked English, they attacked back. Short war ensued.

Act of Toleration

1649

Protected the religious freedom of most Christians. Still led to a Civil War in Maryland for the rest of the century.

Age of Salutary Neglect

1650 - 1763

England regulated trade and the government as little as possible due to the distance. Colonies were self-governing for the most part. Beginnings of American culture and a fledgling economy.

Navigation Acts

1651 - 1673

Colonists could only buy goods from England. English control over colonial commerce.

King Philip's War

1670

Colonists tried to blot out Native American life with English culture and religion.

Bacon's Rebellion

1676

To prevent white on white conflicts, Nathaniel Bacon led former and current indentured servants to attack the Doeg and Susquehannock tribes.

Dominion of New England

1679 - 1715

Pennsylvania

1681

William Penn wanted to treat the Natives more fairly. Had mixed results.

Boards of Trade

1690

To regulate colonial commerce.

Vice-admiralty courts

1690

Military-style courts to try the violation of the Navigation Acts.

Salem Witch Trials

1692

Many people accused of being witches. Caused mass hysteria. (think: Crucible)

Rate of Growth Inrease

1700 - 1750

from 250,000 to 1,250,000. Many immigrants such as Scotch-Irish, Scots, and Germans

Carolina Split

1729

Split into North and South Carolina

Great Awakening

1730 - 1740

Age of religious revivalism

Stono Uprising

1739

First and most successful slave rebellion.

The Road to Independence

Seven Year's War

1754 - 1763

A.K.A. French and Indian War. War for empire between French and British. Indians sided with the French.

Albany Plan of Union

1754

The plan provided for an inter-colonial government and a system for collecting taxes. The plan was rejected because they didn't want to united under one colonial legislature and they didn't want to lose control of self-taxation.

Pontiac's Rebellion

1763

In response to the growing British expansion, Indian chief of war, Pontiac, led tribes to attack outposts in the Ohio Valley.

Proclamation of 1763

1763

Forbade settlement west of the rivers running through the Appalachians. It didn't work too well and led to the agitation of colonial settlers. It was seen as unwarranted British interference in colonial affairs.

Currency Act

1764

Forbade colonies to issue paper money.

Sugar Act

1764

Stricter enforcement so that smugglers were less able to evade taxation. Colonist's saw Parliament as overstepping it's authority and violating their rights as Englishmen.

Stamp Act

1765 - 1766

Tax aimed at raising revenue, broad-based tax covering all legal documents and licenses. Also, it was a tax on goods produced within the colonies.

Sons of Liberty

1765

Protests groups that formed after the recent Acts placed.

Declaratory Act

1766

Asserted the British government's right to tax and legislate.

Townshend Acts

1767 - 1770
  • Taxed goods directly imported from Britain
  • Some of the taxes collected went to pay the tax collectors
  • Created even more vice-admiralty courts and new government offices to enforce the crown's will.

Massachusetts Circular Letter

1768

Letter that was asked to be sent to all assemblies asking that they protest the new measures in unison.

Boston Massacre

1770

British soldiers fired at rowdy colonists which got interpreted as unprovoked killing. Led to big propaganda campaigns.

Committees of Correspondence

1772

Set up to convince colonists to take an active interest in the conflict. Also to inform people of the political mood.

Boston Tea Party

1773

Destruction of 10,000 pounds worth of tea in protest to the newly imposed taxes.

Coercive Acts

1773 - 1776

Series of Acts passed in response to the Tea Party.

First Continental Congress

1774

All colonies except for Georgia were there. They developed a strategy to address their grievances and decided to boycott British goods. Also agreed to set up a Continental Association and set up committees of observation in towns.

Acts of insubordination

1774 - 1775

Collected taxes, disrupted court sessions, organized militias and stockpiled weapons.

Quebec Act

1774

Granted greater liberties to Catholics and extended the boundaries of the Quebec Territory. - Didn't make colonists happy.

