Green- Democratic Republicans
Election of 1789
Washington was Unanimously Appointed to the Position
VP: John Adams
Election of 1792
Washington was yet again unanimously elected to the position
VP: John Adams
Election of 1796
Federalist: Adams----71 P
Dem-Rep: Jefferson--68 VP
*Hamilton did not trust an independent minded Adams
*Urged southern Federalists to vote for Pinckney.
*It was Hamilton’s hope that Pinckney would be elected and Adams would serve as his Vice President.
*New Englanders discover the plot and drop Pickney and vote for Adams.
*1796 John Adams elected.
*Presidential Candidate Thomas Jefferson had 68 votes vs. 71.
*Other candidates were Thomas Pinckney (59 votes), Aaron *Burr (30 votes) and others with 48 scattered votes.
*Adams has to work with a Republican Vice President Jefferson.
Election of 1800
Dem-Rep: Jefferson-----73 P
Dem-Rep: Burr---------73 VP
*Burr and Jefferson both tied in the election.
*The House of representatives must decide the President. *The President would have to get 9 of the 13 states
*Jefferson received 8 states Burr received 5.
It was believed Burr would concede. He did not.
*Eventually Jefferson was elected.
Election of 1804
Dem-Rep: Jefferson-----162 P VP: George Clinton
Election of 1808
Dem-Rep: Madison------122 P VP: George Clinton
Election of 1812
Dem-Rep: Madison-------128 P VP: Eldridge Gerry
Election of 1816
Dem-Rep: Monroe--------183 P VP: Daniel D. Tompkins
Election of 1820
Dem-Rep: Monroe--------231 P VP: Daniel D. Tompkins
Dem-Rep: J. Q. Adams-----1
Election of 1824
Dem- Rep: J. Q. Adams------84 P VP: John C. Calhoun
See Corrupt Bargain
Election of 1828
Democrat: Jackson--------178 P VP: John C. Calhoun
N. Rep.: J. Q. Adams-----83
Election of 1832
Democrat: Jackson--------219 P VP: Martin Van Buren
N. Rep: Clay-----------49
SC Dem: Wirt-----------7
Election of 1836
Democrat: Van Buren---170 P VP: Richard Mentor Johnson
Election of 1840
Whig: W. H. Harrison---234 P VP: John Tyler
Democrat: Van Buren------60
Election of 1844
Democrat: Polk----------170 P VP:George M. Dallas
Election of 1848
Whig: Taylor--------163 P VP: Millard Fillmore
Free-Soil: Van Buren-----0
Election of 1852
Democrat: Pierce---------254 P VP: William R. King
Election of 1856
Democrat: Buchanan------174 P VP: John C. Breckenridge
Election of 1860
Republican: Lincoln--------180 P VP: Hannibal Hamlin
S. Democrat: Breckenridge---72
Const. Union: Bell-----------39
Election of 1864
Republican: Lincoln-------212 P VP: Andrew Johnson
Election of 1869
Republican: Grant---------214 P VP: Schuyler Colfax
Election of 1872
Democrat: Greenley---------- ***
***Greenley died before the Electoral College voted
Election of 1876
Republican: Hayes-------185 P VP: William A. Wheeler
Election of 1880
Republican: Garfield----------214 P VP: Chester A. Arthur
Election of 1884
Democrat: Cleveland-------------219 P VP: Thomas Hendricks
Election of 1888
Republican: Harrison--------------233 P VP: Levi Morton
Election of 1892
Democrat: Cleveland------------------277 P VP Adalai Stevenson I
Election of 1896
Republican: McKinley----------------271 P VP: Garret Hobart
Election of 1900
Republican: Mckinley----------------292 P VP: Theodore Roosevelt
Election of 1904
Republican: Roosevelt------------336 P VP: Charles Fairbanks
Democrat: Parker ---------------140
Election of 1908
Republican: Taft-------------321 P VP: James Sherman
Election of 1912
Democrat: Wilson------------435 P VP: Thomas R. Marshall
Election of 1916
Democrat: Wilson------------277 P VP: Thomas R. Marshall
Election of 1920
Republican: Harding------------404 P VP: Calvin Coolidge
Election of 1924
Republican: Coolidge -----------382 P VP: CHarles Dawes
Progressive: La Folliette----------13
Election of 1928
Republican: Hoover-----------444 P VP: Charles Curtis
Election of 1932
Democrat: Roosevelt--------------472 P VP: John Garner IV
Election of 1936
Democrat: Roosevelt-----------523 P VP: John Garner IV
Election of 1940
Democrat: Roosevelt-------------449 P VP: Henry Wallace
Election of 1944
