History of Architecture

Lori Bustamante

Main

Egypt

4500 B.C. - 332 B.C.

-Lily, lotus, palm or papyrus plant motifs on capitals
-Built pyramids which were enormous tombs for their kings

Greece

1000 B.C. - 146 B.C.

-Classical orders Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
-Parthenon in Athens constructed

Rome

509 B.C. - 27 B.C.

-Invention of concrete allowed the Romans to build arches, vaults and domes
-constructed Roman Colosseum

Early Christian

33 A.D. - 476 A.D.

-Main Symbols cross, fish, dove and lamb
-New Christian religion sanctified by Roman Emperor Constantine
-Built Churches, baptisteries, mausoleums, tombs

Middle Ages

300 A.D. - 1500 A.D.

-Began with the collapse of the Roman Empire

Byzantine

330 A.D. - 453 A.D.

-Hagia Sophia built by Emporer Justinian
-Architecture had plain exteriors and very ornate interiors that were very formal and all about the power of the church
-created other worldly atmosphere

Islamic

622 A.D. - 1600 A.D.

-Architecture evolved from religion
-Moorish arch and onion dome
-The Alhambra in Granada, Spain constructed
-Artwork is mathematical and graphic

Romanesque

700 A.D. - 1150 A.D.

-Beginning of what becomes Gothic
-Crusades
-Heraldic devices

Gothic

1150 A.D. - 1550 A.D

-Dark Ages
-Pointed arches, tracery, pinnacles, trefoil, linen fold, gargoyles
-Notre Dame Cathedral France

Italian Renaissance

1400 A.D. - 1600 A.D.

-Began in Florence, Italy
-Families with money sponsored and funded artists and great thinkers-Return to classicism in culture, architecture and art
-Sedia Chair, Savanarola Chair, Sgabello Chair
-Andre Palladio Great architect
-Medici Palace

Spanish Renaissance

1480 A.D. - 1650 A.D.

-Ferdinand and Isabella dominating the world politically and economically
-Huge buildings with classical motifs
-Moorish influences
-Casa de El Greco

English Renaissance

1485 A.D. - 1660 A.D.

-Tudor: Half-timbered construction, parge work ceiling, Henry VIII
-Elizabethan: Tudor Rose, staircases
-Jacobean: Exteriors are regular, symmetrical with classical and other motifs

French Renaissance

1515 A.D. - 1643 A.D.

-Regularity, order, and symmetry are common design principles
-Want to recreate what they saw in Italy after invasions
-The Louvre
-Motifs: Fleur de Lis, animal symbols of kings, initials, crowns

Baroque

1600 A.D. - 1750 A.D.

-Movement in architecture
-Still classical details
-added on to Renaissance

American Georgian

1702 A.D. - 1770 A.D.

English Neo-Palladian and Georgian

1702 A.D. - 1770 A.D.

-Classical details
-Thermae window
-Different rooms with different themes
-Queen Anne Chair
-Chippendale
-Ball and Claw Foot

Rococo

1715 A.D. - 1760 A.D.

-Asymmetrical and light in scale
-Themes and motifs include romance, country life, the exotic, fantasy, and gaiety
-Rococo of Louis XV
-feminine shape is reflected in the prevalent curvilinear forms
-flowers, bouquets tied with ribbon, baskets of flowers, garlands, shells, Chinoiserie and singerie designs, romantic landscapes, Italian comedy figures, musical instruments, hunting and fishing symbols, cupids, bows and arrows, torches, shepherds and shepherdesses, Turkish arabesques and figures, pastoral emblems such as shepherd crooks, and an allover trellis pattern with flowers in the center of intersecting lines

Early Neoclassical

1740 A.D. - 1790 A.D.

-Imitate images of ancient Greece and Rome in art, architecture, interiors, furniture, decorative arts, landscapes, literature, dress, and behavior
-Neoclassical style can be plain, severe, and monumental or express the lightness, grace, and refinement of Rococo with classical forms and motifs

Late English Georgian

1760 A.D. - 1810 A.D.

-Broken pediment over door
-Palladian Window
-English Influence

Louis XVI and French Provincial

1774 A.D. - 1810 A.D.

-Highboy
-Cabriolet

American Federal

1776 A.D. - 1820 A.D.

-Patriotic
-Bald Eagle Motif
-Fashioned Roman architecture after unearthing Pompeii