HY MCQ 2 (1953-89)

Soviet Union

Khrushchev in power

Mar 1953 - Oct 1964

Stalin died

June 1953

Replaced by Collective Leadership

Virgin Lands campaign

Jan 1954

bring in 13M hectares of land for agri

Malenkov resigned from Collective Leadership

Feb 1955

Nagy was Malenkov's protector

De-Stalinization speech by Khrush

Feb 1956

U2 spy plane fiasco

May 1, 1960

Bay of Pigs

Apr 17, 1961 - Apr 19, 1961

poorly executed CIA invasion of Cuba
May 1 - Castro proclaimed Cuba as socialist state

Cuban Missile Crisis

Oct 1962

Brezhnev in power

Oct 1964 - Nov 1982

Khruschev out of office

Nov 1964

Andropov head of KGB

1967 - 1982

Sputnik I launched

oct 1975

USSR invades Afgh

Dec 24, 1979

Andropov in power

Nov 1982 - Feb 1984

Chernenko in power

Feb 1984 - Mar 1985

Gorbachev in power

Mar 1985 - Aug 1991

Chernobyl nuclear meltdown

April 1986

Gorb visits Washington, DC

Dec 1987

Soviet troops withdrawn from Afgh

Feb 1989

Boris Yeltsin as Delegate to Russian Congress of Ppl's Deputies

Mar 1989

Sinatra doctrine

Oct 1989

new approach; "I Did it My Way"

Gorb accepted autonomy for its constituent republics

Apr 1991

Yeltsin as president of Russian Federation

June 1991

Ukraine declared independence

Dec 1991

by end of 1991, 13 of 15 Soviet republics declared independence


Reagan as president

Jan 1981 - Jan 1989

Reagan address on SDI

Mar 23, 1983

George H. Bush as President

Jan 1989


Trizonia formed

Sept 1949

became Federal Republic of Germany (BRD)

France-German treaty


-better relations
-going to run EEC tgt

JFK in West Berlin

June 26, 1963

Brandt as Foreign Minister

1966 - 1969

Diplomatic relations est w/ Romania

Jan 1967

Willy Brandt in power

Oct 1969 - May 1974

Federal Elections

Oct 1969

Brandt visits East Ger

Mar 1970

Russo-German non-aggression treaty

Aug 12, 1970

-accepted map of Europe as it was in 1970

German-Polish Agreement

Dec 7, 1970

recognition of Oder-Neisse line; full diplomatic relations

Berlin Agreement

Sep 3, 1971

-freer travel b/w East + West

Federal election

Nov 19, 1972

SPD: 45.9%, CDU/CSU 44.8%, FDP 8.5%

Gunther Guillaume spy on Brandt

May 1974


DDR formed

Oct 1949

German Democratic Republic (DDR)
Socialist Unity Party (SED) dominated govt took pwr
President and head of state: Wilhelm Pieck
PM: Otto Grotewohl
Sec Gen: Ulbricht
Purges on SED: 150,000 ppl (7.3% of membership)

DDR Supreme Court + Dept of Public Prosecutions

Dec 1949

Volkskammer (East Ger Parliament) est these two bodies
-involved in show trials
-1950 over 78,000 to trial, 15 death sentences

STASI formed

Feb 1950

Ministry of State Security (STASI) formed to spy on foreigners

DDR National Front

Feb 3, 1950

Nat'l Front for a Democratic Germany to which all parties belonged
-Christian Democratic Union (CDU)
-Liberal Democratic Party (LDPD)

Ulbricht in power

July 1950 - May 1971


Sept 1950

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)

DDR 5 year plan

Jan 1951

launched first 5 year plan w/ Stalinist orthodoxy

Art regulated

May 1951

Art must link to ideological transformation to educate ppl on socialism

Emigration DDR --> West 22,000

Dec 1952

Increased prices of food/clothes


Emigration DDR --> West 58,000

Mar 1953

BRD fully independent; member of NATO


Berlin Wall erected

Aug 1961

Honecker in power

May 1971 - Oct 1989


Rakosi in power

1945 - July 1956

Rakosi loses power

June 1953

Hungary - After Stalin death, Rakosi had to share power with Imre Nagy
Nagy becomes premier; installed NEP

