AP US History

Time Periods

Age of Discovery


Age of Conquest


Age of Colonization


Colonial Era


Revolutionary Era




Age of Exploration


Era of "Good Feelings"


Age of the Common Man


Age of Expansionalism


Antebellum Era


Civil War Era


Reconstruction Era


Gilded Age


Progressive Era


Roaring Twenties


Depression Era


Cold War Era


Post-Cold War Era


Age of Antiterrorism



Grey- None
Peach- Federalist
Green- Democratic Republicans

George Washington

4/30/1789 - 3/4/1797

Election of 1789
Washington was Unanimously Appointed to the Position
VP: John Adams

  • Thanks partially to good press Washington had overwhelming support to become President.
  • Washington was not brilliant or a great speakers like his peers around him.
  • He felt he envisioned the goals and ideals of the republic.

Election of 1792
Washington was yet again unanimously elected to the position
VP: John Adams

John Adams

3/4/1797 - 3/4/1801

Election of 1796
Federalist: Adams----71 P
Dem-Rep: Jefferson--68 VP
Federalist: Pinckney--59
Dem-Rep: Burr------30

*Hamilton did not trust an independent minded Adams
*Urged southern Federalists to vote for Pinckney.
*It was Hamilton’s hope that Pinckney would be elected and Adams would serve as his Vice President.
*New Englanders discover the plot and drop Pickney and vote for Adams.
*1796 John Adams elected.
*Presidential Candidate Thomas Jefferson had 68 votes vs. 71.
*Other candidates were Thomas Pinckney (59 votes), Aaron *Burr (30 votes) and others with 48 scattered votes.
*Adams has to work with a Republican Vice President Jefferson.

Thomas Jefferson

3/4/1801 - 3/4/1809

Election of 1800
Dem-Rep: Jefferson-----73 P
Dem-Rep: Burr---------73 VP
Federalist: Adams-------65
Federalist: Pinckney-----64

*Burr and Jefferson both tied in the election.
*The House of representatives must decide the President. *The President would have to get 9 of the 13 states
*Jefferson received 8 states Burr received 5.
It was believed Burr would concede. He did not.
*Eventually Jefferson was elected.

Election of 1804
Dem-Rep: Jefferson-----162 P VP: George Clinton
Federalist: Pinckney-----14

James Madison

3/4/1809 - 3/4/1817

Election of 1808
Dem-Rep: Madison------122 P VP: George Clinton
Federalist: Pinckney------47

Election of 1812
Dem-Rep: Madison-------128 P VP: Eldridge Gerry
Federalist: Clinton--------89

James Monroe

3/4/1817 - 3/4/1825

Election of 1816
Dem-Rep: Monroe--------183 P VP: Daniel D. Tompkins
Federalist: King-----------34

Election of 1820
Dem-Rep: Monroe--------231 P VP: Daniel D. Tompkins
Dem-Rep: J. Q. Adams-----1

John Quincy Adams

3/4/1825 - 3/4/1829

Election of 1824
Dem- Rep: J. Q. Adams------84 P VP: John C. Calhoun
Democrat: Jackson---------99
Dem-Rep: Clay------------37
Dem-Rep: Crawford--------41
See Corrupt Bargain

Andrew Jackson

3/4/1829 - 3/4/1837

Election of 1828
Democrat: Jackson--------178 P VP: John C. Calhoun
N. Rep.: J. Q. Adams-----83

Election of 1832
Democrat: Jackson--------219 P VP: Martin Van Buren
N. Rep: Clay-----------49
SC Dem: Wirt-----------7
Anti-Mason: Floyd----------11

Martin Van Buren

3/4/1837 - 3/4/1841

Election of 1836
Democrat: Van Buren---170 P VP: Richard Mentor Johnson
Whig: Harrison-------73
Whig: White----------26
Whig: Webster--------14
Whig: Mangnum------11

William Henry Harrison

3/4/1841 - 4/4/1841

Election of 1840
Whig: W. H. Harrison---234 P VP: John Tyler
Democrat: Van Buren------60

John Tyler

April 4, 1841 - March 4, 1845
  • John Tyler took over the Presidency after the death of William Henry Harrison, and tried to implement the idea of Manifest Destiny.
  • He was a pro slavery states rights Virginian he would break away from the Whig party
  • Tyler was looking for an issue to help build himself for the next election
  • Annexing Texas was his answer.

