Chapter 23

France

1791
December 2, 1851
1852 - 1870
1879 - 1886
1894 - 1899
1901 - 1905

Great Britain

1824 - 1825
1867
1884
1906
1906 - 1914
1913

Italy

1849
1850 - 1861
1859 - 1870
1866
1870

Germany

1834
1861 - 1888
1862 - 1866
1862
1866
1869
1870 - 1878
1878
1878
1883 - 1889
1888 - 1918
1890

Russia

1853 - 1856
1855 - 1881
1860
1861
1864
1881
1881 - 1894
1883
1890 - 1900
1892 - 1903
1894 - 1917
1904
1905
1906

Ottoman Empire

1805 - 1848
1808 - 1839
1831 - 1840
1839
1839 - 1861
1851
1853 - 1856
1856
1876 - 1909
1908

Catholic Church

1846 - 1878
1870
1878 - 1903

Austria-Hungary

1867
1897 - 1910