Battle of Lexington and Concord

1775

British trying to confiscate the colonists' weapons. Led to shots being fired. "The shot heard 'round the world"

Second Continental Congress

1775

Congress prepared for a war by building the Continental Army, printing money and creating government offices to supervise policy.

Olive Branch Petition

1775

Last-ditch attempt to avoid armed conflict. King George denied it with his own reasons.

Common Sense

1776

Thomas Paine's way to advocate colonial independence and argued the merits of republicanism over monarchy.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENENCE

July 4, 1776

Written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the United States of America a country. Turned the Revolutionary War into a war for independence.

Creating a Functioning Government

1777-1824

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1830

New technology being invented primarily from hand made to industrially made.

Articles of Confederation

1777 - 1789

First national constitutions. Little to no central government, National government could not tax or regulate trade.

Shays's Rebellion

1786 - 1787

Farmers who pretested a number of unfair policies, both economic and political. Sign that revolution wasn't completely over. Showed that Articles were quite powerless to stop such rebellions.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

1787

Contained a bill of rights guaranteeing trial by jury, freedom of religion, and freedom from excessive punishment. Abolished slavery in Northwest territories. Additional conditions for applying for statehood.

Great Compromise

1787

Blended the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. Now a bicameral legislature and the Constitution.

Three-Fifths Compromise

1787

A slave only counts as 3/5 of a person

Annapolis Convention

1787

Not many people attended. Alexander Hamilton wanted to make some changes to the Articles of Confederation.

Meeting in Philadelphia

1787

Congress approved of this meeting and it eventually became the Constitutional Convention. Some wanted small changes, some wanted to re-write it completely.

War with Northwestern tribes

1787 - 1795

Tribes were mad because the Northwest Ordinance also claimed land without consent, so they attacked Americans.

Washington

1789 - 1797

Constitution Signed

1789

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Revolution that ended French Monarchy

Women's roles

1790

Women's roles being reevaluated. They were to be the teachers and producers of virtuous male citizens.

Bill of Rights added

1791

B.O.T.U.S

1791

First National Bank Chartered

Neutrality Proclamation

1793

USA would remain "friendly and impartial toward belligerent powers."

Whiskey Rebellion

1794

Farmers resisted an excise tax on whiskey. With the new constitution, Washington was able to send in militias to stop the problems.

Jay Treaty

1794

Preserved US neutrality with Britain

Pinckney's Treaty

1796

Full access of Mississippi river as well as removal of Spanish forts as well as protection from Native tribes in area.

John Adams

1797 - 1801

XYZ Affair

1798

French officials demanded a huge bribe before even considering negotiations. Adams returned to US shortly after and called it the XYZ affair

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

1798

Declared that states had the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws. Led to nullification and declared the Alien and Sedition Acts void.

Alien and Sedition Acts

1798

Allowed government to forcibly expel foreigners and to jail newspaper editors for "scandalous and malicious writing"

Revolution of 1800

1800

Federalist party was split. Democratic-Republicans had a shot at presidency. Jefferson vs. Burr tied. Called a revolution because there was change regarding the party into presidency. Also called "bloodless revolution".

Jeffersonian Republic

1800 - 1823

20 year long span of Republican-Democrat control

Second Great Awakening

1800 - 1840

Jefferson

1801 - 1809

Midnight Appointments

1801

Right before handing over the presidency, Adams hired as many Federalist government workers as possible. Most got removed.

Judicial Review

1803

Ruling of Marbury v. Madison by Chief Justice John Marshall was that the Supreme Court should have Judicial Review.

Louisiana Purchase

1803

Purchased from the French, it doubled America's size. Jefferson had positive and negative critics.

Marbury v. Madison

1803

William Marbury, one of Adams' last-minute appointees, had sued Secretary of State James Madison for refusing to certify his appointment to the federal bench.