James K. Polk

March 4, 1845 - March 4, 1849

Election of 1844
Democrat: Polk----------170 P VP:George M. Dallas
Whig: Clay----------105
Liberty: Birney---------0

Zachary Taylor

March 4, 1849 - July 9, 1850

Election of 1848
Whig: Taylor--------163 P VP: Millard Fillmore
Democrat: Cass---------127
Free-Soil: Van Buren-----0

Millard Fillmore

July 9, 1850 - March 4, 1853
  • Became President after Zachary Taylor died in office

Franklin Pierce

March 4, 1853 - March 4, 1857

Election of 1852
Democrat: Pierce---------254 P VP: William R. King
Whig Scott----------42
Free-Soil: Hale-----------0

  • The election lacked any real key issue since the slavery issue had been handled.
  • The Whig party mad a clear error backing Nativist ideas.
  • Nativism: the political position of demanding a favored status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.
  • Many protestant Whigs targeted the influx of Catholics coming into the country.
  • This lead to many Catholics taking sides with the Democratic party.
  • The Democrat's Franklin Pierce defeated the Whig’s Winfield Scott

James Buchanan

March 4, 1857 - March 4, 1861

Election of 1856
Democrat: Buchanan------174 P VP: John C. Breckenridge
Republican: Frémont-------114
Know-Nothing: Fillmore-------8

  • With the Whigs beginning to fault we find another group of citizens form a party mostly based on the opposition to expansion of slavery
  • The Know nothings: The result was a group that was based on a nativist platform
  • Goals : Extend period of naturalization for citizens
  • Mostly against: Chinese Catholics Irish and Germans.
  • Republican Nomination featured mostly candidates from the North
  • The Nominee will be Freemont
  • The democrats Passed up Pierce for James Buchanan who many years of public service. Running on the idea of Popular sovereignty.
  • Know nothings chose Millard Fillmore
  • Buchanan would go on to win the presidency.

Abraham Lincoln

March 4, 1861 - April 15, 1865

Election of 1860
Republican: Lincoln--------180 P VP: Hannibal Hamlin
S. Democrat: Breckenridge---72
Democrat: Douglas-------12
Const. Union: Bell-----------39

Election of 1864
Republican: Lincoln-------212 P VP: Andrew Johnson
Democrat: McCellan------21

Andrew Johnson

April 15, 1865 - March 4, 1869
  • Became president due to the Assassination of President Lincoln

Ulysses S. Grant

March 4, 1869 - March 4, 1877

Election of 1869
Republican: Grant---------214 P VP: Schuyler Colfax
Democrat: Seymor---------80

Election of 1872
Republican: Grant-----------286
Democrat: Greenley---------- ***
***Greenley died before the Electoral College voted

Rutherford B. Hayes

March 4, 1877 - March 4, 1881

Election of 1876
Republican: Hayes-------185 P VP: William A. Wheeler
Democrat: Tilden--------184
Greenback: Cooper------0

James A. Garfield

March 4, 1881 - September 19, 1881

Election of 1880
Republican: Garfield----------214 P VP: Chester A. Arthur
Democrat: Hancock-----------155

Chester A. Arthur

September 19, 1881 - March 4, 1885
  • Became President due to the assassination of President Garfield

Grover Cleveland

March 4, 1885 - March 4, 1889

Election of 1884
Democrat: Cleveland-------------219 P VP: Thomas Hendricks
Republican: Blaine---------------182

Benjamin Harrison

March 4, 1889 - March 4, 1893

Election of 1888
Republican: Harrison--------------233 P VP: Levi Morton
Democrat: Cleveland--------------168

