Cold War


Franklin D. Roosevelt

1933 - April 12 1945

Harry Truman

April 12 1945 - January 20 1953

Dwight D. Eisenhower

January 20 1953 - January 20 1961

John Kennedy

January 20 1961 - November 22 1963

Lyndon B. Johnson

November 22 1963 - January 20 1969


January 20 1969 - August 9 1974

Gerald Ford

August 9 1974 - January 20 1977

Jimmy Carter

January 20 1977 - January 20 1981

Ronal Reagan

January 20 1981 - January 20 1989

George W. Bush Sr

January 20 1989 - January 20 1993

Soviet Premiers


January 21 1924 - March 5 1953


March 5 1953 - February 8 1955


February 8 1955 - October 14 1964


October 14 1964 - October 10 1982


November 12 1982 - February 9 1984


February 13 1984 - March 10 1985


March 12 1985 - December 25 1991

Summits and Agreements

Moscow Conference - Percentages Deal


Split influence over European countries; Romania, Greece, Bulgaria, Ygoslavia, Hungary
- Good for Stalin "buffer zone"
- Impractical to implement
- No US rep



Truman, Atlee, Stalin
- Poland moved West to the Oder-Niesse line
- 5 Million Germans forcibly relocated
- No fixed reparations from Germany
- Truman's boast about A-Bomb backfired
- Truman and Atlee too inexperience
- US complained about no free elections
-Stalin angry



Stalin, Churchill, FDR present
- Free elections to be held in Eastern Europe
- UN established
- Germany to be divided and controlled by the successful allies
- Soviets already have huge control in parts of Poland
- Stalin never had free elections
- Split of Germany left Berlin isolated

Geneva Conference

  • Korean Armistice - divided on 38th Parallel
  • Vietnam - ended French war, v. split on 17th Parallel, Reunification elections agreed to be held for 1956 BUT -US refuse to sign deal and walk out of conference

Austrian State Treaty

  • Austria had been split in the same way as Germany (4 zones)
  • Agreed to withdraw troops, Reduce superpower influence in Austria and for Austrian to be re-unified and become neutral BUT: -Not able to reach the same deal over Germany

Geneva Summit

  • First meeting of leaders since 1945
  • Reasonable amicable relations
  • Established "Geneva Spirit"
  • Cultural exchanges were agreed BUT
  • Khr. refused to accept Ike's "Open Skies" policy (Ike only suggested this because he knows soviets don't have the technology to fly planes over the US)
  • Ike refused to accept reunification neutrality of W Ger but Germany just joined NATO so Khr. knew Ike would have to refuse

Camp David Summit

  • First Soviet leader to visit US
  • Positive, cordial reception for Khr. from US public and politicians BUT:
  • No deals were made
  • Tension still present and distressed
  • The Disneyland Incident.

Paris Summit


Only failures:
- U2 spy plane shot down flying through Soviet airspace
- Khr enraged and wants Ike to apologise but refuses to acknowledge it was a military plane
- Khr. proves Ike lying by producing Gary Powers (pilot)
- Ike refused to apoligise to Khr. Storms out of the Summit --> no deals
- Propaganda victory for the USSR

Vienna Summit


Only Failures:
- Khr deliberately set out to bully and intimidate young and inexperienced JFK
- Demands US troops are withdrawn from Berlin
- No deal.

Hotline set up


After CMC wanted to ensure total ability to communicate at all times

Test Ban Treaty


Places a ban on atmostpheric testing of nuclear weaponry
Testing just goes underground

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

  • US, USSR and NATO forces (except France) agree not to spread nuclear weapons to countries that don't already have nuclear capabilities

Triangular Diplomacy

1969 - 1974
  • Nixon and Kissinger exploit the differences in Sino-Soviet relations


1969 - 1979

Ostpolitik- Moscow

  • The USSR and FRG declared they had no territorial claim over any other state
  • Abandoned the Hallstein Doctrin
  • West Germ. Presented Brezhnev with a letter on German Unity
  • USSR gained Western Recognition of their "empire"
  • Post-45 borders declared "inviable" (not alterable by violence)

Ostpolitik - Four Power Agreement

September 1970
  • West Berlin had equal access rights to West Germany
  • West Berlin not legally part of West Germany

SALT I - Interim Treaty

  • Agreed to limit the number of ICBMS and SLBMS --> 1618 ICBMS and 740 SLBMS for USSR --> 1054 ICBMS and 740 SLBMS for US
  • Soviet Union was allowed more ICBMs as US had the advantage in other areas e.g. bomber planes BUT:
  • Omitted new technological advances like MIRVs which carried multiple warheads Technological Advatage lay with the USA
  • Each side is allowed to replace old, obsolete missiles with new ones within these limits (Far righters like Reagan thought that this was just allowing the USSR to catch up with the US)

