Romantic to Early Modern Period

Composers, Pieces, and Events 19th Century-20thCentury

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Composer

19 November 1786 - 5 June 1826

Carl Maria von Weber was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic. Also he was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.

Weber's operas Der Freischütz, Euryanthe and Oberon greatly influenced the development of the Romantic opera in Germany.

Event

1789 - 1799

The French Revolution

Composer

29 February 1792 - 13 November 1868

Gioachino Rossini was an Italian composer. One of His best-known operas is Il barbiere di Siviglia. "The Italian Mozart" is his nickname.

Composer

31 January 1797 - 19 November 1828

Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer.
In a short lifespan of 31 years, Schubert was a prolific composer.

Event

1802

Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time.

Composer

11 December 1803 - 8 March 1869

Hector Berlioz was a French Romantic composer. He is best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique.

Event

1804

Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French.

Composer

3 February 1809 - 4 November 1847

Felix Mendelssohn was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. He is now one of the most popular composers of the Romantic era.

Event

1810

The Trumpet gets valves.

Event

1810

Robert Schumann is born in Germany.

Composer

22 February 1810 - 17 October 1849

Frédéric Chopin was a Romantic-era Polish composer. A child prodigy. His innovations in style, musical form, and harmony, and his association of music with nationalism, were influential throughout and after the late Romantic period.

Composer

8 June 1810 - 29 July 1856

Robert Schumann was a German composer and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era.

Composer

October 22, 1811 - July 31, 1886

Franz Liszt was a 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, teacher. He was a benefactor to other composers, including Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz.

Composer

22 May 1813 - 13 February 1883

Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director and conductor. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works.

Composer

10 October 1813 - 27 January 1901

Giuseppe Verdi was an Italian Romantic composer primarily known for his operas. He is considered the preeminent opera composer of the 19th century with Richard Wagner.

Piece of Repertoire

1814

Gretchen am Spinnrade is an 1814 song by Franz Schubert based on a text from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust. It was Schubert's first successful Lied.

Piece of Repertoire

1816

Barbiere di Siviglia is an opera buffa in two acts by Gioachino Rossini. The libretto was based on French comedy Le Barbier de Séville (1775).

Composer

13 September 1819 - 20 May 1896

Clara Schumann was a German musician and composer. She is considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era.

Piece of Repertoire

1821

Der Freischütz is a German opera with spoken dialogue in three acts by Carl Maria von Weber. It is considered the first important German Romantic opera and regarded as the first German "nationalist" opera. The plot is based on the German folk legend of the Freischütz and many of its tunes were inspired by German folk music.

Piece of Repertoire

1827

Winterreise is a song cycle for voice and piano by Franz Schubert. It is the second of Schubert's two great song cycles on Müller's poems.

Composer

May 8, 1829 - December 18, 1869

Louis Moreau Gottschalk was an American composer and pianist, born in New Orleans. He spent most of his working career outside of the United States.

Piece of Repertoire

1830 - 1832

The Mazurkas, Op. 7 are a set of five mazurkas by Frédéric Chopin. The mazurkas were written in 1830 – 1832. A typical performance of all five mazurkas takes about eleven minutes and 20 seconds.

Piece of Repertoire

1830

Symphonie fantastique Op.14 is a program symphony written by the French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. It is an important piece of the early Romantic period. He sees himself at a witches’ sabbath in this 5th movement.

Piece of Repertoire

1833 - 1834

Kindertotenlieder is a song cycle for voice and orchestra. It was written by Gustav Mahler in 1834.

Composer

7 May 1833 - 3 April 1897

Johannes Brahms was a German composer and pianist. He is sometimes grouped as one of the "Three Bs" with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven.

Piece of Repertoire

1836

The Nocturnes, Op. 27 No.2 is one of two solo piano pieces composed by Frédéric Chopin. Both nocturnes in this opus are dedicated to Countess d'Appony.

This publication marked the transition from triplets of nocturnes to contrasting pairs

Piece of Repertoire

1837

Robert Schumann's Fantasiestücke, Op. 12, is a set of eight pieces for piano, written in 1837. Schumann composed the pieces with the characters Florestan and Eusebius in mind, representing the duality of his personality.

Event

1837

Telegraphy patented.

Piece of Repertoire

1838 - 1844

Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in E Minor, Op. 64 is Felix Mendelssohn's last large orchestral work. There is a brief fourteen-bar transitional passage for solo violin and strings only in 3rd movement.

Composer

25 October 1838 - 3 June 1875

Georges Bizet was a French composer of the romantic era. He won many prizes, during a brilliant student career in Paris. He was recognised as an outstanding pianist.

Event

1839

The New York Philharmonic is established.