Grover Cleveland

March 4, 1893 - March 4, 1897

Election of 1892
Democrat: Cleveland------------------277 P VP Adalai Stevenson I
Republican: Harrison------------------145
Populist: Weaver----------------------22

William McKinley

March 4, 1897 - September 14, 1901

Election of 1896
Republican: McKinley----------------271 P VP: Garret Hobart
Democrat: Bryan-------------------176

Election of 1900
Republican: Mckinley----------------292 P VP: Theodore Roosevelt
Democrat: Bryan--------------------155

Theodore Roosevelt

September 14, 1901 - March 4, 1909
  • Became President due tot the assassination of President McKinley

Election of 1904
Republican: Roosevelt------------336 P VP: Charles Fairbanks
Democrat: Parker ---------------140

William Howard Taft

March 4, 1909 - March 4, 1913

Election of 1908
Republican: Taft-------------321 P VP: James Sherman
Democrat: Bryan-------------162

  • Taft Successfully began breaking up more trusts that Theodore Roosevelt.
  • At the same time there were two events that caused controversy and lead to people question Taft’s progressive ties.
  • The first event was Taft’s firing of Gifford Pinchot after he accused Richard Ballinger of selling public land for private development.

Woodrow Wilson

March 4, 1913 - March 4, 1921

Election of 1912
Democrat: Wilson------------435 P VP: Thomas R. Marshall
Republican: Taft-------------8
Bullmoose: Roosevelt---------88
Socialist: Debs---------------0

Election of 1916
Democrat: Wilson------------277 P VP: Thomas R. Marshall
Republican: Hughes----------254

Warren G. Harding

March 4, 1921 - August 2, 1923

Election of 1920
Republican: Harding------------404 P VP: Calvin Coolidge
Democrat: Cox-----------------127

Calvin Coolidge

August 2, 1923 - March 4, 1929
  • Became President due to the death of President Harding

Election of 1924
Republican: Coolidge -----------382 P VP: CHarles Dawes
Democrat: Davis----------------136
Progressive: La Folliette----------13

Herbert Hoover

March 4, 1929 - March 4, 1933

Election of 1928
Republican: Hoover-----------444 P VP: Charles Curtis
Democrat: Smith-------------87

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

March 4, 1933 - April 12, 1945

Election of 1932
Democrat: Roosevelt--------------472 P VP: John Garner IV
Republican: Hoover---------------52

Election of 1936
Democrat: Roosevelt-----------523 P VP: John Garner IV
Republican: Landon------------8

Election of 1940
Democrat: Roosevelt-------------449 P VP: Henry Wallace
Republican: Wilkie---------------82

Election of 1944
Democrat: Roosevelt-----------432 P VP: Harry Truman
Republican: Dewey-------------99

Harry Truman

April 12, 1945 - January 20, 1953
  • Became President due to the death of President Roosevelt

Election of 1948
Democrat: Truman------------303 P VP: Alben Barkley
Republican: Dewey------------189
Dixiecrat: Thurmond-----------39

Dwight D. Eisenhower

January 20, 1953 - January 20, 1961

Election of 1952
Republican: Eisenhower-----------442 P VP: Richard Nixon
Democrat: Stevenson-------------89

  • As Eisenhower entered the White House the Cold War was one of his Primary interests.
  • He believed that the war would not be won not just by military build up, but also economic build up.

Election of 1956
Republican: Eisenhower----------457 P VP: Richard Nixon
Democrat: Stevenson------------73

John F. Kennedy

January 20, 1961 - November 22, 1963

Election of 1960
Democrat: Kennedy-------------303 P VP: Lyndon B. Johnson
Republican: Nixon--------------219
Segregationalist: Byrd-----------15

  • The presidency changes drastically as the sixties began due to the innovation of television.
  • It was estimated that 75 million watched the first ever televised debate.
  • Both parties had spent 6 million dollars in radio and television adds.
  • It was Kennedy’s optimism and charisma that won out leading to his election.
  • Still the election was close as the country elected it’s youngest and first catholic President.
  • Kennedy worked to make the military more flexible. He made it easier for Latin America to receive aid and developed the peace corps.
  • Kennedy felt the Eisenhower relied too much on Nuclear weapons. Kennedy instead increased funding to the special forces.
  • The President pushed for a build up in troops and conventional weapons.
  • In fighting Communism Kennedy focused on aid as much as military.
  • 20 billion dollars was spent in an alliance with Latin America.
  • The money went to developing schools , housing and health care.