Democrat: Roosevelt-----------432 P VP: Harry Truman
Election of 1948
Democrat: Truman------------303 P VP: Alben Barkley
Election of 1952
Republican: Eisenhower-----------442 P VP: Richard Nixon
Election of 1956
Republican: Eisenhower----------457 P VP: Richard Nixon
Election of 1960
Democrat: Kennedy-------------303 P VP: Lyndon B. Johnson
Election of 1964
Democrat: Johnson--------------486 P VP: Hubert Humphrey
Election of 1968
Republican: Nixon---------301 P VP: Spiro Agnew
Election of 1972
Republican: Nixon--------520 P VP: Gerald Ford
Election of 1976
Democrat: Carter---------297 P VP: Walter Mondale
Election of 1980
Republican: Reagan-----------489 P VP: George H. W. Bush
Election of 1984
Republican: Reagan---------525 P VP: George H. W. Bush
Election of 1988
Republican: Bush-----------426 P VP: Dan Quayle
Election of 1992
Democrat: Clinton--------370 P VP: Al Gore
Election of 1996
Democrat: Clinton-----------379 P VP: Al Gore
Election of 2000
Republican: W. Bush--------271 P VP: Dick Cheney
Election of 2004
Republican: Bush---------286 P VP: Dick Cheney
Election of 2008
Democrat: Obama----------365 P VP: Joe Biden
Election of 2012
Democrat: Obama--------332 P VP: Joe Biden
*Ended the French and Indian War, giving England all of France's American Colonies
*George Grenville took over for the earl of Bute and insisted that the colonies start paying off the debt for the army.
*The First act to come about is the Revenue act of 1764 or the Sugar Act.
*The point of the act was to stop smuggling.
*Smuggling had appeared because the Navigation acts made trade in the colonies almost exclusively with Britain.
*Following with belief that the colonies should pay what they owe Grenville released another act upon the colonies.
*The Stamp Act required Americans to purchase special seals or stamps to validate legal documents.
*Grenville was warned by members of Parliament that this could cause an uproar.
*Townsend Acts: Series of taxes on American imports specifically: paper, glass, paint, lead, and tea.
*What does Townsend do differently to ensure his acts work properly?
*Puts strict enforcement in the port cities
*What was the point of the Tea Act and why did Parliament Pass it?
*Raised price of tea.
*There was also the hope that they could save East India *Trading company that had hit hard times
*What was Governor Hutchinson’s reaction to the Tea Act?
*Governor Hutchinson disagreed with the act and kept the Ships from unloading in the harbor.
*(The Coercive Acts)
*What are the rules in the colonies under the Coercive acts?
1.Closed the port of Boston until debt was paid
3. British troops could quarter troops wherever they thought it was necessary
*Takes place in Philadelphia, Summer of 1774
*55 elected from 12 colonies
*Included John Adams, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington
*None of the men they had never met but they knew of each other
*Decision to halt commerce with Britain
*Foreign Issues with the Spanish
*Northwest Ordinance was the one Accomplishment
*Ended the American Revolution
*Gave America the Northwest Territory
*The northern and southern delegates fought over the representation of slaves.
*In the end it was deiced that slave vote would worth 3/5 of a white person vote.
*There was also a clause passed about collecting fugitive slaves.
*They met to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain.
* The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention.
* The result of the Convention was the creation of the United States Constitution, placing the Convention among the most significant events in the history of the United States.
*Creates the Supreme court. The Court makes sure laws passed by congress are constitutional.
*1 chief justice with five associate justices.
*Creates 13 district courts to also make sure state laws were constitutional.
*The first ten amendments of the constitution.
*Considered to be the legacy of the Anti- Federalists
*John Jay was sent to negotiate the return of American Goods.
