Timeline of WWII

(1919 to 1945) - A history of the world's most devastating conflict(s) from the Treaty of Versailles to the early Cold War. Battles are colored for the victor, bombings and sieges are colored for the perpetrator.

Western Theater

Saar Off.

7 September 1939 - 16 September 1939

Location: Saarland, Germany
Attacker: France under Gamelin, Prételat
Defender: Germany under von Witzleben
Outcome: French withdrawal

Battle of the River Plate

13 December 1939

Location: Off the coast of Argentina
Attacker: UK under Harwood
Defender: Germany under Langsdorff
Outcome: British Victory

Battle of Heligoland Bight

18 December 1939

Location: Heligoland Bight, Germany
Attacker: Germany under Schumacher
Defender: UK under Kellett
Outcome: German Victory

Battle of Norway

9 April 1940 - 10 June 1940

Location: Norway
Attacker: Germany under von Falkenhorst
Defender: Norway under Laake, Ruge; UK under Cork
Outcome: German Victory

Invasion of Denmark

9 April 1940

Location: Denmark
Attacker: Germany under Kaupisch
Defender: Denmark under Prior
Outcome: Occupation of Denmark

Battle of France/Benelux

10 May 1940 - 22 June 1940

Location: France and Low Countries
Attacker: Germany under Goring, von Rundstedt, etc.
Defender: France under Giraut, Weygand, Gamelin; UK under Gort, Cork; Netherlands under Winkleman, van Voorst tot Voorst
Outcome: Decisive German Victory

Battle of Britain

10 July 1940 - 31 October 1940

Location: UK airspace
Attacker: Germany under Goring
Defender: UK under Dowding
Outcome: Decisive British Victory

The Blitz

7 September 1940 - 21 May 1941

Location: UK airspace
Attacker: Germany under Goring
Defender: UK under Dowding
Outcome: German Strategic Failure

Battle of the Denmark Strait

24 May 1941

Location: Denmark Strait
Attacker: Germany under Lütjens, Lindemann, Brinkmann
Defender: UK under Holland, Leach, Kerr, Wake-Warker
Outcome: German Victory, HMS Hood sunk

St. Nazaire Raid

28 March 1942

Location: St. Nazaire, France
Attacker: UK under Ryderm Newman
Defender: Germany under Mecke
Outcome: British Victory

Dieppe Raid

19 August 1942

Location: Dieppe, France
Attacker: Allied Commandos under Mountbatten
Defender: Germany under von Rundestedt
Outcome: German Victory

Battle of Normandy

6 June 1944 - 25 August 1944

Location: Normandy, France
Attacker: USA under Eisenhower; UK under Tedder, Montgomery, Leigh-Mallory, Ramsey
Defender: Germany under Rommel, von Rundstedt
Outcome: Decisive Allied Victory, Liberation of Paris

D-Day

6 June 1944

Location: Coast of Normandy, France
Attacker: USA under Eisenhower, Bradley; UK under Montgomery, Leigh-Mallory, Ramsay, Tedder, Dempsey
Defender: Germany under von Rundstedt, Rommel, von Schweppenburg, etc.
Outcome: Decisive Allied Victory, Five beachheads established

Siegfried Line Campaign

25 August 1944 - 7 March 1945

Location: Eastern France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Germany
Attacker: Allies under Eisenhower, Montgomery, Bradley, Devers
Defender: Germany under von Rundstedt, Model
Outcome: Allied Victory

Op. Market Garden

17 September 1944 - 25 September 1944

Location: The Netherlands, Germany
Attacker: Allies under Montgomery, Brereton, Dempsey, Browning, Horricks
Defender: Germany under von Rundstedt, Model, Student, von Zangen, Bittrich
Outcome: Allied Operational Failure

Battle of Hürtgen Forest

19 September 1944 - 16 December 1944

Location: Germany, Belgium
Attacker: US under Bradley, Hodges, Gerow, Collins, Cota
Defender: Germany under Model
Outcome: German Defensive Victory

Battle of Aachen

2 October 1944 - 21 October 1944

Location: Aachen, Germany
Attacker: US under Hobbs, Huebner, Hodges
Defender: Germany under Wilck
Outcome: American Victory

Battle of the Bulge

16 December 1944 - 25 January 1945

Location: The Ardennes, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany
Attacker: Germany under Model, von Rundstedt, von Manteuffel, Dietrich, Brandenberger
Defender: US under Eisenhower, McAuliffe, Bradley, Hodges, Patton; UK under Montgomery
Outcome: Decisive Allied Victory, German Operational Failure

Battle of Remagen

7 March 1945 - 25 March 1945

Location: Remagen, Germany
Attacker: US under Hodges
Defender: Germany under Brandenberger
Outcome: Allied Victory

Ruhr Pocket

7 March 1945 - 21 April 1945

Location: The Ruhr, Germany
Attacker: US under Bradley, Hodges, Simpson, Gerow; UK under Montgomery
Defender: Germany under Model, von Zengen, Harpe
Outcome: Decisive Allied Victory

Op. Plunder/ Varsity

24 March 1945

Location: North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Attacker: Allies under Montgomery, Bols, Ridgeway
Defender: Germany under Blaskowitz, Blumentritt
Outcome: Allied Victory

Battle of Frankfurt

26 March 1945 - 29 March 1945

Location: Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Attacker: US under Irwin, Grow
Defender: Germany under Beyer
Outcome: American Victory

South German Off.