Lyndon Johnson

November 22, 1963 - January 20, 1969
  • Became President due to the assassination of President Kennedy

Election of 1964
Democrat: Johnson--------------486 P VP: Hubert Humphrey
Republican: Goldwater-----------52

Richard Nixon

January 20, 1969 - August 9, 1974

Election of 1968
Republican: Nixon---------301 P VP: Spiro Agnew
Democrat: Humphrey------191
Independent: Wallace------46

  • Johnson decided to remove himself fro reelection
  • The vice President Hubert Humphrey stepped in along with Robert or Bobby Kennedy.
  • Bobby looked like he could be the winner until he was shot outside a California hotel.
  • Humphrey got the nomination only to run against……
  • Nixon ran by appealing to what became known as the “Silent majority”
  • The idea that the student protestors may have had a loud voice but did not truly speak for America.
  • Upon election Nixon said he would bring the country together.

Election of 1972
Republican: Nixon--------520 P VP: Gerald Ford
Democrat: McGovern------17
Libertarian: Hospers-------1

Gerald Ford

August 9, 1974 - January 20, 1977
  • Became President due to the Resignation of President Nixon
  • Appointed Nelson Rockefeller as VP

Jimmy Carter

January 20, 1977 - January 20, 1981

Election of 1976
Democrat: Carter---------297 P VP: Walter Mondale
Republican: Ford---------240

Ronald Reagan

January 20, 1981 - January 20, 1989

Election of 1980
Republican: Reagan-----------489 P VP: George H. W. Bush
Democratic: Carter------------49
Independent: Anderson--------0

Election of 1984
Republican: Reagan---------525 P VP: George H. W. Bush
Democrat: Mondale---------13

George H. W. Bush

January 20, 1989 - January 20, 1993

Election of 1988
Republican: Bush-----------426 P VP: Dan Quayle
Democrat: Dukakis---------111

Bill Clinton

January 20, 1993 - January 20, 2001

Election of 1992
Democrat: Clinton--------370 P VP: Al Gore
Republican: Bush---------168
Independent: Perot--------0

Election of 1996
Democrat: Clinton-----------379 P VP: Al Gore
Republican: Dole------------159
Reform: Perot---------------0

George W. Bush

January 20, 2001 - January 20, 2009

Election of 2000
Republican: W. Bush--------271 P VP: Dick Cheney
Democrat: Gore------------266

Election of 2004
Republican: Bush---------286 P VP: Dick Cheney
Democrat: Kerry----------251

Barack Obama

January 20, 2009 - Present

Election of 2008
Democrat: Obama----------365 P VP: Joe Biden
Republican: McCain---------173

Election of 2012
Democrat: Obama--------332 P VP: Joe Biden
Republican: Romney------206


The Mayflower Compact

November 11, 1620
  • Cross the Atlantic searching fro religious freedom.
  • They were mostly English farmers.
  • They originally moved to the Netherlands because they felt the church of England retained too much of the Catholic faith
  • The original deal they made with investors no longer mattered since the landed in New England.
  • The Mayflower Compact then comes into being to preserve the struggling colony.
  • They would end up being plagued by hunger and disease.

Molasses Act

March 1733
  • In 1733 Parliament enacted the Molasses Act which tightened British control over colonial trade.
  • By 1750, Charles Townsend and others on the British Board of Trade were convinced that the colonies had far too much economic freedom, and they were determined to bring the era of statuary neglect to an end.