*Hamilton was noted as mentioning that the U.S. would give in to negations easily, which the British found out.
*The treaty stated that the U.S. would pay for its revolutionary debt to the British.
*The British would return American goods and the troops would leave the territories.
*Due to contracts with Britain the Spanish assumed that we were allying with Britain against them
*They than offered the US Envoy William Pickney a treaty
*The treaty gave us three things:
1. Strong control in the Mississippi Area
2. Settled the Florida Border at the 31st Parallel
3. Spain agreed to stop supplying the Native Americans
*The three delegates from the U.S. were not received well
*The delegates were expected to pay a bribe to French *Officials as well as a loan for millions
*When the information was relayed to congress the agents were known as Xyand Z
*This event only worsened tensions between Federalists and anti Federalists. Hamilton called for war with the French.
*The federalist Majority decided that should try and quiet Republican dissent besides building a military.
*Congress would pass the Alien and Sedition act.
*The act allowed federal courts and the President to silence Republican dissent. As well as deport those of a foreign nature.
*The courts were stacked with Federalist representatives.
*Obviously many people were dragged into court.
*As Adams left he passed the Judiciary act of 1801
*It created 12 new circuit courts along with judges to fill them.
*Adams filled the judgeships with Federalist. (Midnight appointees)
*The new President Jefferson and Republicans railed against these judges. Stating they were unnecessary due to the lacking amount of cases they would hear.
*Presidential elections will have separate votes for President and Vice President.
*The Embargo act was passed in 1807, again it was black on trade with the British and The French.
*Jefferson thought the people would support the act. *Reality people took their own chances and decided to smuggle goods any way.
*The government had to pass enforcement acts to try and keep people from smuggling.
*Eventually enforcing the Embargo act almost turned the government into a police state on the coast.
*The act hardly damaged the British economy.
*The act was repealed right before the election for Madison
*Opening of trade by America with either Britain or France, dependent on which nation stopped blocking neutral trade first
*France begins to take interest in the bill
*Madison opens trade with France, but France decides not to trade with the US
*This makes the British think that the US joined France and began impressing even more American sailors
*The Hartford Convention is a meeting of Federalists, it is meant to rewrite the constitution
*They wanted to change the proportional representation in congress and even out the advantage of slave states
*It also listed grievances against the country and expressed a want for more laws that were in favor of the north
*This was delivered right after the treaty of ghent which made it come off as treasonous
*This basically ended the Federalist Party
*The treaty said that the two countries would stop being at war, a buffer zone would be created to stop native fighting, and neutral trade rights would be determined at a later date
*Opposed further colonization of Americas
*America would not involve itself in European internal affairs
*Claimed all the countries near America were their own independent republics.
*North America being the head republic.
*Adams ,Crawford and Jackson enter into a final three to be selected by the house of representatives.
*Clay who is left out of the last three tells his supporters to push Adams
*Adams wins the election, Clay becomes secretary of state
*John C. Calhoun emerges as the leader for states rights and begins to support nullification.
*Calhoun also moved against the Tariff abominations
*There was already a great rivalry growing between Jackson and Calhoun over the vice presidency.
*As well as the Peggy Eaton Scandal and Jackson punishment post his colonization of Florida
*Congress agreed to lower the tariffs but Carolina still intended to nullify it.
*During and just after the election of Jackson Georgia Mississippi and Alabama were looking for government to move groups of Native American’s out of their borders
*Theses states passed laws against the Natives in their areas.
*Native American rights fell under federal jurisdiction
*Jackson supported the states
*1830 congress introduces a bill to implement the idea of Indian removal.
*Many claimed that this act was unconstitutional
*The bill would pass and Jackson would move into action to remove the Native Americans
*Jackson asked congress to pass the force bill allowing him to build an army and march into Carolina
*Developed by David Wilmot, A democrat from Pennsylvania
*Originally the movement starts with an amendment that is will be added to a military bill
*Would ban slavery in any territory acquired by Mexico
*In the end the idea was blocked in the senate. In response southerners would attempt to extends the compromise borders, but this effort also failed.
*The war lasted much longer than expected mostly due to the fact that Mexico was determined to win.
*By 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed seceding California and New Mexico.