28 March 1945 - 12 May 1945

Location: Southern Germany, Austria, Czech lands
Attacker: US under Devers, Patton, Patch, Irwin; France under de Tassigny; USSR under Konev
Defender: Germany under Friedrich, Holz, Bork
Outcome: Decisive Allied Victory

Battle of Hamburg

28 April 1945 - 3 May 1945

Location: Hamburg, Germany
Attacker: UK under Dempsey, Barker, Lyne
Defender: Germany under Student, Lotz
Outcome: Allied Victory

Eastern Theater

Russian Civil War

25 October 1917 - October 1922

Location: Former Russian Empire, Persia, Mongolia
Attacker: Communists under Lenin, Trotsky, Voroshilov, etc.
Defender: Whites under Kolchack, Kornilov, Denikin, etc.
Outcome: Communist Victory, Creation of USSR

Invasion of Poland

1 September 1939 - 6 October 1939

Location: Poland and Danzig
Attackers: Germany under von Bock and von Rundstedt; USSR under Kovalev and Timoshenko
Defender: Poland under Rydz-Śmigły and Kutrzeba
Outcome: Decisive German and Soviet Victory

Winter War

30 November 1939 - 13 March 1940

Location: Finland
Attacker: USSR under Meretskov, Voroshilov, Timoshenko
Defender: Finland under Ryti, Mannerheim
Outcome: Soviet Victory

Battle of Suomussalmi

7 December 1939 - 8 January 1940

Location: Suomussalmi, Finland
Attacker: USSR under Dashitsev
Defender: Finland under Siilasvuo
Outcome: Decisive Finnish Victory

Balkans Campaign

28 October 1940 - 1 June 1941

Location: Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece
Attackers: Germany under List, von Weichs, Student; Italy under Cavallero, Messe; Hungary under Gorondy-Novák
Defender: Yugoslavia under Petrović; Greece under Papagos; UK under Wilson
Outcome: Decisive Axis Victory, Albania, Greece, and Yugoslavia under Axis control

Op. Barbarossa

22 June 1941 - 2 October 1941

Location: Eastern USSR
Attacker: Germany under von Brauchitsch, Halder, von Leeb, von Bock, von Rundstedt; Finland under Mannerheim
Defender: USSR under Zhukov, Vasilyevskiy, Timoshenko, etc.
Outcome: Axis Tactical & Operational Victory until failing at Moscow, USSR retains Moscow and Leningrad

Siege of Leningrad

8 September 1941 - 27 January 1944

Location: Leningrad, USSR
Attacker: Germany under von Leeb; Finland under Mannerheim
Defender: USSR under Popov, Zhukov, etc.
Outcome: German Strategic Failire, Mass Starvation and Depopulation of Leningrad

Crimean Campaign

26 September 1941 - 4 July 1942

Location: Crimean Peninsula, USSR
Attacker: Germany under von Manstein; Romania under Avramescu; Italy under Mimbelli
Defender: USSR under Kuznetsov
Outcome: Axis Victory

Battle of Moscow

2 October 1941 - 7 January 1942

Location: Moscow, USSR
Attacker: Germany under von Bock
Defender: USSR under Zhukov, Vasilevsky
Outcome: Decisive Soviet Victory, End of Operation Barbarossa

Don, Volga, and Caucasus Off.

28 June 1942 - 24 November 1942

Location: Southern Russia, Caucasus
Attacker: Germany under von Bock, von Weichs, von Manstein
Defender: USSR under Vasilevsky, Zhukov
Outcome: Axis Strategic Failure

Battle of Stalingrad

23 August 1942 - 2 February 1943

Location: Stalingrad, USSR
Attacker: Germany under Manstein, Paulus
Defender: USSR under Zhukov
Outcome: Decisive Soviet Victory

3rd Battle of Kharkov

19 February 1943 - 15 March 1943

Location: Kharkov, Ukrainian SSR, USSR
Attacker: USSR under Golikov, Vatutin
Defender: Germany under von Manstein
Outcome: German Victory, Soviet advance stalled

Battle of Kursk

5 July 1943 - 23 August 1943

Location: Kursk, USSR
Attacker: Germany under von Manstein, von Kluge, Hoth, etc.
Defender: USSR under Zhukov, Vatutin, Rokossovsky
Outcome: Decisive Soviet Victory, German offensive capability is crushed

2nd Battle of Smolensk

7 August 1943 - 2 October 1943

Location: Smolensk, USSR
Attacker: USSR under Yeremenko, Sokolovsky
Defender: Germany under von Kluge
Outcome: Decisive Soviet Victory

Lower Dneiper Off.

24 August 1943 - 23 December 1943

Location: Dneiper River, Ukraine, USSR
Attacker: USSR under Rokossovsky, Konev
Defender: Germany under von Manstein
Outcome: Soviet Victory, Liberation of Ukraine

Dneiper-Carpathian Off.

24 December 1943 - 14 April 1944

Location: Eastern Ukraine, USSR
Attacker: USSR under Rokossovsky, Konev, Vatutin, Zhukov, etc.
Defender: Germany under von Manstein, Hube, Model, etc.
Outcome: Decisive Soviet Victory, Ukraine, Moldavia liberated

Leningrad–Novgorod Off.

January 14 1944 - March 1 1944

Location: Ingria, Pskov, Novgorod, & Narva
Attacker: USSR under Meretskov, Govorov
Defender: Germany under von Kuchler
Outcome: Soviet Strategic Victory, Siege of Leningrad lifted

Battle of Narva

2 February 1944 - 10 August 1944

Location: Narva, Estonia
Attacker: USSR under Govorov, Fedyuninsky
Defender: Germany under Frießner, Steiner
Outcome: German Defensive Victory

Crimean Off.