Nagy falls ill

Jan 1955

Rakosi uses opportunity to rally forces w/in Hungarian Central Committee against him

Nagy dismissed as premier

Apr 1955

Petofi debate on press and censorship

June 27, 1956

Rakosi allowed young communists to form debating club called Petofi Circle
Rajk's widow wanted revenge
Rakosi closed Petofi circle

Rakosi political career over

July 1956

Soviet Foreign Ministry's Mikoyan flew to Budapest, told Rakosi to go; Rakosi plane to Moscow

Rajk reburied

Oct 5, 1956

Reburied and given state funeral
first photo of Nagy reappeared in newspapers since Jan 1955
Nagy readmitted to Hungarian Workers Party

Hungarian student demonstration

Oct 22, 1956

Inspired by Gomulka's success; demanded:
-Nagy as PM
-red army leave
-Stalin's statue removed
-General Election
-free poli prisoners
-Rakosi tried
-Wreath at statue of Gen Bem

Nagy appointed PM

Oct 24, 1956

Chaos and violence in streets b/w Hungarians and Red Army

Nagy announced new govt

Oct 27, 1956

Declared AVH (State Protection Authority) disbanded; Red Army agreed to withdraw

AVH abolished

Oct 29, 1956

democracy returned to Hungary overseen by Nagy

Red Army into Hungary again

Nov 1, 1956

Red Army advance again
Nagy threatened to take Hungary out of Warsaw Pact, proclaim neutrality.
Phoned UN Sec Gen to put Hungary's neutrality on next UN GA agenda

Janos Kadar died; re-election after

July 6, 1989

Renamed state as Hungarian Republic

Oct 23, 1989


Polish October

October 1956

Gomulka became nat'l hero
Polish United Workers Party (PZRP)

Gomulka in power

Oct 1956 - Dec 1970

Raid at Jasna Gora

July 1959

Polish authorities raided nat'l shrine of Jasna Gora
-church-state relations worsened

Nowa Huta no church

Apr 1960

govt refused to erect church in new industrial city

Cultural periodicals suppressed


Open letter for workers' democracy


imprisoned Kuron and Modzelewski (intellectuals) for writing letter
-sentenced for 3.5 years

Moczar + partisans bid for power

1967 - 1968

bid on 3 planks:
1. appeal to all those who loved Polish nation
2. Anti-russian
3. anti-semitism

Student protests at Warsaw Uni

Mar 1968

Real wages rose 40%

1970 - 1975

during Gierek's first 5 years in power

$4.5 bil deficit to West

1970 - 1980

Lenin Shipyard strike

Aug 14, 1970

Raised item prices

Dec 1970

Staple food prices rose 36%, Price of flour 16%, sugar 14%, meat 17%

Gierek in power

Dec 1970 - Sept 1980

Edward Gierek as First Secretary

Dec 20, 1970

Gom was sick, lost Russian support

Nat'l income rose 10%


OPEC 3x oil price, Yom Kippur War


KOR created

June 1976

Committee for the Defence of the Workers (KOR)
led by Jacek Kuron and Adam Michnik

PM Jaroszewiczz - price rise

June 24, 1976

Meat rise 70%, sugar 100%, butter + cheese 33%

Robotnik newspaper

Sept 1977

KOR's underground newspaper
20,000 copies an issue within a year
1 sheet to spread of 12 sheets

Flying Uni est

Jan 1978

Founding Committee of Free Trade Unions on the Coast formed in Gdansk

May 1, 1978

Archbishop of Krakow became Pope John Paul II

Oct 16, 1978

PM Jaroszewicz forced to resign; replaced by Edward Babiuch

Feb 1980

Rural Solidarity recognized

July 12, 1980

Peasant Union

Solidarity formed; led by Walesa

Aug 1980

Strikers formed Inter-Factory Strike Committee

Aug 16, 1980

strike committee list of 21 demands

Aug 17, 1980

free trade unions, right to strike, respect for freedom of speech, print, etc.

