Civil Rights Movements

African Americans

Brown v. Board of Education

1954

Supreme Court case that led to the desegregation of schools.

Freedom Rides organized by CORE

1961

young adults rode buses throughout the south to protest bus segregation

ICC desegregates bus terminals

1961

The Freedom Riders got enough support and worldwide attention to force the President to mandate desegregation.

Voting Rights Act

1965

Secured the vote for African Americans by removing obstacles like poll taxes

Native Americans

Indian Bill of Rights

1968

Title II of the Civil Rights Act. Applied most of the Bill of Rights to tribal governments

Wounded Knee protests

1973

AIM members captured 11 hostages at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, to protest the massacre there in 1890.

Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez

1978

the Supreme Court strengthened the tribal power of the individual members and furthered the self-government by Indian tribes.

Women

Reed v. Reed

1971

Landmark case in which the Supreme Court first upheld a claim of gender discrimination.

Expansion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

1972

EEOC given the right to sue any employer suspected of illegal discrimination.

Pregnancy Discrimination Act

1978

Made it illegal for employers to exclude pregnancy or childbirth from their sick leave and health benefits plans.

Civil Rights and Women's Equity in Employment Act

1991

required employers to justify hiring and promotion practices by forcing them to show that a gender requirement is necessary for a certain job.

Americans with Disabilities

Rehabilitation Act

1973

added people with disabilities to the list of Americans protected from discrimination.

The Education of All Handicaped Children Act

1975

entitled all children to a free public education appropriate to their needs

Americans with Disabilities Act

1990

requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable considerations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against them in the employment process.

Others

Age Discrimination Act

1967

banned certain types of age discrimination

Bowers v. Hardwick

1986

The Supreme Court ruled that states could ban homosexual relations.