*The strictness of the changes in the slave laws was outrageous.
*Fugitive slaves were unable to have Jury trial or testify on their own behalf.
Many framers would need more land to be successful.
The government passed various acts to try and improve the situation out west while improving on the western lands.
With opposition from the Republican party Johnson planned to drop from the party
The President planned to create the National Union Movement: Which existed to push Johnson’s reconstruction laws.
The abolishment of slavery in the United States.
This was important because originally the emancipation proclamation only freed slaves in the confederate sates.
As a means to counter the black codes congress passed the Civil Rights act of 1866.
It granted citizenship to all person born in the U.S. except Native Americans
It would not permit states to take rights from citizens.
Johnson planned to oppose the Republican’s passage of the 14th amendment.
Johnson miscalculated though as most of country was tired of seeing the violence against blacks.
Lead to congress becoming more Republican and passage of the 14 Amendment.
This Amendment would give equal rights to under the law to all Americans
It gave citizenship to all American born or naturalized within the U.S.
The states could not deny these citizens life liberty or property.
During the coming election Johnson would only weaken himself by opposing the Amendment
The U.S. would continue to implement policies in an attempt to protect against communism.
Marshall plan: Developed by secretary of state George C. * Marshall the plan donated money to rebuild war torn Europe and Japan.
Originally was a gamble because the U.S. included Russia in those who would give aid.
*Similar to Bacon but in Maryland, Leissler was successful merchant who hated the Dutch.
*Upon hearing about the Glorious revolution he lead a revolution of his own.
*Leisler seized local fort in the name of William and Mary, but achieved no political strength.
*He was later removed and killed by English official for not surrendering.
*Tensions were already high against British authority, but have the soldiers walking the streets only increased fears and anger.
*March 5, 1770 a small group of boys and street toughs begin to harass soldiers outside of a customs house.
*As the group rises into more of a mob the soldiers panic and fire into the group.
*With the harbor filled with ships a plan came to action.
*Whether or not Sam Adams was directly behind it was unknown
*A group of men disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded the ships and dumped 360 of tea overboard.
*Strong support for in Boston not the case in England.
*Shortly after scheduling the Philadelphia convention a rebellion started in western Massachusetts
*Lead by a war veteran Daniel Shays a group of indebted planters.
*As the peril grows the government does not have enough money to raise an army.
*Wealthy Bostonian were able to calm the insurrection
*A small rebellion started due to an excise tax on grain distilleries, which hurt farmers and distilleries.
*Washington assembled an army with Hamilton to put down the rebellion. Upon the arrival the mob had already disbanded.
*Washington claimed that the rebellion was believed to be on par with the revolution.
*Republicans thought this was Hamilton using the military to scare Republicans.
*It is a network of safe houses organized by abolitionists (usually free blacks) to aid slaves in their attempts to escape slavery north to canada
*Tecumseh tried to preserve Native culture by promoting an isolationist lifestyle
*This attracts many native americans and causes many to fear about this
*The Battle of Tippeconoe is when William Henry Harrison attacks Tecumseh and his Natives
*Tecumseh survives and askes for British Assistance
*1822 Charleston South Carolina Vesey conspiracy discovered and stopped. The Conspiracy was based around a freed slave leading other slaves to raid weapons depot.
*a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County , Virginia during August
*Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55–65 white people, the highest number of fatalities caused by slave uprisings in the South. The rebellion was put down within a few days, but Turner survived in hiding for over two months afterward.
*Overall: Only a small amount of the actual slave population chose violent uprising as form of resistance simply because the odds were so stacked against them.
*Settlers in Kansas were mostly believers in the ideals of free soil
*A small scale civil war did occur when pro- slavery group attacked the free capital of Lawrence.
*Upon hearing of these events Reverend John Brown lead a group of followers killing five men in cold blood.
These acts mostly looked likely slavery by a different name.
Unemployment was viewed as a criminal action
The south attempted to segregate African Americans from whites
African Americans could not hold property.
*As trade and settlement began to grow out west many people moved via the Oregon Trail
*The trail moved through the plains and the Rockies
*People would settle in both Oregon and California
*The Mormon religion was started by Joseph Smith, who had a series of revelations from God.