SALT I - Basic Principles Agreement

  • Laid down rules of warfare
  • Pledged to "do their utmost to avoid military confrontation" and to exercise restraint in International Relations

SALT I - ABM Treaty

  • Limited each side to 2 ABM systems
  • Reinforced MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) as it provided the knowledge that the other side could still strike back, however too many ABM systems would encourage the other side to go first

Ostpolitik - Basic Treaty

December 1972
  • Technical agreements of transit traffic (rights of west Berliners to visit East Berlin)
  • The FRG recognised the GDR as an equal soverign state and acepted both sides should be represented at the UN
  • The "letter" showed W. German ambitions to peacefully reunify Germany

Helsinki Accords

  • Warsaw Pact and NATO countries included
  • WP wanted US recognition of post-45 European borders
  • BASKET 1: declared the European borers were "inviolable" couldn't be altered by force
  • BASKET 2: Covered trade and tech exchanges to promote east/west links
  • BASKET 3: contained concessions the US were trying to gain - agreement to accept human rights (Freedom of Speech and Freedom of movement accross Europe) --> hoped it would undermine oppressive regimes in soviet sphere BUT: Soviets didn't stick to Basket 3

SALT II - Vladivostok

  • Left out limits for cruise missiles where USA had significant lead
  • Set limits for missile launchers and strategic bombers --> exceedingly technical and "could not be understand by your common senator"
  • Never ratified in US after Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

Geneva Summit


1st Summit meeting for 6 years
- Seem to have established "friendly" relations
- Both agreed that "nuclear war cannot be won and must not be fought --> Improvement on Basic Principles Treaty in SALT I
No agreement reached

Reykjavik Summit

  • No agreement made on disarmament but Gorby claimed there had been an "intellectual breakthrough"
  • 3 minor deals made - the elimination of US and USSR land based intermediate range missiles - A major reduction of strategic offensive weapons - A joint pledge not to withdraw from an ABM treaty or to deploy SKI for an agreed period of time


Washington Summit


INF Treaty
- total disarmament of all land-based intermediate missiles
- Allow other countries inspectors to verify

Moscow Summit


Failed to reach agreement over ICBMs

Malta Summit


Gorby decalred that "we not longer consider you enemies"
Bush Sr. agreed --> end of CW

US Actions

A-bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki


Baruch Plan

  • US suggests all atomic materials be controlled by the UN to end atomic developments
  • Soviets reject plan seeing it as designed to preserve the US advantage permanently (US control UN)

Kennan's Long Telegram

February 1946
  • Communism = malignant, expanding parasite

US introduce Marshall Plan

  • $17 bn to all of Europe
  • Soviets accuse US of expanding

New currency into W. Germany


Soviets accuse US of breaking Potsdam

CIA set up


Set up to spy on the Russians

The Truman Doctrine introduced

  • Must protect countries vulnerable to Communism with economic aid NOT military action (in conjunction with Marshall Plan)

US actions in W. Germany break Yalta and Potsdam

  • New Currency
  • Bizonia (combining of English, American and French territory)
  • New political assembly

NATO formed


Military alliance of US/W. Europe

NSC 68

  • Names and blames USSR
  • Increase in defence spending
  • Accepts that the military may need to intervene in countries fighting "armed minorities" i.e. Communist insurgents.
  • Introduces idea of ROLLING BACK COMMUNISM

Cease-fire in Korean War


Eisenhower's first action in office

End of McCarthy Witch hunt


Ike able to challenge McCarthy as he was a general, Republican and had good record with Anti-Comm

Ike refused to send troops in to Vietnam

  • even after VC uprising

Alliance for Progress

  • $20 billion plan to promote living standards in Latin America
  • Peace Corps volunteers in health, education, agricultural projects --> Wanted to get rid of the causes of Communism i.e. POVERTY

Operation Mongoose


CIA planned invasion of Cuba by anti--Castro Cuban exiles

Increased Military Budget and Troops available

1961 - 1964
  • Military budget increased from $47.4 billion in 1961 to $53.6 billion in 1964
  • Increased combat ready division from 11-16
  • Increased number of soldiers from 2.5 million - 2.7 million --> More of them trained in counter-insurgency tactics