8 April 1944 - 12 May 1944

Location: Crimea
Attacker: USSR under Tolbukhin
Defender: Germany under Jaenecke
Outcome: Soviet Victory, Liberation of Crimea

Op. Bagration

22 June 1944 - 19 August 1944

Location: Belarus, Baltic States, Ukraine, Eastern Poland
Attacker: USSR under Zhukov, Vasilevsky, Rokossovsky, etc.
Defender: Germany under Busch, Model, Jordan, etc.
Outcome: Soviet Victory, Liberation of Belarus, Soviet foothold in Poland

Lvov-Sandomierz Off.

13 July 1944 - 29 August 1944

Location: Western Ukraine & Eastern Poland
Attacker: USSR under Konev
Defender: Germany under Harpe; Hungary under Federikin
Outcome: Soviet Victory

Warsaw Uprising

1 August 1944 - 2 October 1944

Location: Warsaw, Poland
Attacker: Polish Resistance under Komorowski, Pelczynski, Chursciel
Defender: Germany under Model, von Vormann, Stahel, etc.
Outcome: German Victory, Uprising crushed, Destruction of Warsaw

Jassy–Kishinev Off.

20 August 1944 - 29 August 1944

Location: Eastern Romania
Attacker: USSR under Malinovsky, Tolbukhin
Defender: Germany under Friessner, Fretter-Pico; Romania under Antonescu, Dumitrescu
Outcome: Decisive Soviet Victory

Belgrade Off.

14 September 1944 - 24 November 1944

Location: Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Attacker: USSR under Tolbukhin, Zhdanov; Yugoslav partisans under Dapčević; Bulgaria under Stoychev
Defender: Germany under von Weichs, Schneckenburger, etc.
Outcome: Allied Victory

Baltic Off.

14 September 1944 - 24 November 1944

Location: Baltics, Poland, East Prussia
Attacker: USSR under Govorov, etc.
Defender: Germany under Schörner
Outcome: Soviet Victory

Budapest Off.

29 October 1944 - 13 February 1945

Location: Hungary
Attacker: USSR under Malinovsky, Tolbukhin, etc.
Defender: Germany under Friessner, Wöhler, Pfeffer-Wildenbruch, Schmidhuber; Hungary under Hindy
Outcome: Soviet Victory

Vistula-Oder Off.

12 January 1945 - 2 February 1945

Location: Poland, Eastern Germany
Attacker: USSR under Zhukov, Konev
Defender: Germany under Schörner, Harpe
Outcome: Soviet Strategic Victory

East Prussian Off.

13 January 1945 - 25 April 1945

Location: East Prussia, Germany
Attacker: USSR under Rokossovsky, Chernyakhovsky, Vasilevsky, etc.
Defender: Germany under Reinhardt, Hossbach, Muller, etc.
Outcome: Soviet Victory

Silesian Off.

8 February 1945 - 31 March 1945

Location: Silesia
Attacker: USSR under Konev
Defender: Germany under Schörner
Outcome: Soviet Victory

East Pomeranian Off.

24 February 1945 - 4 April 1945

Location: East Pomerania & West Prussia, Germany
Attacker: USSR under Rokossovsky
Defender: Germany under Weiß, Von Saucken
Outcome: Soviet Victory

Battle of Vienna

2 April 1945 - 13 April 1945

Location: Vienna, Austria
Attacker: USSR under Tolbukhin; Bulgaria under Stoychev
Defender: Germany under von Bünau, Bittrich
Outcome: Soviet-Bulgarian Victory

Battle of Berlin

16 April 1945 - 2 May 1945

Location: Berlin and vicinity, Germany
Attacker: USSR under Zkukov, Chuikov, Rokossovsky, Konev
Defender: Germany under Heinrici, von Tippelskirch, Schörner, Reymann, Weidling
Outcome: Decisive Soviet Victory, Surrender of Germany

Battle of Prague

6 May 1945 - 11 May 1945

Location: Prague, Czechoslovakia
Attacker: USSR under Konev; Poland under Świerczewski, Klapálek; Romania under Atanasiu, Dăscălescu
Defender: Germany under Schörner, Rendulic
Outcome: Decisive Allied Victory

Mediterranean/African Theater

Second Italo-Ethiopian War

3 October 1935 - May 1936

Location: Ethiopia
Attacker: Italy under de Bono, Graziani, Badoglio
Defender: Ethiopia under Selassie, Darge, Yeggazu, etc.
Outcome: Decisive Italian Victory, Creation of Italian East Africa

Coup of July 1936

17 July 1936

Location: Spain and Spanish Possessions
Attacker: Nationalists under Mola, Franco, Goded, etc.
Defender: Spanish Republic
Outcome: Nationalists seize part of Spain, Spanish Civil War begins

Gipuzkoa Campaign

20 July 1936 - 26 September 1936

Location: Gipuzkoa, Northern Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Mola, Canet
Defender: Spanish Republic under Garmendia, Ortega
Outcome: Decisive Nationalist Victory

Siege of the Alcázar

21 July 1936 - 27 September 1936

Location: Toledo, Spain
Attacker: Spanish Republic under Cabello
Defender: Nationalist Spain under Itaurte, Basart, Franco
Outcome: Nationalist Victory, Franco arrives and lifts siege, Important symbolic victory for Franco

Extremadura Campaign

2 August 1936 - 14 August 1936

Location: Extremadura, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain w/Foreign Support under Yagüe, Asensio, Castejón, Barron, Tella
Defender: Spanish Republic under Puigdendolas
Outcome: Nationalist Victory