*Wanted to bring the pure religion back to America
*The group was harassed in the east so they moved west to Utah being lead by Brigham Young.
*Utah was apart of Mexico until 1848
*Proposed that African Americans should be prohibited to settle areas that obtained from Mexico.
*Free soil movement believed that slaves would take away opportunity from free workers.
*When it came to a vote there was a clear split between North and South.
*During the end of the Madison era Henry Clay developed as political player.
*He developed the American System.
*High protective Tariff
*Protection of the home market
*Due to the Panic of 1819 the bank was already unpopular and normally blamed for economic down turns.
*Biddle was brought in to solve the issues with national bank.
*He was a decent politician and understood banking.
*In spite of this Jackson still targeted the bank.
*Jackson promised veto a major bank funding bill.
The veto would close the bank.
*In the upcoming election Jackson ran as the defender of the people against the banks.
*After vetoing the bank bill he removed the federal deposits form the bank as well.
*The question was where the money would go.
*Jackson placed the money in twenty four state banks called pet banks. Mostly given this name because the banks were picked based on political reasons.
*As the west opened up land sales increased but there was no paper money for the sales. Banks were accepting payments in silver.
*Jackson gave into some criticism creating a hard silver currency to help with these payments known as specie.
*A series of wars are fought between Britain and France. *The First Between William the Third and Louis the XIV.
*The Second part known as Queens Anne’s war also found a front in the colonies.
*The Third King George’s War.
*During this period the colonists had some role in each particularly King George’s War.
*The Seven Years war takes form in the Americas as the French and Indian War.
*During this period we see a military stalemate between Britain and France.
*William Pitt who is a minister to King George takes point on the war.
*Pitt who was confident in his opinions in the war felt that the war front should shift from Europe to the colonies
Pitt but a lot of risky maneuvers but the key point to remember is that Pitt built up a large debt over the course of the war.
*By 1759 with the cutting of a prominent Canadian supply line we see victory come to Britain
*Another issue facing the new Jefferson Presidency was the threat of pirates
*More specifically the Barbary pirates that were stationed in Tripoli.
*The band had terrorized much of the United states and European trade.
*Eventually the band of pirates seized American ships taking their crew hostage.
*The band expected payment from the United States.
*Jefferson was unwilling to do so.
*Jefferson used the military force of marines to retake the hostages.
*Though attack by sea was a success the marines were not prepared for the natural environment of Africa.
*This was the first successful outing for the America military.
*Many Americans would hail this success as an action that America took that other European empires had never dreamed of.
*Mexico began to speak out against Texas’s claims to between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande
*Polk placed troops on alert in Louisiana and sent John Slidell to try and negotiate terms, who was refused by Mexico.
*Polk sent General Zachary Taylor and his men to encroach on Mexican territory.
*Eventually Taylor would attack Mexican soldiers posted across the Rio Grande
*By the time this had happened Polk had already delivered his message to Congress hoping a short war would gain him California and New Mexico
*Robert E. Lee decided to invade the Maryland going for Washington D.C.
* He met the forces of McLellan, it lead to the bloodiest day and Civil war history and a draw.
* Lee’s forces returned to the South
* McLellan was fired and replaced by Ambrose Burnside.
* McLellan also ran for President against Lincoln and lost.
The U.S. Would be able to remain neutral for two years.
Germans angered by the U.S. sending contraband goods began to patrol the waters around Britain with subs.
contraband: Goods prohibited from shipment to Germany and its allies.
Germany would either inspect the ships or sink them.
AKA: Operation Desert Storm
* a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
AKA: Operation Iraqi Freedom
* The Iraq War[nb 1] was an armed conflict in Iraq that consisted of two phases. The first was an invasion of Iraq starting on 20 March 2003 by an invasion force led by the United States
* It was followed by a longer phase of fighting, in which an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the newly formed Iraqi government
* The US completed its withdrawal of military personnel in December 2011
AKA Operation Red Dawn
* Operation Red Dawn was an American military operation conducted on 13 December 2003 in the town of ad-Dawr, Iraq, near Tikrit, that led to the capture of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein
AKA Operation Neptune Spear
* The operation, code-named Operation Neptune Spear, was carried out in a Central Intelligence Agency-led operation
* Osama bin Laden, the founder and head of the Islamist militant group al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan
*Marbury was one of the federalist appointed judges.