PM Jagilski open dialogue w/ strike committee

Aug 22, 1980

Strike Info Bulletin by KOR

Aug 23, 1980

bulletin named Solidarity

Szczecin Agreement

Aug 30, 1980

Gdansk Agreement

Aug 31, 1980

Kania in power

Sept 1980 - Oct 1981

Jastrezebie Agreement

Sept 3, 1980

Jaruzelski appointed as PM

Feb 10, 1981

PZPR special congress

July 14, 1981 - July 18, 1981

elections for places on Central Committee, Politburo, party secretariats
-7/8 of old party hacks thrown out
-7/11 Politburo members dumped
-40/49 district party secretaries dumped

Solidarity's first Nat'l Congress

Sept 5, 1981 - Sept 10, 1981

Second session Sept 27-Oct 7, 1981

Kania replaced by Jaruzelski

Oct 18, 1981

Jaruzelski- state of war in Pol

Dec 12, 1981

All Solidarity buildings seized, leaders rounded up
-10,000 members arrested in 5 months; 7-100 ppl killed

Martial law enacted

Dec 13, 1981 - July 22, 1983

Needed $20 bil to recover

1982 - 1987

25% greater than total sums of Marshall Plan ($15 bil)

Walesa released from prison

Nov 1982

Pope visits Poland; urged reconciliation


Pope visits again

June 8, 1987 - June 14, 1987

Nat'l Referendum

Nov 29, 1987

Jaruzelski needed new reform program, held referendum.
44% voted for price increases, 46% for democratization
-govt lost both measures (needed 50.1% to pass)

Strikes, wanted restoration of Solidarity

Aug 26, 1988

Jaruzelski in power

July 1989 - Dec 1990


Gottwald in power

June 1948 - Mar 1953

PM + President Gottwald died

Mar 1953

Antonin Novotny in power

Nov 1957 - Mar 1968

Oil agreement


forced Czecho to pay double mkt price for oil from Soviets

6 day war

June 5, 1967 - June 10, 1967

Czechs applauded Israelis, inspired them
-small nation that can fight powerful neighbour states

Dubcek attack on Novotny

Oct 1967

Dubcek in power

Jan 1968 - Apr 1969

Dubcek becomes First Secretary

Jan 5, 1968

Novotny as lame duck president until Mar 1968

Dubcek speech to farmers

Feb 1, 1968

said that farmers, rather than state planners, ought to decide what crops are best
-move away from central planning

Svoboda in power (president)

Mar 1968 - May 1975

Action Programme

Apr 5, 1968

-denounced mistakes, criticized CCP
-road to socialism; rights of individual

Elections for nat'l councils

May 1968

Dubcek summoned to Moscow

May 4, 1968

2000 words menifesto

June 1968

-article in newspaper after prelim censorship abolished
-called upon Czechs to defend themselves against invasion

WTO military maneuvers at Czech border

June 20, 1968

Tito visits

Aug 9, 1968

Ulbricht visits

Aug 12, 1968

Invasion into Czech by Warsaw Pact

Aug 21, 1968

-all Czech reformers into Moscow
-Svobodo to Moscow to save them

Dubcek + leaders return to post; lost power

Aug 27, 1968

Becomes Federal Republic

Oct 28, 1968

Palach sets himself on fire

Jan 16, 1969

Husak in power

Apr 1969 - Dec 1989

Dubcek replaced by Husak

Apr 1969

Dubcek as ambassador in Turkey

Jan 1970

By June, ousted from CCP

Secret police + nat`l front dissolved

Jan 1990