Assault on Madrid

8 November 1936 - December 1936

Location: Madrid, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Franco, Mola, Varela, etc.
Defender: Spanish Republic
Outcome: Republican Victory, Nationalist Attacker repulsed, Siege of Madrid begins, Republican government moved to Valencia

Aceituna Campaign

13 December 1936 - 31 December 1936

Location: Andalusia, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under de Llano
Defender: Spanish Republic under Monje, Saravia
Outcome: Nationalist Victory

Battle of Jarama

6 February 1937 - 27 February 1937

Location: East of Madrid, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Valera, Escámez, Asensio, Ortiz
Defender: Spanish Republic under Miaja, Perea, Lister, Gonzalez
Outcome: Inconclusive; Republican Strategic Victory

Battle of Guadalajara

8 March 1937 - 27 March 1937

Location: Guadalajara, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Moscardó; Italy under Roatta
Defender: Spanish Republic under Jurado, Miaja, Mera, Líster, El Campesino
Outcome: Republican Victory

War in the North

31 March 1937 - 21 October 1937

Location: Northern Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Mola, Solchaga, Davila; Italy under Bastico
Defender: Spanish Republic under Vaquero, Ciutat, Galan, Tomas
Outcome: Decisive Nationalist Victory

Biscay Campaign

31 March 1937 - 1 July 1937

Location: Biscay, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Mola, Arrondo, Solchaga
Defender: Spanish Republic under de la Encomienda, Gamir; Basque Army
Outcome: Nationalist Victory

Bombing of Guernica

26 April 1937

Location: Guernica, Spain
Attacker: German Condor Legion under Sperrle
Outcome: German Victory

May Days

3 May 1937 - 8 May 1937

Location: Barcelona & Catalonia
Attacker: Spanish Republic, Catalonian Government
Defender: Spanish Communists and Anarchists
Outcome: Republican control of Catalonia

Battle of Brunete

6 July 1937 - 25 July 1937

Location: Brunete, Spain
Attacker: Spanish Republic under Miaja
Defender: Nationalist Spain under Varela
Outcome: Nationalist Strategic Victory

Zaragoza Off.

24 August 1937 - 7 December 1937

Location: Vicinity of Zaragoza, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under de Buruaga, Trallero
Defender: Spanish Republic under Pozas, Modesto, Lister
Outcome: Inconclusive, Strategic Republican Victory

Battle of Teruel

15 December 1937 - 22 February 1938

Location: Teruel, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Franco, Aranda, Varela, etc.
Defender: Spanish Republic under Saravia, Heredia, Ibarolla, etc.
Outcome: Decisive Nationalist Victory

Battle of Cape Palos

6 March 1938

Location: Near Cartagena, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under de Vierna y Belando
Defender: Spanish Republic under de Ubieta
Outcome: Republican Victory

Aragon Off.

7 March 1938 - 19 April 1938

Location: Aragon, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Arrondo, Suerodiaz, Solchaga, etc.; Italy under Berti
Defender: Spanish Republic under Lluch, Lister, Gonzalez
Outcome: Decisive Nationalist Victory

Levante Off.

25 March 1938 - 24 July 1938

Location: East Central Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Solchaga, Varela, Valiño; Italy under Berti
Defender: Spanish Republic under Lopez, Romero, Güemes, Duran
Outcome: Republican Victory

Battle of the Segre

4 April 1938 - 3 January 1939

Location: Northern Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Arrondo, etc.
Defender: Spanish Republic under Saravia, Perea, etc.
Outcome: Nationalist Victory

Battle of the Ebro

25 July 1938 - 16 November 1938

Location: Ebro River, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Davila, Franco, etc.
Defender: Spanish Republic under Lluch, Modesto
Outcome: Decisive Nationalist Victory

Catalonia Off.

23 December 1938 - 10 February 1939

Location: Catalonia, Spain
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Arrondo, etc.; Italy under Gambara
Defender: Spanish Republic under Saravia, etc.
Outcome: Decisive Nationalist Victory

Capture of Madrid

5 March 1939 - 1 April 1939

Location: Southeast Spain, Madrid
Attacker: Nationalist Spain under Franco, Yagüe, Solchaga, Valiño; Italy under Gambara
Defender: Spanish Republic under Barceló, Galán, Ortega; Casado's Faction under Casado, Matallana, Miaja, Mera
Outcome: Decisive Nationalist Victory, End of Spanish Civil War, Start of Franco Regime

East African Campaign

10 June 1940 - 27 November 1941

Location: Horn of Africa
Attacker: Italy under Aosta
Defender: Ethiopia under Selassie; UK under Wavell, Platt, Cunningham
Outcome: Allied Victory, Fall of Italian East Africa

Siege of Malta begins

11 June 1940

Location: Malta
Attacker: Germany under Geisler, Kesselring, Harlinghausen; Italy under Pricolo
Defender: UK under Cunningham, Dobbie, Park, Lloyd
Outcome: Decisive British Victory, Siege lifted on 20 November 1942

Attack on Mers-el-Kébir

3 July 1940

Location: Off Mers-el-Kébir, French Algeria
Attacker: UK under Somerville, Pound
Defender: France under Gensoul, Darlan
Outcome: French fleet disabled

Italian Invasion of Egypt

9 September 1940 - 16 September 1940

Location: Egypt
Attacker: Italy under Graziani, Berti, Maletti
Defender: UK under Gott, Campbell
Outcome: Inconclusive, UK retaliates with Operation Compass