Bay of Pigs

April 1961

-1400 Cuban exiles landed at Bay of Pigs - hoped to spark popular uprising against Castro but had been anticipated and were imprisoned
- JFK cancelled bombing raids and marine landings
--> Monumental Distaster for the US

16000 Counter Insurgency troops in Vietnam


Operation Barrell Roll


Prolonged bombing of North Vietnam

Operation Rolling Thunder

1965 - 1968

Sustained ariel bombardment of North Vietnam


  • Nixon forced to resign after spying on and having staff break into democrats' headquarters before the election

Trade Embargo Against USSR

  • Response to invasion of Afghanistan

Boycott of Olympics in Moscow


US proved weapons and money to right wing "Contras" in civil war against Coms

1981 - 1990

Increased Military Spending by 13%


Then increased it by 8% in each of the following years

Invasion of Grenada


Development of the Reagan Doctrine

  • US will provide support for all anti-com insurgents, even if they're a rebel group and not right wing government

Reagan described USSR as "evil empire"


Reagan announced SDI programme


Increased aid to Afghan rebels

  • Stinger missiles

Intervention in Angola supporting Right Wing UNITA


US congress prohibited all aid to the Cotras


But Reagan gave them the profit from selling arms to Iran

Soviet actions

From 1945 Soviets insert communists into almost all govts in E. Eur


Berlin Blockade

June 1948 - May 1949

Stalin dies

March 5 1953

Formation of the Warsaw Pact

  • Soviet response to NATO
  • Made its members reliant on Soviet forces for protection - strengthens Soviet position in Europe
  • All military harware was provided by the USSR
  • Some states resented USSR interference

Khrushchev delivers de-Stalinization speech

  • Attacked Stalin and the cult around him
  • Advanced concept of peaceful co-existence
  • Attacked the Terror of Stalin's brutal repression [20 million killed not including WWII, Gulag labour camps]

Khr. issues first Berlin Ultimatum

  • Wanted to squeeze on Berlin "the testicles of the west"

First Berlin Ultimatum

November 10 1958

Khr. demands peace treaty over Germany
- 6 month ultimatum

Khr. and Castro signed the Soviet Cuban Accords

August 1962
  • Soviets began to secretly deploy edium range nuclear missiles on Cuba
  • 40,000 Soviet troops and MIG-21 Fighter planes

Soviet ships arrived in Cuba carrying nuclear warheads

October 4 1962
  • Ship was called Indigivka
  • Enough warheads to equip 158 nuclear weapons

Soviet support in El Salvador for Comm. guerillas


Soviet Economic growth reaches 0%


South Korean airliner shot down after straying into Soviet airspace


Soviet boycott of LA olympics


Soviets incorporate 45% increase in military spending into 5 year plan


"Frank Sinatra" Doctrine


Gorby gives speech that announces that "Marist-Leninism isn't for everyone"
- End of Brezhnev doctrine

Gorby begins to withdraw troops from Afghan.

Dec 1988
  • Took four years to withdraw troops

Eastern European Protests


Article 6 of Soviet Constitution repealed

February 1990

Ended Communist Party monopoly on power

Eastern Europe

Elections rigged for the Communists in Romania

  • Peasant party was dissolved and King was forced to abdicate

The Czecholovakian Crisis

  • Only remaining democratic country in E. Eur, elections due may -- Comms. expected to do badly
  • Comms. formed a coup d'etat before elections
  • Only non-Comm left in govt. was de-fenestrated (Jan Masaryk)

Austrain State Treaty


Unified and neutralised Austria

W. Germany joins NATO


Polish Uprising

  • Workers protest at work over high targets --> riots
  • Crushed by Polish forces not Red Army
  • Moderate Comm leader Gromulka appointed

Czechoslovakian Uprising


Crushed by Soviet army

Hungarian Uprising

  • After establishing a new governement led by Imre Nagy who wanted to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact, the Soviets changed their mind about intervening and suppressed the revolution
  • New Soviet government installed

Construction of the Berlin Wall begins

August 13 1961

Prague Spring

  • Uprising that aimed to achieve a greater institution of rights for Czech citizens and decentralisation of the economy and democratization
  • Thousands of Red Army soldiers were sent in to suppress the protests

Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia

1968 - 1989

Triggered by Prague Spring, Soviet troops occupied Czech. under the Brezhnev doctrine

Czechoslovakia - Charter '77


A document that was circulated by its members in Czechoslovakia which represented political, social and religious views that were illegal
- Criticised the govt for not implementing human rights after Basket 3 of Helsinki
- It emphasised that it was not a permanent, organised body and therefore did not constitute political opposition
- Many of the organisers were imprisoned for political treason