Composer

21 March 1839 - 28 March 1881

Modest Mussorgsky was a Russian composer. And he was one of the group known as "The Five" with Rimsky-Korsakov, Shostakovich etc. He was an innovator of Russian music in the romantic period.

Piece of Repertoire

1840

Dichterliebe is the best-known song cycle of Robert Schumann. The texts for the 16 songs come from the Lyrisches Intermezzo of Heinrich Heine.

Piece of Repertoire

1845 - 1849

Trois études de concert, No.3: Un sospiro is one of the set of three piano études by Franz Liszt, composed between 1845–1849 and published in Paris. This étude is a study in crossing hands, and arpeggios.

Piece of Repertoire

1846

Elijah is an oratorio in English written by Felix Mendelssohn in 1846. This piece was composed in the spirit of his Baroque predecessors Bach and Handel, whose music he loved.

Piece of Repertoire

1847

Piano Trio in G minor Op. 17 is compositions for piano. It was written by Clara Schumann in 1847.

Piece of Repertoire

1853

La traviata is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The years 1851 to 1853 were filled with operatic activity for Verdi.

Piece of Repertoire

1857

Souvenir de Porto Rico is a musical composition for piano by American composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk written during a tour in Puerto Rico. The piece makes free use of Latin and Afro-American melodies and rhythms almost fifty years before early ragtime and jazz would popularize its use.

Piece of Repertoire

1857 - 1859

Tristan und Isolde is an opera, or music drama in three acts by Richard Wagner. It was composed between 1857 and 1859.

Event

1860

The slave trade introduces West African rhythms, work songs, chants and spirituals to America, which strongly influence blues and jazz. Gustav Mahler is born in Bohemia.

Composer

7 July 1860 - 18 May 1911

Gustav Mahler was a late-Romantic Austrian composer and one of the leading conductors of his generation. He acted as a bridge between the 19th century tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century as a composer.

Composer

11 June 1864 - 8 September 1949

Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He was the principal horn player at the Court Opera in Munich.

Composers

1867 - April 1, 1917

Scott Joplin was an African-American composer and pianist. He achieved fame for his ragtime compositions, and his nickname was 'The King of Ragtime'.

Composer

September 5, 1867 - December 27, 1944

Amy Cheney Beach was an American composer and pianist. She was the first successful American female composer.

Piece of Repertoire

1868 - 1869

Boris Godunov is an opera by Modest Mussorgsky. It was composed between 1868 and 1869 Russia. It is his only completed opera and is considered a masterpiece. Its subjects are the Russian ruler Boris Godunov, who reigned as Tsar during the Time of Troubles.

Composer

6 January 1872 - 27 April 1915

Alexander Scriabin was a Russian composer and pianist. He was influenced by Frédéric Chopin. And he was one of the most innovative composers of early modern period.

Composer

1 April 1873 - 28 March 1943

Sergei Rachmaninoff was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. He is considered one of the finest pianists, and as a composer.

Piece of Repertoire

1875

Carmen is an opera in four acts by the French composer Georges Bizet. This work was his final work which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed works in the entire opera repertoire. The story of this piece has been the subject of many screen and stage adaptations.

Event

1876

Tchaikovsky completes Swan Lake. It opens in 1877 at Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre. Wagner's The Ring Cycle is performed in full at the Bayreuth Festival. The opera house was built to accomodate Wagner's works.
Johannes Brahms completes his First Symphony. Twenty years in the making, the symphony received mixed reviews but would become one of the most popular ever written.

Piece of Repertoire

1884 - 1885

The Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 is the last of Johannes Brahms's symphonies. He began working on the piece in 1884, just a year after completing his Symphony No. 3, and completed it in 1885.

Event

1891

Carnegie Hall opens in New York.

Piece of Repertoire

1897

Don Quixote is a tone poem by Richard Strauss for cello, viola and large orchestra. It was composed in 1897. And This work was written in theme and variations form.

Piece of Repertoire

1899

The "Maple Leaf Rag" is a ragtime musical composition for piano(solo) It was composed by Scott Joplin in 1899. It was one of Joplin's early works, and It became the model for ragtime compositions. It is one of the most famous of all ragtime pieces.

Piece of Repertoire

1901

This work is classified as Prelude. It was completed in 1901. Rachmaninoff himself premiered this piece in Moscow in 1903, along with Preludes No. 1 and 2 from Op. 23.

Event

1913

Billboard magazine publishes a list of the most popular vaudeville songs. It's the predecessor to their trademark charts.

Piece of Repertoire

1914

Vers la flamme, Op. 72 is one of Alexander Scriabin's last few pieces for piano, written in 1914. The melody of the piece is very simple. But the unusual harmonies and difficult tremolos are very intense.

Event

1924

The Juilliard School opens in New York. Maurice Ravel's Bolero opens in Paris. George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue premieres in New York.