Battle of Dakar

23 September 1940 - 25 September 1940

Location: Dakar, French West Africa
Attacker: Allies under De Gaulle, Cunningham
Defender: Vichy France under Boisson
Outcome: Vichy French Victory

Battle of Gabon

8 November 1940 - 12 November 1940

Location: French Equatorial Africa
Attacker: Free French under de Gaulle, Koenig
Defender: Vichy France under Tetu
Outcome: Allied Victory

Otranto Raid

12 November 1940

Location: Strait of Otranto, Adriatic Sea
Attacker: UK under Pridham-Wippell
Defender: Italy under de Angelis, Barbini
Outcome: Allied Victory

Op. Compass

9 December 1940 - 9 February 1941

Location: Northern Egypt and Libya
Attacker: Italy under Graziani, Gariboldi, etc.
Defender: UK under O'Connor
Outcome: British Victory, Italian 10th Army destroyed

Op. Sonnenblume

6 February 1941 - 6 May 1941

Location: North Libya
Attacker: Germany under Rommel
Defender: UK under Wavell
Outcome: German Victory, UK pushed back to Egypt, Siege of Tobruk begins

Siege of Tobruk

10 April 1941 - 27 November 1941

Location: Tobruk, Libya
Attacker: Germany under Rommel
Defender: UK & Commonwealth under Morshead, later Scobie
Outcome: British Victory

Syria-Lebanon Campaign

8 June 1941 - 14 July 1941

Location: Syria, Lebanon
Attacker: British Commonwealth under Wavell, Wilson, Lavarack
Defender: Vichy France under Dentz
Outcome: Allied Victory

Op. Crusader

18 November 1941 - 30 December 1941

Location: Northern Egypt and Libya
Attacker: UK & Commonwealth under Auchinleck, Ritchie
Defender: Germany under Rommel
Location: British Victory, Siege of Tobruk lifted, Germany pushed back to Libya

Rommel's 2nd Off.

21 January 1942 - 30 June 1942

Location: Libya, Egypt
Attacker: Germany under Rommel
Defender: UK & Commonwealth under Auchinleck, Ritchie
Outcome: German Victory

Battle of Madagascar

5 May 1942 - 6 November 1942

Location: Madagascar
Attacker: UK under Struges
Defender: Vichy France under Annet; Japan under Noburu
Outcome: British Victory

Battle of Gazala

26 May 1942 - 21 June 1942

Location: Gazala, Libya
Attacker: Germany under Rommel
Defender: UK & Commonwealth under Auchinleck, Ritchie
Outcome: Decisive German Victory, Tobruk falls, Allies retreat to El Alamein

1st Battle of El Alamein

1 July 1942 - 27 July 1942

Location: El Alamein, Egypt
Attacker: Germany under Rommel
Defender: UK under Auchinleck
Outcome: Tactical stalemate

2nd Battle of El Alamein

23 October 1942 - 11 November 1942

Location: El Alamein, Egypt
Attacker: UK led Allies under Montgomery
Defender: Germany under Rommel, Stumme
Outcome: Decisive Allied Victory, Montgomery pushes onwards

Op. Torch

8 November 1942 - 16 November 1942

Location: Morocco and Algeria
Attacker: US under Eisenhower, Patton
Defender: Vichy France under Darlan
Outcome: American Victory, Torch landings succeed

Tunisian Campaign

17 November 1942 - 13 May 1943

Location: Tunisia
Attacker: US under Eisenhower; UK under Montgomery
Defender: Germany under Kesselring, Rommel
Outcome: Allied Victory, End of North Africa Campaign

Battle of Kasserine Pass

February 19 1943 - February 24 1943

Location: Kasserine Pass, Tunisia
Attacker: US under Fredendall, UK under Anderson
Defender: Germany under Rommel
Outcome: German Strategic Victory

Sicilian Campaign

9 July 1943 - 17 August 1943

Location: Sicily
Attacker: US under Eisenhower, Patton; UK under Montgomery, Alexander, Tedder, Cunningham
Defender: Germany under Kesselring, Hube; Italy under Guzzoni
Outcome: Allied victory

Invasion of Italy

3 September 1943 - 18 September 1943

Location: Southern Italy
Attacker: US under Clark; UK under Montgomery, Alexander
Defender: Germany under Kesselring, con Vietinghoff
Outcome: Allied Victory, Italian Invasion succeeds

Southern Italian Campaign

3 September 1943 - 15 December 1943

Location: Southern Italy
Attacker: US under Eisenhower, Patton, Clark, etc.; UK under Alexander, Montgomery, Leese, etc.
Defender: Germany under Kesselring, Hube, etc.
Outcome: Allied Victory, Alloed Advance stopped at the Winter Line

Four Days of Naples

27 September 1943 - 30 September 1943

Location: Naples, Italy
Attacker: Neapolitan people under Pandellicini, Zercatti, Bittoti
Defender: Germany under Scholl
Outcome: Allied liberation of Naples

Battle of the Bernhardt Line

1 December 1943 - 15 January 1944

Location: Mignano Gap, Central Italy
Attacker: UK under Alexander, Montgomery, Leese; US under Clark
Defender: Germany under Kesselring, von Vietinghoff, Lemenson
Outcome: Allied Victory, Bernhardt Line broken

Battle of Monte Cassino

17 January 1944 - 18 May 1944

Location: Monte Cassino, Italy
Attacker: US under Clark; UK under Alexander, Leese
Defender: Germany under Kesselring, von Vietinghoff
Outcome: Allied Victory, Winter Line broken, Rome captured