Solidarity movement in Poland

1980 - December 1990
  • Trade union that used social resistance to create change for the workers in Poland
  • The Govt attempted to destroy them after several years of martial law in Poland
  • Decemeber 1990 - Lech Walesa elected president of Poland

Polish Leader declared martial law


In response to Solidarity movement


London Poles recognised as official Polish Govt

  • Fled to England before WWII
  • Stalin set up pro-Soviet govt (The Lublin Committee)

Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech

March 1946

Germany officially divided

  • Consequence of the Berlin blockade

North Korea Invade South Korea

June 25 1950

Suez Crisis


Ike forced GB and Grance to withdraw after they invaded Egypt avoiding conflict.

The Berlin Crisis

1958 - 1961
  • In this period 1/6 of the East German population fled to the West
  • Khr alternates ultimatums and detente

Cuban Revolution


Rebellion against US control in Cuba (led by Castro)
--> 1961 officially adopted Communism

The Cuban Missile Crisis

14 October 1962 - 28 October 1962
  • US spy plane finds missiles (14 Oct)
  • Ex-Comm set up by Kennedy, chaired by Bobby Kennedy: options included auprise air attack (too risky), Appeal to UN (take too long), Possible incasion of Cuba by US, Ultimatum sent to Moscow demanding withdrawal of missiles
  • US set up quarantine zone 800 miles off Cuba, Soviet ships stopped and searched for sensitive material - reduced to 500 miles
  • 22 Oct - annouced publicly US naval blockade - promised massive retaliation against USSR if missiles fired from Cuba
  • 26 Oct - 1st letter - Khr. promised to withdraw missiles if US wouldn't invade - 2nd letter - on condition that they removed Jupiter Missiles from Turkey

All missiles removed by 20 November

Tet Offensive

30 January 1968

Suprise military attack by VC and NV forces against SV, US and allied forces
- Largest military operation conducted by either side up to that point in the war
- Shocked the US public who had believed that SV/VC forces incapable of launching such a massive offensive

Oil Crisis

  • Oil prices rose in US by 70% - all supporters of Israel -Banned oil imports to America altogether
  • Joint with economic difficulties in US at the same time e.g. Vietnam debt
  • Cause for detente because US needed to be more secure and less economically vulnerable

Iranian Hostage Crisis

November 1979 - January 1981

52 American diplomats and citizens held hostage for 444 days after Iranian students took over the US Embassy in Tehran during the Iranian Revolution

Collapse of the Berlin Wall

November 1989

Re-unification of Germany

October 1990

Arms Race

A-bomb developed


US drop A-Bomb on Hironshima and Nagasaki

  • IR imbalance
  • Up to 250,000 killed by these bombs

Arab - Israeli War


USSR develop A-bomb


USSR develop A-Bomb


Official start of Arms Race

Both sides develop H-Bombs


Race becomes about delivery of the bombs

Operation IVY - US testing of the first H-bomb


1000 times more powerful than Hiroshima bomb

Ike's policy of Massive Retaliation

  • Far more aggressive than Truman's more flexible policy --> took nuclear arms from being a last resort to a first resort --> More bang for your buck!

US develop B-52 bombers as main way of deploying bombs


The "Shrimp" Accident


Radioactive fallout after testing went much further than expected ->
- People in a Japanese fishing boat 80 miles away were caught in the fall out - One died
- Led to opposition by leading scientists such as Bertrand Russell

Land Based Medium Range Missiles developed

  • Major US advantage

Duck and Cover introduced in US schools

  • Capaign to teach students to react appropriately to the bomb

Arab - Israeli war


USSR develop TU 20 Bear (Plane)


Couldn't match US's B-52s

SPUTNIK developed


First to develop a space satellite
- US public v. aware of it
- Massive moral blow to US
- Soviets have potential to develop first ICBM that can be fired from USSR and land in the US
- Massive US fear and paranoia --> Increase in military spending

US first to develop U2 spy planes


Shows that there is no "bomber gap" - US have 4 more long range bombers than the Soviets

Increased military spending

1957 - 1959
  • Increased military spending by $4 billion in this period
  • Developing Nuclear tech. --> NASA, National Defence Education Act ($1 bn on developing science and technology education in schools)
  • Reversed his "New Look" approach

Rocket Technology and ICMBs

1957 - 1959

Public fear of missile gap began to emerge


  • US satellite failed to get off the ground --> massive public humiliation

Polaris and Minuteman missiles successfully tested


Commitment to Apollo Programme

  • Kennedy announces to congress that there will be a man on the moon by the end of the decade
  • $25-35 billion into the programme

