Late 1600s. English philosopher John Locke believed that all people should have the right to life, liberty, and property. He also thought that government was a contract between ruler and ruled that both parties have to agree on.
Pretty much all of the 1700s where some European philosophers believed in different ideas that were very logical. For example, they wanted everyone to use reason and logic to make decisions. This ultimately resulted in democratic governments.
All began with the textile industry. This was called 'factory system' and it brought humans and machines together to work in harmony. Scotsman, James Watt, made much improvements to the steam engine, thus it helped other industries such as coal and iron.
The 13 British colonies had begun a revolution and won that revolution. Then in 1776 they wrote the Declaration of Independence and this began the start of America.
The French at this time were in a huge amount of debt and they were on the brink of a revolution.
Louis XVI seeked help from the Estates General to write a constitution. They eventually made a group called the National Assembly that would help write the constitution.
The constitution is made and France is now a limited monarchy.
By this time the French were already in war with Austria and Prussia. Those two countries feared the spread of revolution so they tried to turn France around. Sadly, in 1792 the revolution had begun and they revolutionaries had already kill Louis XVI. They then declared France a republic.
The head of the Committee of Public Safety, Robespierre, was a man who began to unleash a harsh campaign to get rid of foreign invaders and stop uprisings in France. He was having many women, children, and men killed. But, remarkably, at the same time the army was fighting foreign invaders.
He was a man who had gained a lot of power and he had almost everyone in France on his side. But he did not go back to the old ways. He promised everyone an equal, fair life. He used the Napoleonic Code to keep all the rights that the people had won through the revolution. He also allowed freedom of religion.
Many European leaders met here to try to end the 25 years of revolutions. Some wanted to go back and change the ways to how they used to be. But, throughout all of the 1800s there were small revolutions of people wanting their freedom and rights to be laws.
Factories were dangerous and dirty and having children working for 12-16 hours a day for 6 days was dangerous and wrong. In 1832 Britain's Parliament began to try to fix it.
In the mid-1800s a man named Henry Bessemer developed a better process for making steel.
Steam powered railroads and ships were popping up everywhere and they provided faster, better transportation of people and cargo.
In the late 1800s, early 1900s Ford had introduced the assembly line. The assembly line is when there are many people in a line doing one task each and then they send it to the next person in line.
Men who did urban work got the right to vote in England in 1867.
About one third of people in America were living in cities.