Battle of Anzio

22 January 1944 - 5 June 1944

Location: Anzio, Italy
Attacker: US under Clark, Lucas, Truscott; UK under Alexander
Defender: Germany under Kesselring, von Mackensen
Outcome: Allied Victory, Rome captured, German army breaks out to Gothic Line

Battle of Ancona

16 June 1944 - 18 June 1944

Location: Ancona, Italy
Attacker: Poland under Anders, Rudnicki
Defender: Germany under Hoppe
Outcome: Polish Victory

Invasion of Elba

17 June 1944

Location: Elba, Italy
Attacker: British Navy under Troubridge; France under de Tassigny
Defender: Germany under Gall
Outcome: Allied Victory

Op. Dragoon

15 August 1944 - 14 September 1944

Location: Southern France
Attacker: US under Devers, Hewitt, Patch, Truscott; Free French under de Tassigny
Defender: Germany under Blaskowitz, Wiese, von Weitersheim
Outcome: Allied Victory, Southern France liberated

Gothic Line Off.

September 1944 - March 1945

Location: Northern Italy
Attacker: USA under Clark; UK under Alexander, Leese, McCreery
Defender: Germany under Kesselring, von Vietinghoff, Lemelsen; Italian Social Republic under Graziani, Guzzoni
Outcome: Inconclusive

Spring 1945 Off.

6 April 1945 - 2 May 1945

Location: Northern Italy
Attacker: UK under Alexander, McCreery; US under Clark, Truscott; Brazil under Vargas
Defender: Germany under von Vietinghoff, Herr, Lemelsen; Italian Social Republic under Mussolini, Graziani
Outcome: Decisive Allied Victory, German surrender in Italy, Abolition of Italian Social Republic, Mussolini executed by partisans

Pacific Theater

Invasion of Manchuria

18 September 1931 - 27 February 1932

Location: Manchuria, China
Attacker: Japan under Honjo, Tamon, Tojo, Hayashi
Defender: China under Zhang, Ma, Feng, Ting
Outcome: Japanese Victory, Japan annexes Manchuria

Shanghai Incident

28 January 1932 - 3 March 1932

Location: Shanghai, China
Attacker: Japan under Shirakawa
Defender: China under Jiang, Zhang
Outcome: Inconclusive, Demilitarization of Shanghai

Marco Polo Bridge Incident

7 July 1937 - 9 July 1937

Location: Near Peking, China
Attacker: Japan under Tashiro
Defender: China under Song, Qin
Outcome: Chinese Victory, Second Sino-Japanese War begins

Battle of Shanghai

August 13, 1937 - November 26, 1937

Location: Shanghai, China
Attacker: Japan under Yanagawa, Matsui, Kiyoshi
Defender: China under Chiang, Zhang, Chen, Feng
Outcome: Japanese Victory, Japanese Capture of Shanghai

Battle of Nanking

9 December 1937 - 31 January 1938

Location: Nanking, China
Attacker: Japan under Iwane, Yasuhiko
Defender: China under Tang
Outcome: Japanese Victory, Rape of Nanking

Battle of Xuzhou

24 March 1938 - 1 May 1938

Location: Xuzhou, China
Attacker: Japan under Rensuke, Seishiro
Defender: China under Li, Bai, Sun, Han, etc.
Outcome: Japanese Strategic Victory, Chinese breakout

Battle of Tai'erzhuang

24 March 1938 - 7 April 1938

Location: Shandong & Jiangsu Provinces, China
Attacker: Japan under Isogai, Seishiro, Hata
Defender: China under Li, Han, Pang, Sun, etc.
Outcome: Decisive Chinese Victory

Battles of Khalkin Gol

11 May 1938 - 16 September 1939

Location: Khalkha River, Mongolian People's Republic
Attacker: Japan under Komatsubara, Masaomi, and Satō
Defender: USSR under Shtern, Zhukov, Smushkevich; Mongolia under Choibalsan
Outcome: Soviet-Mongolian Victory, Ceasefire with Japan

Battle of Wuhan

11 June 1938 - 27 October 1938

Location: Wuhan, China
Attacker: Japan under Kotohito, Okamura, Hata, etc.
Defender: China under Chiang, Chen, Bai, etc.
Outcome: Japanese Pyrrhic Victory & Strategic Failure, Wuhan is captured by Japan

Battle of Lake Khasan

29 July 1938 - 11 August 1938

Location: Lake Khasan, Russia
Attacker: Japan under Sato
Defender: USSR under Blücher, Berzarin, Shtern
Outcome: Soviet Victory

Battle of Wanjialang

1 October 1938 - 11 October 1938

Location: Wanjialing region, China
Attacker: Japan under Matsuura
Defender: China under Xue
Outcome: Decisive Chinese Victory

Battle of Nanching

17 March 1939 - 9 May 1939

Location: Nanchang, China
Attacker: Japan under Okamura
Defender: China under Xue
Outcome: Decisive Japanese Victory

Battle of Suixan-Zaoyang

20 April 1939 - 24 May 1939

Location: Vicinities of Suixan, and Zaoyang, China
Attacker: Japan under Okamura
Defender: China under Li
Outcome: Decisive Chinese Victory

1st Battle of Changsa

13 September 1939 - 8 October 1939

Location: Changsa, China
Attacker: Japan under Okamura
Defender: China under Chen, Xue, Guan
Outcome: Chinese Victory

1939-40 Winter Off.

November 1, 1939 - April 1940

Location: China
Attacker: China under Xue, Li, Gu, Wei, etc.
Defender: Japan under Nishio
Outcome: Chinese Operational Failure

Hundred Regiments Off.