Louis and Clark

1804 - 1805

Expedition to explore western territories

12th Ammendment

1804

Allowed electors to vote for a party ticket so that a president wouldn't have a VP that he didn't want

Embargo Act

1807

Shut down America's import and export business. Had disastrous economic results

Madison

1809 - 1817

Non-Intercourse Act

1809

reopened trade with most nations except Britain and France.

War of 1812

1812 - 1814

War with Britain, however, after Treaty of Ghent was signed, Jackson won a battle in New Orleans because news of the treaty wasn't announced to him yet. (only battle essentially won by America)

Hartford Convention

1814

Federalists opposed to the war because it disrupted trade met in Hartford and considered a massive overhaul of the Constitution or secession. After that, they were considered traitors and the party dissolved.

BOTUS (2)

1816

Second National Bank Chartered

Seminole War

1817 - 1818

Ended by Jackson in Florida

Monroe

1817 - 1825

Panic of 1819

1819

Big economic failure after loans couldn't be repaid to banks.

Adams-Onis Treaty

1819

Florida goes to USA

Missouri Compromise

1820
  1. admitted Missouri as a slave state
  2. Made Maine a free state
  3. Drew a line along the 36*30' parallel across Louisiana Territory
  4. Southern border of Missouri as anything south of that in West as northernmost point for a slave state.

Monroe Doctrine

1823

Policy of mutual non-interference. America could intervene in any issue in the Western Hemisphere.

Beginnings of Modern American Democracy

1824-1844

Interchangeable Parts

1793

Made machine production faster and more productive

Cotton Gin

1793

Made cotton production faster, sparked a larger textile economy

Power Loom

1813

Big boost in textile production

Mexico

1821

Independent from Spain

End of Caucus System

1824

Adams

1825 - 1829

Canal era

1825 - 1850

Erie canal set it off.

Tariff of Abominations (1828)

1828

Destructive to the South's economy but designed to protect the economy.

The South Carolina Exposition and Protest

1828

Written anonymously by John C. Calhoun

Jackson

1829 - 1837

Indian Removal Act

1830

Proposed by Monroe, enacted by Jackson. Gold was found on Cherokee land and the Georgians made them move to Oklahoma.

Railroads

1830 - 1853

Mormons

1830

Nat Turner's Rebellion

1831

Led slaves to kill whites after being 'enlightened'

Liberator

1831

William Garrison's Newspaper - abolitionist

Tariff of 1832

1832

Failed to lower tariffs to an acceptable rate.

American Anti-Slavery Society

1833

Garrison's

Trail of Tears

1835 - 1838

Thousands of Cherokees moved, thousands died.

Gag Rule

1836 - 1844

Suppressed the discussion of the slavery issue.

Specie Circular

1836

Led to panic of 1837. Buyers had to pay hard cash (gold coins etc) Caused a money shortage and a decrease in the treasury.

Republic of Texas

1836 - 1845

Van Buren

1837 - 1841

Panic of 1837

1837 - 1841

German/Irish Migrations

1840 - 1850

Made labor plentiful.

The North Star

1840

Frederick Douglass's newspaper

Harrison

1841

John Tyler

1841 - 1845

Lowell/Waltham System

1845 - 1855

Gold Rush

1848

Women's Right Convention

1848

Seneca Falls

National Woman Suffrage Association

1869

Heading Toward the Civil War and Reconstruction

1845-1877

Polk

1845 - 1849

Free Soil Party

1846

Oregon Treaty

1846

USA now has Oregon, Washington, parts of Idaho, Wyoming and Montana.

Mexican-American War

1846 - 1848

Ended with treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo where US got Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada and Utah for 15 mil dollars.

Taylor

1849 - 1850

Compromise of 1850

1850

Abolished slave Trade, not slavery.

