Musical Timeline by Piece - Josquin through Copland

(Josquin, Purcell, Bach, Handel, Mozart); Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz, Chopin, Schumann, Verdi, Wagner, Ives, Debussy, Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Ellington, Copland

Midterm Composers

9th C - 1788: Anonymous, Josquin, Purcell, Bach, Handel, Mozart

Anonymous - 9th Cent

1400 - 1401

MEDIEVAL
In paradisum
9th Century GREGORIAN CHANT

-Monophonic texture
-Thru-composed, no set meter

Josquin Pange Lingua Mass 1510

1510 - 1521

1510 - Composed PANGE LINQUA MASS (KYRIE)
RENAISSANCE

-Imitative polyphonic texture
-Vocal color

Imitative Polyphony predominates throughout piece
This style led to word painting seen in Madrigals later in the period

Counter Reformation & Council of Trent

Purcell Dido & Aeneas 1689

1659 - 1695

1689 – Dido & Aeneas
BAROQUE Opera

-Ground bass (bass instruments playing a single short melody many times) supports upper melody for dramatic contrast/emphasis
-Form: da capo, aria

Greatest English Composer
Organist at Westminster Abbey
Wrote first English examples of Italian sonata

Bach Brandenberg Concerto 1721

1685 - 1750

1721 - Brandenberg CONCERTO GROSSO
BAROQUE

-Color: flute,harpsichord & strings
-Basso continuo of harpsichord provides contrast for melody above (Baroque hallmark)
-Virtuosic soloist flights

Most important Baroque composer
From big musical family in Germany; spent whole life in Germany
Seldom traveled
Church organist; composed many choral pieces
Well Tempered Clavier - comprised of 48 preludes & fugues in each major/minor key (for harpsichord/clavichord)

1722 - composed Prelude & Fugue (part of WTC)

Baroque period ended with his death in 1750

Handel Julius Caesar 1724

1685 - 1759

1724 - Julius Caesar BAROQUE OPERA "Empio diro tu sei"
BAROQUE

-Flourishes and melismas indicative of Baroque style
-Marked cadenzas
-Da capo style aria

Mozart Symp 40 1788

1756 - 1791

1788 - composed Symphony #40 in G minor
CLASSICAL

-Elegant, polyphonic texture
-Refined instrumental style indicative of Classical period
-ABA Sonata Form in 1st movement

Romantic Composers 1808-1870

1800-1900: Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz, Chopin, Schumann, Verdi, Wagner

Beethoven Symph #5 1808

1770 - 1827

1808 Symph #5 in C minor (I&IV)

I-Saturated by single, rhythmic MOTIVE (da da da daaaa)
-Broader instrumentation
-Scherzo replaces Minuet

IV-Triumphant, triadic C major
-Contains 3 TROMBONES FOR FIRST TIME EVER
-Brass transforms the minor mode opening

-Hallmark Romantic technique used for expressive intensity (Classical technique used for non-Classical result)

Beethoven as Romantic Icon
-tortured genius
-misunderstood
-withdrawn from society
-living for art alone (for now and for posterity)
-society's redeemer

Advancements of Beethoven's Symphonies
-music as psychological progression
-power and rhythmic drive more important than refinement
-expansion of traditional forms
-broader instrumentation (trombone, piccolo, contrabassoon
-addition of SCHERZO to replace Minuet - violent/energetic
-MOTIVE unity: from a Kernal, grow/create something huge & expansive

HEILIGENSTADT TESTAMENT (1802)
-Letter to his brothers
-Expressed his despair over failing psych health/deafness and his desire to fulfill his ARTISTIC DESTINY

HOFFMAN ON BEETHOVEN (1813)
-Music is most ROMANTIC and highest of art forms; its inexpressibility mimics the infinite
-Art/music should open us up to huge/terrifying world of EMOTION
-Composer is not a craftsman, but an artist serving a higher ideal, and thus is ALLOWED TO BREAK THE RULES

Schubert Erlking 1815

1797 - 1828

1815 The Erlking

Schubert is Master of the LIED (German for "song")
Wrote 630 in his 31 year life

-"good" poem set to music
-single voice accompanied by piano; intimate emotion shared between voice & piano
-THROUGH COMPOSED (new music for each stanza; non-repetitive)

-type of Miniature
-meant for living room not concert hall

Berlioz Symph Fantistic 1830

1803 - 1869

1830 - Symphony Fantastic (II & V)

Expands Program Music to Program Symphony
Links music to something outside itself

Notable Aspects:
-Expanded from 4-5 movements
-Influenced by Opera, Beethoven's 5th, Shakespeare
-Written Program is handed out for audience
Program functions as Recitative (advances the action)
Symphony is the Aria
-Each movement is named (e.g. I is "A Ball," V is "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath")
-Expanded instrumentation (130 instruments + voices), more brass, percussion, tuba + HARP
-contains IDEE FIXE: repeating motive/image throughout the piece (e.g. melody= "the beloved"); similar to but much longer than the kernel motive Beethoven introduced; melody=the beloved
-Formal deconstruction/playing with normative forms
-Insertion of real-world topoi (e.g. harp waltz in 2nd movement)
-Onomatopoetic representation
Special effects:
strings depicting wind rustling
bird calls, hear guillotine chop off a head
funeral bell
Dies Irae (lament for the dead) - polyphonic fugue
represents witches dance; combines with Dies Irae