*Then secretary of state James Madison refused to give Marbury the papers that would give him authority of a judge. (Madison believed him to be corrupt.
*Marbury requested that the case be heard by the supreme court.
*The new chief justice Marshall would preside over the case.
*His ruling stated that the court didn not have jurisdiction some these matters. But the argument used Marbury to file the case could be linked to the unconstitutionality of the Judiciary act
*This meant that the judiciary act was unconstitutional
*case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Indians from being present on Indian lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.
*This was the decree from John Marshall
*Jackson took Georgia’s side and told Marshall to defend his ruling.
*Buchannan hoped to end the slavery debates quickly, which lead to him pushing the supreme court to a decision in Dred Scott V. Sandford
*The Case revolved around the fact that a slave was suing for his freedom being he lived in a state where slavery was outlawed by the Missouri Compromise
*First African America neither free nor slaves counted as a U.S. citizen
*Second more importantly the court stated that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. That congress could not pass laws based on slavery in the states.
*This took away from the Republican platform that was discussing laws to repeal slavery.
*Congress decided that they had to something with the lawlessness of the West.
*The North west ordinance was passed. It provided structure to the new territory.
*Created three to five territories controlled by a governor, judges, and secretary appointed by congress.
*Contained certain measures a bill of rights, freedom of religion, due process law , outlaws slavery.
*Monroe expected for relations to go poorly, but was surprised by how eager the French were to sell the land.
*The French in reality had growing financial issues under the Napoleon reign.
*In the end America would buy the territory, for 15 millions dollars Jefferson was able to double the size of the country.
*As Missouri entered as a state it created the problem of throwing off the balance of slave state vs free.
*North feared Southern presidents
*South feared the growing populations in the North.
*The compromise created Missouri as slave state, Maine Free
*Created the 36 30 latitude border in any territory North of Missouri.
*Tyler enlisted to the help of John C. Calhoun to try and annex Texas.
*Calhoun saw annexing Texas as means to unite the south and take on the abolitionists.
*Tyler began to run Propaganda stating Britain might have in an interest in Texas
*A treaty was a agreed upon and when Calhoun presented it he dammed the British for trying to use Texas as an Anti Slavery tool
*The Whigs in congress hearing this would reject Calhoun’s proposal.
*With Tyler's misstep on Texas he had very little to structure to work with for the next election
*Tyler would win the election of 1844 narrowly
*Soon after a new treaty to annex Texas was approved
*Oregon at the time was jointly owned by Britain and the U.S. The 49th parallel the dividing line between the two countries was constantly argued.
*When Britain asked to strike a new border deal Polk refused them. The British sent a new treaty and warships.
*After a number of botched treaties until America received control of Puget South its first deep water port.
*Seeing that Taylors plan might go through the south begins to propose ideas that can at least give them some benefits
*Proposed by Henry clay there were a number on concessions California would become a free state. While there was no prohibition of slavery in the Mexico Territories
*Eventually the compromise would pass with some changes. One was the death of Zachary Taylor the other were the changes made by Stephen A. Douglass and the support of Millard Fillmore.
*The original problem with the 1850 compromise was that it was attempted to be pass ass one large Bill.
*When President Fillmore entered he broke the bill down into smaller parts.
*The ending compromise brought Texas in as a slave state, California as free, and New Mexico and Utah to be determined by popular sovereignty
*Added to the bill were stricter fugitive slave laws.
*1854 Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois proposed a bill to organize the territory west of the Missouri and Iowa territory
*Douglass knew he would have a lot of angry southerners to deal with if he built more free states
*To deal with this Douglas tried to ignore the compromise line and tried to quickly establish governments based on popular sovereignty
*Eventually an addition to the act would be made that would essentially repeal the Missouri Compromise
*The bill would pass splitting the Democratic party and sectional harmony.
*With the Dread Scott decision the proslavery groups of Kansas felt it was time to draft a constitution and become a slave state.
*Though the area was strongly free the pro slavery side rigged the election, this lead to the free side rejecting the election all together.