Fillmore

1850 - 1853

Uncle Tom's Cabin

1852

Pierce

1853 - 1857

Bleeding Kansas

1854

Republican Party

1854

Essentially replaced the Whig party

Know-Nothings formed

1854

Very focused on immigrants

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854

Opened the two territories to slavery and repealed the Missouri Compromise. Final stake to the Whig Party, so they joined Northern Democrats and former free-soilers to form the Republicans.

Buchanan

1857 - 1861

Dred Scott Case

1857

Taney declared that slaves were property and that no black person could ever be a citizen. Also, congress could not regulate slavery in the territories.

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

1858

Debates for the Senate spot. Turned into debate for presidency

John Brown's Raid

1859

South Carolina Secedes

December 1860

7 others follow to form the Confederate States of America

Lincoln

1861 - 1865

Civil War

April 12 1861 - April 1865

Conscription

1862

South's decision that required small farmers to fight

National Currency

1862

National Currency for the North

Emancipation Proclamation

1863

Government would liberate all salves residing in those states still "in rebellion"

Wade-Davis Bill

1864

Republican's betterment of Lincoln's 10 percent plan. More aggressive

Freedman's Bureaux

1865

Help newly liberated blacks establish a place in postwar society

13th Amendment

1865

Prohibited Slavery

Reconstruction

1865 - 1877

Johnson

1865 - 1869

Empeached

Military Reconstruction Act of 1867

1867

Required each state to ratify 14th amendment. Forced states to allow blacks to vote for convention delegates.

14th Amendment

1868
  • If born in US, then you are a US citizen
  • Prohibited states from depriving any citizen of "life, liberty and property"
  • Can't deny any citizen "equal protection of the law"
  • states have choice to give freedmen the vote or to not count them as voters
  • barred prominent confederates from holding political office
  • excused the Condederacy's war debt

Grant

1869 - 1877

15th Amendment

1869

Required states to enfranchise black men.

Amnesty Act of 1872

1872

Pardoned many of the rebels allowing them to reenter public life

Panic of 1873

1873

Financial failure

Hayes

1877 - 1881

The Machine Age

1877-1900

Homestead Act

1862

160 Acres to anyone who would homestead it for five years

Morrill Land Grant Act

1862

Relatively same as Homestead Act

Transcontinental Railroad

1863 - 1869

Building Lincoln's dream

Grangers

1867 - 1880

Knights of Labor

1869 - 1887

Light Bulb

1876

Thomas Edison's greatest invention. Led to developments of power plants and started the age of invention

Migrants from Eastern Europe

1880

Start coming from South and East Europe

Garfield

1881

Assasinated

Arthur

1881 - 1885

Cleveland

1885 - 1889

Dawes Severalty Act

1887

Addressed the mistreatment of Natives

Interstate Commerce Commision

1887 - 1980

Supervise RR activities and regulate unfair and unethical practices.

Harrison

1889 - 1893

New States

1889

N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Washington, Montana

Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890

1890

Forbidden and combination or conspiracy in the restrain of trade.

New States

1890

Wyoming and Idaho

Cleveland

1893 - 1897

McKinley

1897 - 1901

Spanish-American War

1898

At the end (treaty of paris number 3) Spain granted Cuba its independence and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States.

Insular Cases

1901 - 1903

Ruled that Constitution did not follow the flag

The Early Twentieth Century

Progressive Era

1900 - 1920

Urban, middle-class reformers who wanted to increase the role of government in reform while maintaining a capitalist economy.

Roosevelt

1901 - 1909

Platt Amendment

1903 - 1934

Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation without US approval, and the US had the right to intervene in Cuba's affairs if domestic order dissolved.

Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine

1904

Taft

1909 - 1913

Wilson

1913 - 1921

Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914

1914

Created the Federal Reserve System which gave the government greater control over the nation's finances

WW1

1914 - 1918

Lusitania

1915

Espionage Act

1917

Prohibited anyone from using the US mail system to interfere with the war effort and draft

18th Amendment

1917

Outlawed drinking

Russian Revolution

1917

Placed Russia under communist control

FBI

1917

Federal Bureau of Investigation created to prevent radicals from taking over

Selective Service Act of 1917

1917

Instituted the draft upon entry in WW1

Spanish Flu

1918

Devastating, helped end progressivism in addition to war

Sedition Act

1918

Illegal to try to prevent the sale of war bonds or to speak disparagingly of the government, the flag, the military, or the Constitution

Treaty of Versailles

1918

Ended WW1
Harsh to Germany. US didn't sign and didn't join League of Nations

19th Ammendment

1920

Women's suffrage

Palmer Raids

1920

Very anti-communist

Washington Conference

1921 - 1922

resulting treaty set limits on stockpiling armaments and reaffirmed the Open Door Policy toward China

Harding

1921 - 1923

Coolidge

1923 - 1929

Emergency Quota of 1924

1924

Discriminated against southern and eastern European immigrants

Kellogg-Briand Pact

1928

Condemned war as a means of foreign policy

Hoover

1929 - 1933

Great Depression

1929 - 1933

FDR

1933 - 1945

New Deal (1)

1933

Banking Act of 1933

1933

Created Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

Good Neighbor Policy

1934

Towards Latin America

New Deal (2)

1935

Second set of help to country

Neutrality

1935 - 1941

1935 - prohibited sales of arms to belligerents at war (china and japan)
1937 - sidestepped by FDR - said it wasn't a war
Lend Lease Act (1941) - Permitted US to lend supplies to England

WW2

1939 - 1945

Selective Training and Service Act of 1940

1940

Created the first peacetime draft ever

Atlantic Charter Conference

1941

Declared the allies' war aims

Japanese internment

1942 - 1945

Labor Disputes Act of 1943

1943

Government could take over businesses

Truman

1945 - 1953

Yalta

February 1945

redrew the world map

Potsdam

July 1945

Decided how to implement agreements of Yalta. Beginning of Russian-American bickering

The Postwar Period and into the 21st Century

1945-2001

G.I. Bill of Rights

1944

Provided an allowance for educational and living expenses for returning soldiers and veterans who wished to earn their high school diploma or attend college

80th Congress

1946

Laborers and consumers that were angry help bring Republicans in control of it

Vietnamese Independence War

1946 - 1954

Truman Doctrine

1947

NATO

1949

Alger Hiss

1949

Korean War

1950 - 1953

McCarthy Trials

1950

Stalin Dies

1953

Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

Brown VS Board of Education

1954

Regarding civil rights within schools

Geneva Accords

1954

Divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel

Bus Boycott

1955

Little Rock Nine

1957

Governor of Arkansas sent in the National Guard to prevent 9 blacks from enrolling into public schools in Little Rock

Castro takes over Cuba

1959

Sit-Ins

1960

Bays of pigs invasion

1961

Berlin Wall

1961 - 1989

Kennedy

1961 - 1963

Cuban missile Crisis

1962

Johnson

1963 - 1969

Equal Pay Act

1963

Men and women get equal pay for equal work

Civil Right's Act of 1964

1964

Voting Right's Act of 1965

1965

Immigration Act of 1965

1965

Led to boost in immigration (especially hispanic and asian)

Six Day War

1967

Egypt VS Israel

MLK killed

1968

Tet Offensive

1968

Nixon

1969 - 1974

Conservative Resurgence

1970 - 1985

Right-wing evangelists spreading literal interpretation of the bible

Pentagon Papers

1971

Chisholm to Congress

1972

Shirley Chisholm first black woman elected to Congress

War Powers Resolution

1973

Prevent any future president from involving the military in another undeclared war

Ford

1974 - 1977

Carter

1977 - 1981

Reagan

1981 - 1989

H. W. Bush

1989 - 1993

Berlin Wall removed

1989

Clinton

1993 - 2001

North American Free Trade Agreement

1993

Bush

2001 - 2009

Obama

2009 - 2016