Gregorin and Titar launched into space

  • Huge Russian prestige
  • Increased fear of Missile Gap for US
  • Perception of USSR being ahead in the Arms Race

US Strategic Superiority Maintained

  • No "missile gap" as had been feared by American public
  • 10 new Polaris Subs
  • 400 new Minutemen missiles = 800 overall

MAD reached


Missile Gap - US to USSR


US had 4000 missiles pointed at USSR
USSR had 220 missiles pointed at US

Arab- Israeli War


Arab-Israeli War


Sino-Soviet Relations

US supports Nationalist Khomintang govt vs Comm

1940 - 1949

China falls to Communism


US protect Taiwanese dictator


Korean War

1950 - 1953

Chinese invasion of Tibet


3 year Plan to Industrialise China


1 million Chinese troop sent into Korean War


500,000 dead

Treaty of Mutual Friendship

February 1950
  • promises aid and military assistance to China
  • Mao more interested in Chinese nationalism than worldwide communism
  • Soviet experts to help rebuild Chinese infrastructure

Khr. Visits China


Mao sees himself as equal to Khr. which he never did with Stalin

Mao feels he is being criticised by De-Stalinisation speech


US make implied nuclear threats against China if they invade Taiwan


Chinese bomb Matsu and Quemoy

  • US see this as provocation

Mao makes Khr. intervene in Hungarian uprising


Mao goes to Moscow


Presents himself as leader of world revolution
-> undermined by reliance on Soviet aid

USSR provides China with the blueprint for the A-bomb


Then refuses to give them the A bomb to slow down the process
--> Chinese unhappy with Soviet aid and feel they are trying to control China like Eastern Europe

The Great Leap Forward

1958 - 1963
  • Collectivisation
  • Huge communes
  • "Change the face of China"
  • Obsession with steel of agriculture
  • 30 million people starve to death --> Mao politically weakened

US ordered 7th Fleet to Taiwan Straits

  • Wanted to protect the Chinese Nationalists in Taiwan

Taiwan Crisis

  • Manifestation of conflict over nuclear weapons
  • USSR made it clear that under no conditions would the crisis develop to a point where USSR had to invoke the nuclear deterrent

Disputes between them become ideological

  • Mao says that Khr. is too pro-American
  • No longer any common ground between them
  • Fight to become no. 1 comm state

Russia withdraws Soviet advisors


Soviets and Chinese criticised each other at Bucharest


Gathering of Communist leaders in Bucharest

Begin to compete for influence

  • Khr. declared support for wars of national liberation - more to fend of China than threaten US, but US worried about this in Cuba

Russians reguse to help Chinese during border war with India


Sino-Indian War

  • USSR officially neutral but provide jet engines for Indians

Sino-Soviet Border Dispute


Tibet becomes "self-governing" region of China


Still under control of the Chinese Communist Party

Chinese mobilise to support Com. N. Vietnam


US sees China as a major threat to turn whole of Vietnam Communist

The Great Cultural Revolution

  • Wanted to do away with govt. bureacracy
  • Young people - "Red Guards"
  • Protests outside Soviet embassy -> Chinese torture "Destroyed everything of the past and into Tibet
  • Ideological frenzy -> chaos

Soviets and Chinese supply arms to VC/NVA

  • Soviets supply heavy weaponry
  • Chinese supply engineers/vehicles/arms

China try to disengage other Communists from USSR


Succeed in case of Romania -> Refuse to support USSR

Brezhnev Doctrine Published

  • justifying Soviet intervention against internal and external threats to Moscow - defined socialist regimes
  • Struck China as threatening them

China declare Soviets Enemy no. 1 not US


Nixon's triangular diplomacy

1969 - 1973
  • Exploiting tensions between China and USSr
  • Ping Pong Diplomacy -> US table tennis team to China
  • Nixon to Bejing 1971
  • Significant use of back channels and secret meetings

Ussur River Conflict

  • Reaction to invasion of Czechoslovakia -> China didn't want to be treated like an Eastern European Country under the Brezhnev Doctrine
  • Full scale military clash on both sides

China pull out of secret talks after invasion of Cambodia


China seeks to improve relations with US


Nixon lifts trade ban
--> In Two years US-Sino trade increased 100x to $500million

US allow China to take UN seat


China pressure NV into ending Vietnam War


Panda Diplomacy


Ping Ping and Ling Ling the pandas sent as a gift from Mao to US zoo