20 August 1940 - 5 December 1940

Location: North China
Attacker: Chinese Communists under Peng, Zhu
Defender: Japan under Tada
Outcome: Chinese Victory

Battle of Shanggao

14 March 1941 - 9 April 1941

Location: Shanggao, China
Attacker: Japan under Anami
Defender: China under Luo
Outcome: Decisive Chinese Victory, Japanese repelled

Battle of South Shanxi

7 May 1941 - 27 May 1941

Location: South Shanxi, China
Attacker: Japan under Tada
Defender: China under He
Outcome: Japanese Victory

Pearl Harbor Attack

December 7, 1941

Location: Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, USA
Attacker: Japanese Air Force under Nagumo, Yamamoto
Defender: US under Kimmel, Short
Outcome: Japanese Major Tactical Victory, USA enters war on Allied side

Battle of Hong Kong

8 December 1941 - 25 December 1941

Location: Hong Kong
Attacker: Japan under Sakai, Koga
Defender: British Commonwealth under Young, Maltby, Lawson, Wallis
Outcome: Japanese Victory

Invasions of Southeast Asia

8 December 1941 - 8 May 1942

Location: Malaya, Burma, Hong Kong, Dutch East Indies, Soloman Islands, the Philippines, New Guinea
Attacker: Japan under Yamashita, Nishimura, Matsui, Mutaguchi, Sakai, Koga, Iida, Homma
Defender: UK & Commonwealth under Wavell, Young, Percival, Heath, Hutton, etc.; Netherlands under Poorten, Heifrich; US under Macarthur, Wainwright
Outcome: Decisive Japanese Victory

3rd Battle of Changsa

24 December 1941 - 15 January 1942

Location: Changsa, China
Attacker: Japan under Anami
Defender: China under Xue
Outcome: Decisive Chinese Victory

Battle of Singapore

8 February 1942 - 15 February 1942

Location: Singapore
Attacker: Japan under Yamashita, Nishimura, Matsui, Mutaguchi
Defender: UK under Wavell, Bennett, Heath, Beckwith-Smith
Outcome: Decisive Japanese Victory

Battle of the Java Sea

27 February 1942

Location: Java Sea
Attacker: Japan under Takagi
Defender: Allies under Doorman
Outcome: Decisive Japanese Victory, Japanese Naval Supremacy

Yunnan-Burma Campaign

March 1942 - June 1942

Location: Burma
Attacker: China under Luo; US under Stilwell
Defender: Japan under Iida
Outcome: Japanese Victory

Battle of the Coral Sea

4 May 1942 - 8 May 1942

Location: Coral Sea
Attacker: Japan under Inoue, Takagi, Shima, etc.
Defender: Allies under Fletcher, Crace, Kinkaid, etc.
Outcome: Allied Strategic Victory

Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign

May 15 1942 - September 1942

Location: Zhejiang and Jiangxi Provinces, China
Attacker: China under Gu, Huang
Defender: Japan under Hata
Outcome: Chinese Strategic Victory, Japanese Tactical Victory

Aleutian Islands Campaign

3 June 1942 - 15 August 1943

Location: Aleutian Islands, Alaska Territory, USA
Attacker: Japan under Hosogaya, Kakuta, Akiyama, Yamasaki
Defender: USA under Kinkaid, Rockwell, Brown, Arnold, Buckner; Canada under Pearkes, Foster
Outcome: Allied Victory

Battle of Midway

4 June 1942 - 7 June 1942

Location: Midway Atoll
Attacker: Japan under Yamamoto, Kondo, Yamagutchi, Nagumo, etc.
Defender: US under Nimitz, Fletcher, Spruance
Attacker: Decisive American Victory

Guadalcanal Campaign

7 August 1942 - 9 February 1943

Location: Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands
Attacker: Allies under Ghormley, Halsey, Turner, etc.
Defender: Japan under Yamamoto, Tsukahara, Kusaka, etc.
Outcome: Strategic Allied Victory

Burma Campaign (1942-43)

December 1942 - September 1943

Location: Burma
Attacker: UK under Wavell, Irwin, Giffard
Defender: Japan under Iida, Kawabe
Outcome: Japanese Victory

Battle of West Hubei

12 May 1943 - 3 June 1943

Location: West Hubei, China
Attacker: China under Chen
Defender: Japan under Isamu
Outcome: Tactical draw, Chinese Strategic Victory

Op. Cartwheel

30 June 1943 - 20 March 1944

Location: New Guinea and Solomon Islands
Attacker: Allies under Macarthur, Nimitz, Blamey, etc.
Defender: Japan under Imamura, Adachi, Abe
Outcome: Allied Victory

Gilberts and Marshalls Campaign

November 1943 - 23 February 1944

Location: Gilbert and Marshall Islands
Attacker: US under Nimitz, Smith, Turner, etc.
Defender: Abe, Shibazaki, Ishikawa, etc.
Outcome: American Victory

Battle of Changde

2 November 1943 - 20 December 1943

Location: Changde, China
Attacker: China under Sun
Defender: Japan under Yokoyama
Outcome: Decisive Chinese Victory

Burma Campaign (1944)

January 1944 - October 1944

Location: Burma; Assam, British India; Yunnan, China
Attacker: Japan under Kawabe, Mutaguchi; Indian nationalists under Bose
Defender: UK under Mountbatten, Slim; China under Wei; USA under Stilwell
Outcome: Allied Victory, Japanese Invasion of India stopped