Chopin Nocture F Sharp 1831

1810 - 1849

1831 Chopin Nocturne F Sharp
Character Piece

Depicts characters of the night; dreamy feel

-Chromatic, descending motion
-Marked use of Tempo Rubato
-Presents an idea, then ornaments the idea; contributes to improvisatory feeling of piece

Born in Poland, moved to Paris
Copyright laws strong there; good for composers to make $
Tendency towards specialization - only wrote for piano

Schumann Florestan/Eusebius 1835

1810 - 1856

1835 Florestan/Euseubius - Carnavale
20 Character Pieces meant to be performed as a set
Each depicts a character from Commedia dell'arte
Contain musical pictograms (his name, Henrietta's name)

Florestan
-more dramatic
-rapid changes in dynamics
-heavy use of accents
-imparts impetuous feel

Eusebius
-neatly 4 measures
-pull/push in the rhythm
-imparts quiet, intellectually contemplative feel

BACKGROUND
-Father wanted him to study law; went to Liepzig (Germany)
-Started as piano virtuoso but injured his hand and turned to composing
-Fell in love w/music teacher's daughter
-Left his then fiancee for Clara Wiek
-Composed & wrote musical critiques (as Flores/Eus)
-Went crazy (split personality) and died in an asylum

Schumann Dichterliebe ("May") 1840

1811 - 1856

1840 Dichterliebe (song cycle) - "In the wonderfully lovely month of May" is the LIED from this cycle
(like Shubert's lied, Erlking)

-halting and ruminative piano intro
-winds its way in and out of the vocal line, ebbing and flowing rhythmically and sometimes dwelling on quiet but piercing dissonant harmonies (expresses longing of piece)
-Strophic: stanzas are set to identical music

Schumann was a fan of Schubert (explains the Lied)

Verdi Rigoletto 1851

1812 - 1901

1851 Rigoletto (Act III)
La bella figlia dell'amore (quartet)

-Masterful example of ensemble piece
-Goes from juxtaposed performances to superimposed performances
-All registers brought together: Tuneful melody (Duke + Maddelena's flirtation) + plaintive (Gilda) & authoritative (Rigoletto)
-Bel canto (emphasizes beauty of human voice)
-Dramatic contrast (Gilda's heartbreaking vocals against Maddalena's light-hearted "ha ha" flourishes)

-Verdi (and Wagner) specialist in the role of Romantic opera
-Son of a shopkeeper
-Despite being denied entrance into conservatory in Milan, attained international stature, writing 24 operas
-Known for tuneful melodies, and contrasting of light/dark for dramatic purpose
-Became figurehead of Liberation movement (against Austrian control of Italy)
-Operas follow the "numbered" structure
-Frequent use of tuneful, conventional phrase structures
-Recitative is melodic & dramatic, accompanied by full orchestra
-Masterful creator of ensemble pieces (e.g. quartet in III)
-Rigoletto, Aida, La Traviata are some of his best known works

Wagner The Valkyrie 1870

1813 - 1883

1870 The Valkyrie
(Act I Excerpt)

-Homophonic texture with voice prominent
-Declamatory vocal lines; music flows for long spans of time
-Chromatic, endless melody (avoids regular phrase structure/cadence)
-Prime melodic interest is within the orchestra

GESAMTKUNSTWERK - Opera as ideal union of diverse artistic forms (becomes control freak to implement this)
-Proponent of Germanic cultural superiority (exploited by Nazi party)
-Revolutionary thinker, writer, composer
-Wrote his own librettos
-Innovator of harmony and orchestration
-Does away "number opera," dividing operas into clearly delineated groupings
-Unifies large works through LIETMOTIFS - motives associated with a person, thing, idea or symbol in drama
-Timeless, mythological subjects (e.g. Norse legends)
-Known for massive works (Der Ring des Nibelungen, to be performed over 4 cons evenings)

20th Century Composers

1900 to Present: Ives, Debussy, Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Ellington, Copland, Parker

Debussy Nuages 1899

1862 - 1918

1899 - Nuages
IMPRESSIONIST SYMPHONIC POEM

-fluid, overlapping fragments of melody which appear and disappear (like clouds)
-polyphonic
-very relaxed meter imbues piece with a sense of stasis

**Musical color over form
-Marked the end of Romanticism (backlash against Wagner)
-Focus on COLOR: Subtle, mysterious washes of sound
-Themes and motives are fragmentary and tentative
-Evokes sense of Impressionist painting (e.g. Monet), natural themes with blurry lines

Ives Yale-Princeton 1898

1873 - 1954

1898 - Yale-Princeton Football Game
MODERNIST Musical representation of a famous football game

