Composers, Pieces, and Events 19th Century-20thCentury
Carl Maria von Weber was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic. Also he was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.
Weber's operas Der Freischütz, Euryanthe and Oberon greatly influenced the development of the Romantic opera in Germany.
The French Revolution
Gioachino Rossini was an Italian composer. One of His best-known operas is Il barbiere di Siviglia. "The Italian Mozart" is his nickname.
Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer.
In a short lifespan of 31 years, Schubert was a prolific composer.
Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time.
Hector Berlioz was a French Romantic composer. He is best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique.
Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French.
Felix Mendelssohn was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. He is now one of the most popular composers of the Romantic era.
Robert Schumann is born in Germany.
The Trumpet gets valves.
Frédéric Chopin was a Romantic-era Polish composer. A child prodigy. His innovations in style, musical form, and harmony, and his association of music with nationalism, were influential throughout and after the late Romantic period.
Robert Schumann was a German composer and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era.
Franz Liszt was a 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, teacher. He was a benefactor to other composers, including Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz.
Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director and conductor. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works.
Giuseppe Verdi was an Italian Romantic composer primarily known for his operas. He is considered the preeminent opera composer of the 19th century with Richard Wagner.
Gretchen am Spinnrade is an 1814 song by Franz Schubert based on a text from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust. It was Schubert's first successful Lied.
Barbiere di Siviglia is an opera buffa in two acts by Gioachino Rossini. The libretto was based on French comedy Le Barbier de Séville (1775).
Clara Schumann was a German musician and composer. She is considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era.
Der Freischütz is a German opera with spoken dialogue in three acts by Carl Maria von Weber. It is considered the first important German Romantic opera and regarded as the first German "nationalist" opera. The plot is based on the German folk legend of the Freischütz and many of its tunes were inspired by German folk music.
Winterreise is a song cycle for voice and piano by Franz Schubert. It is the second of Schubert's two great song cycles on Müller's poems.
Louis Moreau Gottschalk was an American composer and pianist, born in New Orleans. He spent most of his working career outside of the United States.
Symphonie fantastique Op.14 is a program symphony written by the French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. It is an important piece of the early Romantic period. He sees himself at a witches’ sabbath in this 5th movement.
The Mazurkas, Op. 7 are a set of five mazurkas by Frédéric Chopin. The mazurkas were written in 1830 – 1832. A typical performance of all five mazurkas takes about eleven minutes and 20 seconds.
Kindertotenlieder is a song cycle for voice and orchestra. It was written by Gustav Mahler in 1834.
Johannes Brahms was a German composer and pianist. He is sometimes grouped as one of the "Three Bs" with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven.
The Nocturnes, Op. 27 No.2 is one of two solo piano pieces composed by Frédéric Chopin. Both nocturnes in this opus are dedicated to Countess d'Appony.
This publication marked the transition from triplets of nocturnes to contrasting pairs
Robert Schumann's Fantasiestücke, Op. 12, is a set of eight pieces for piano, written in 1837. Schumann composed the pieces with the characters Florestan and Eusebius in mind, representing the duality of his personality.
Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in E Minor, Op. 64 is Felix Mendelssohn's last large orchestral work. There is a brief fourteen-bar transitional passage for solo violin and strings only in 3rd movement.
Georges Bizet was a French composer of the romantic era. He won many prizes, during a brilliant student career in Paris. He was recognised as an outstanding pianist.
The New York Philharmonic is established.
Modest Mussorgsky was a Russian composer. And he was one of the group known as "The Five" with Rimsky-Korsakov, Shostakovich etc. He was an innovator of Russian music in the romantic period.
Dichterliebe is the best-known song cycle of Robert Schumann. The texts for the 16 songs come from the Lyrisches Intermezzo of Heinrich Heine.
Trois études de concert, No.3: Un sospiro is one of the set of three piano études by Franz Liszt, composed between 1845–1849 and published in Paris. This étude is a study in crossing hands, and arpeggios.
Elijah is an oratorio in English written by Felix Mendelssohn in 1846. This piece was composed in the spirit of his Baroque predecessors Bach and Handel, whose music he loved.
Piano Trio in G minor Op. 17 is compositions for piano. It was written by Clara Schumann in 1847.
La traviata is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The years 1851 to 1853 were filled with operatic activity for Verdi.
Tristan und Isolde is an opera, or music drama in three acts by Richard Wagner. It was composed between 1857 and 1859.
Souvenir de Porto Rico is a musical composition for piano by American composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk written during a tour in Puerto Rico. The piece makes free use of Latin and Afro-American melodies and rhythms almost fifty years before early ragtime and jazz would popularize its use.
The slave trade introduces West African rhythms, work songs, chants and spirituals to America, which strongly influence blues and jazz. Gustav Mahler is born in Bohemia.
Gustav Mahler was a late-Romantic Austrian composer and one of the leading conductors of his generation. He acted as a bridge between the 19th century tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century as a composer.
Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He was the principal horn player at the Court Opera in Munich.
Scott Joplin was an African-American composer and pianist. He achieved fame for his ragtime compositions, and his nickname was 'The King of Ragtime'.
Amy Cheney Beach was an American composer and pianist. She was the first successful American female composer.
Boris Godunov is an opera by Modest Mussorgsky. It was composed between 1868 and 1869 Russia. It is his only completed opera and is considered a masterpiece. Its subjects are the Russian ruler Boris Godunov, who reigned as Tsar during the Time of Troubles.
Alexander Scriabin was a Russian composer and pianist. He was influenced by Frédéric Chopin. And he was one of the most innovative composers of early modern period.
Sergei Rachmaninoff was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. He is considered one of the finest pianists, and as a composer.
Carmen is an opera in four acts by the French composer Georges Bizet. This work was his final work which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed works in the entire opera repertoire. The story of this piece has been the subject of many screen and stage adaptations.
Tchaikovsky completes Swan Lake. It opens in 1877 at Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre. Wagner's The Ring Cycle is performed in full at the Bayreuth Festival. The opera house was built to accomodate Wagner's works.
Johannes Brahms completes his First Symphony. Twenty years in the making, the symphony received mixed reviews but would become one of the most popular ever written.
The Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 is the last of Johannes Brahms's symphonies. He began working on the piece in 1884, just a year after completing his Symphony No. 3, and completed it in 1885.
Carnegie Hall opens in New York.
Don Quixote is a tone poem by Richard Strauss for cello, viola and large orchestra. It was composed in 1897. And This work was written in theme and variations form.
The "Maple Leaf Rag" is a ragtime musical composition for piano(solo) It was composed by Scott Joplin in 1899. It was one of Joplin's early works, and It became the model for ragtime compositions. It is one of the most famous of all ragtime pieces.
This work is classified as Prelude. It was completed in 1901. Rachmaninoff himself premiered this piece in Moscow in 1903, along with Preludes No. 1 and 2 from Op. 23.
Billboard magazine publishes a list of the most popular vaudeville songs. It's the predecessor to their trademark charts.
Vers la flamme, Op. 72 is one of Alexander Scriabin's last few pieces for piano, written in 1914. The melody of the piece is very simple. But the unusual harmonies and difficult tremolos are very intense.
The Juilliard School opens in New York. Maurice Ravel's Bolero opens in Paris. George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue premieres in New York.