Op. Ichi-Go

19 April 1944 - 31 December 1944

Location: Henan, Hunan, and Guangxi Provinces, China
Attacker: Japan under Hata, Okamura, Yokoyama
Defender: China under Tang, Xue, Bai
Outcome: Japanese Tactical Victory

Marianas and Palau Campaign

15 June 1944 - 27 November 1944

Location: Mariana and Palau Islands
Attacker: USA under Nimitz, Turner, Smith, Spruance, etc.
Defender: Japan under Saito, Nagumo, Ozawa, etc.
Outcome: American Victory

Battle of the Philippine Sea

19 June 1944 - 20 June 1944

Location: Philippine Sea
Attacker: USA under Spruance, Mitscher
Defender: Japan under Ozawa, Kukuta
Outcome: Decisive American Victory,

Philippines Campaign (1944-45)

October 20, 1944 - August 15, 1945

Location: Philippines
Attacker: USA under MacArthur, Nimitz, Halsey, Kinkaid, etc,; Philippines under Osmeña, Valdes
Defender: Japan under Yamashita, Ozawa, Kurita, etc.
Outcome: Decisive Allied Victory, Liberation of the Philippines

Battle of Leyte Gulf

23 October 1944 - 26 October 1944

Location: Leyte Gulf, Philippines
Attacker: USA under Halsey, Kinkaid, Sprague, Oldendorf; Australia under Collins
Defender: Japan under Kurita, Nishimura, Ozawa, Shima, Seki
Outcome: Decisive Allied Victory, Japanese naval ability crippled

Burma Campaign (1944-45)

December 1944 - July 1945

Location: Burma
Attacker: UK under Mountbatten, Slim; China under Wei; Burmese Nationalists under San
Defender: Japan under Kimura
Outcome: Allied Victory, Burma returned to British control

Battle of Iwo Jima

19 February 1945 - 26 March 1945

Location: Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands
Attacker: US under Smith, Mitscher, Erskine, Cates, Nimitz, Rockey, Spruance
Defender: Japan under Kuribayashi, Nishi
Outcome: American Victory

Battle of Okinawa

1 April 1945 - 22 June 1945

Location: Okinawa, Japan
Attacker: US under Buckner, Geiger, Stilwell, etc.; UK under Rawilings, Vian, Fraser
Defender: Japan under Ushijima, Cho, Ota, Komura
Outcome: Allied Victory

2nd Guangxi Campaign

4 August 1945

Location: Guangxi, China
Attacker: China under Tang, Chang
Defender: Japan under Kasahara
Outcome: Decisive Chinese Victory

Bombing of Hiroshima

6 August 1945

Location: Hiroshima, Japan
Attacker: US under Tibbets
Defender: Japan under Hata
Outcome: Nuclear Bombing of Hiroshima, Japan surrenders

Soviet-Japanese War

9 August 1945 - 2 September 1945

Location: Manchuria, Mongolia, Sakhalin, The Kurils, Korea
Attacker: USSR under Vasilevsky
Defender: Japan under Yamada
Outcome: Decisive Soviet Victory

Bombing of Nagasaki

9 August 1945

Location: Nagasaki, Japan
Attacker: US under Parsons, Tibbets
Defender: Japan under Hata
Outcome: Nuclear Bombing of Nagasaki, Japan surrenders

Allied Home Front/Politics

Treaty of Versailles

28 June 1919

The treaty that ended WWI between the allied powers and Germany, it controversially held Germany responsible for the war. It stipped Germany of certain territories, such as returning Alsace-Lorraine to France, West Prussia and parts of Silesia to Poland, and creating an independent Saar state under the League of Nations. It also restricted the German military and forced Germany to pay war reparations, crippling the German economy. The conditions created by Versailles would be resented by Germans, such as the Nazi Party.

Axis Home Front/Politics

March on Rome

22 October 1922 - 29 October 1922

The climax in the rise of fascism in Italy, this march towards Rome was lead by the politician and fascist leader Benito Mussolini. This was after the formation of his blackshirts, a fascist paramilitary group used by the state to repress labor unions and other left-wingers. Fearing a civil war, the king appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister, where he would stay until 1943.

Beer Hall Putsch

8 November 1923 - 9 November 1923

Following Mussolini's successful March on Rome in Italy, Adolf Hitler became increasingly convinced that the only proper way to take power in Germany was via a similar coup. He planned on using Munich as a base of operations for a future march on Berlin. However, Bavaria was still under a state of emergency, and thus heavily guarded. Hitler, former WWI general Erich Ludendorff, and their Nazi followers marched to the center of Munich from a beer hall and clashed with the police forces. In the melee, 16 Nazis and 4 policemen were killed. In a trial following the failed putsch, Hitler was sentenced to jail for 5 years, though he only served nine months.

Mein Kampf published

18 July 1925

Written by Adolf Hitler during his 9-month stay in prison, Mein Kampf, meaning "My Struggle," later became the manifesto of the Nazi movement. In the book, Hitler goes on at varying lengths about the "racial purity" of the Aryan Germans and the "inferiority" of the Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, etc., and what the goals of the German state should be. He advocated that Germany should reach its "destiny" to aquire more Lebensraum from surrounding nations and crush the evils of communism. The book became very popular very quickly, so much that Hitler could have afforded a Mercedes in prison.

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

23 August 1939

Signed by Soviet and German foreign ministers Molotov and von Ribbentrop, it stated that the two countries would not declare war on each other. It was broken by Germany two years later by invading the USSR during Operation Barbarossa.

Tripartite Pact

27 September 1940

The official pact that created the Axis powers, it was originally signed by Germany, Italy, and Japan. Later signatories include Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, amongst others.