-Polytonal
-Incorporates American materials (band marches, folk songs, hymns) among radical Modernist techniques
-Highly dissonant atonal or polytonal (to invoke "real world")
-Collage-like layers of multiple levels of distinct sound (HALLMARK OF IVES WORK)

-ALEATORIC - choices left to discretion of performer
-Radical use of the traditional de-familiarizes the ordinary
-Found parallels in the Modernist art world (e.g. Picasso's 'Guitar')

Son of a band leader born in CT
Didn't do well at Yale
Graduated and moved to NYC to sell insurance
Not "discovered" until the 1950s
Precursor to Schoenberg & Stravinsky

Schoenberg Pierrot Lunaire 1912

1874 - 1951

1912 Pierrot Lunaire
(Numbers 8 & 18)
MODERNIST Song Cycle
Based on Commedia dell'arte's clown

Example of Middle period of Schoenberg's work
-Atonal (EMANCIPATION OF DISSONANCE)
-Example of SPRECHTSTIMME
-Fragmented, distorted forms; unnerving imagery
-Voice fighting against instruments creates tension
-Sinking motive (evokes descending black butterflies)

Part of 21 miniatures
Scored for solo voice and 5 players playing 8 instruments (voice, piano, flute/piccolo, clarinet/bass clarinet, violin/viola

Parallels EXPRESSIONIST painting (e.g. Munch's 'The Scream')
Pushes limits of inner conflict, fear, subconscious; fragmented, distorted forms

Mixture of modern & archaic (rough ABA form) provides tension
Creepy, winding motive

Later Work:
EMANCIPATION OF DISSONANCE (musical, historical progress); move away from "binary" of consonance/dissonance to full spectrum
Lack of form initially limited work to short duration; Ostinato anchors the piece
Later used text to define the form
-developed 12-tone method (relate to each other, not to tonic)
-Mathematical composition
-From one form create:
Retrograde (form backwards)
Inversion (mirror image of form)
Inversion Retrograde (mirror image of form backwards)

Stravinsky Rite of Spring 1913

1882 - 1971

1913 Rite of Spring Ballet
(Part I)

-marked dissonance (dissonant "tonic")
-free rhythm, amorphous meter
-many fermatas
-layered, fragmented cells
-wind instruments play in strange registers
-fragments of melodies over dissonant ostinatos

MODERNIST (looking for modernity outside of society, like Matisse)
ANTI-ROMANTIC

Performed by the Ballets Russes in Paris (Sergei)
Very controversial
Preceded by Romantic Chopin piece, which made it seem even more strange
Not a "storied" ballet"
-Collaborative piece
-The story of the very First Spring
-Features tribal elements, pagan rites, violence
-Features a girl dancing herself to death as a sacrifice to the gods in front of tribal elders

STRAVINSKY EMANCIPATED THE RHYTHM
IDEA OF DISSONANCE AS THE "NEW TONALITY"

Ellington Conga Brava 1940

1899 - 1974

1940 Conga Brava

-incorporates Latin rhythms in opening
-strophic form
-showcases virtuosity of individual instruments (soloists)
-recurring Piano Ostinato
-played rhythmically with syncopated beats

Ellington from DC; son of a White House butler
Called "Duke" due to his regal bearing
Considered being an artist, but started playing in bands then formed his own

ORIGINS OF JAZZ
-African and European musical traditions brought together in the south
-Vitality and improvisation (jamming)
-Musical layering of complicated rhythmic & textured patterns

RAGTIME was first (Joplin); Left-hand plays rhythmic bass pattern; Right-hand plays displaced melody on top

BLUES came next
Themes of depression and loneliness
Raspy vocal-based style accompanied by instruments (piano)
Call/Response between vocals and instruments

RAGTIME and BLUES GAVE WAY TO JAZZ
-Jazz was in New Orleans
-Syncopated popular music and free melody (within square phrases)
-Jamming (collective improv)
-Trumpet in charge (Armstrong)

Great Depression hits
SWING - 30s & 40s Big Band with lots of musicians (cheap due to Depression)
Lots of Brass & Reed Instruments
White leaders (Goodman, Miller)
Ellington best known of Black BB leaders

BEBOP
Shift away from big sound to smaller technical instrumental virtuosity

Copland Appalachian Spring 1945

1900 - 1990

1945 Appalachian Spring
(excerpts)

One-act Ballet (Martha Graham) depicting Pioneer celebration of spring
Rewritten as concert piece

-Introduces "characters" 1x1
-Low basses with clear notes above
-Very slow unfolding of harmony
-Uses traditional American themes (Simple Gifts)
-Sense of openness and spaciousness of harmony evokes open plains (open 5ths & 4ths)
-High clarinet over low bass

BACKGROUND
-Copland was born in Brooklyn to Russian immigrant parents
-Trained in Paris in the 1920s
-Exposed to/influenced by Stravinsky (1930 Piano Variations sounds a lot like him, abstract, cold, sterile)
-Had a large & varied output