Albany Congress

  • In 1754, delegates from seven northern and middle colonies met at the Albany Congress, at which the colonies attempted to coordinate their policies concerning further westward settlement and concerning Native Americans

Treaty of Paris (1763)

10 February 1763

*Ended the French and Indian War, giving England all of France's American Colonies

Sugar Act

29 September 1764 - 1766

*George Grenville took over for the earl of Bute and insisted that the colonies start paying off the debt for the army.
*The First act to come about is the Revenue act of 1764 or the Sugar Act.
*The point of the act was to stop smuggling.
*Smuggling had appeared because the Navigation acts made trade in the colonies almost exclusively with Britain.

Quartering Act

March 24 1765
  • Parliament enacted them to order local governments of the American colonies to provide the British soldiers with any needed accommodations.
  • It also required colonists to provide food for any British soldiers in the area.

Stamp Act Congress

October 7, 1765 - October 25, 1765
  • It was the first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation

Declaration of Rights and Grievances

October 19, 1765
  • Adams worked out a compromise entitled the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which stated that the colonists would not object to the measures designed to regulate their external comerce

Stamp Act

1 November 1765

*Following with belief that the colonies should pay what they owe Grenville released another act upon the colonies.
*The Stamp Act required Americans to purchase special seals or stamps to validate legal documents.
*Grenville was warned by members of Parliament that this could cause an uproar.

Declaratory Act

March 18, 1766
  • The Declaratory Act stated that Parliament's authority was the same in America as in Britain and asserted Parliament's authority to pass laws that were binding on the American colonies

Townshend Acts


*Townsend Acts: Series of taxes on American imports specifically: paper, glass, paint, lead, and tea.
*What does Townsend do differently to ensure his acts work properly?
*Puts strict enforcement in the port cities

Committee of Correspondence is organized

November 2, 1772
  • The Committees of Correspondence were shadow governments organized by the Patriot leaders of the Thirteen Colonies on the eve of the American Revolution.

Tea Act

10 May 1773

*What was the point of the Tea Act and why did Parliament Pass it?
*Raised price of tea.
*There was also the hope that they could save East India *Trading company that had hit hard times
*What was Governor Hutchinson’s reaction to the Tea Act?
*Governor Hutchinson disagreed with the act and kept the Ships from unloading in the harbor.

Intolerable Acts


*(The Coercive Acts)
*What are the rules in the colonies under the Coercive acts?
1.Closed the port of Boston until debt was paid
2.Restructured Government
3. British troops could quarter troops wherever they thought it was necessary

First Continental Congress

September 5, 1774 - May 10, 1775

*Takes place in Philadelphia, Summer of 1774
*55 elected from 12 colonies
*Included John Adams, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington
*None of the men they had never met but they knew of each other
*Decision to halt commerce with Britain

Suffolk Resolves

September 9, 1774
  • This act stated that the colonies would continue to boycott English imports and approve the efforts of Massachusetts to operate a colonial government free British control until the Intolerable acts were rescinded.
  • Colonies were also urged to raise and train militias of their own

Second Continental Congress

May 10, 1775 - March 1, 1781
  • The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the 13 colonies that started meeting in the summer of 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun.
  • It succeeded the First Continental Congress, which met between September 5, 1774 and October 25, 1774, also in Philadelphia.
  • The second Congress managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
  • By raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties, the Congress acted as the de facto national government of what became the United States.

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776
  • The Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire.

Articles of Confederation Government

March 1, 1781 - September 13, 1788

*Extremely Flawed
*Terrible Debt
*Foreign Issues with the Spanish
*Northwest Ordinance was the one Accomplishment

Treaty of Paris (1783)

September 3, 1783

*Ended the American Revolution
*Gave America the Northwest Territory

Annapolis Convention

  • The commissioners felt that there were not enough states represented to make any substantive agreement.
  • They agreed to meet again in Philadelphia

3/5 Compromise


*The northern and southern delegates fought over the representation of slaves.
*In the end it was deiced that slave vote would worth 3/5 of a white person vote.
*There was also a clause passed about collecting fugitive slaves.

Philadelphia Convention

May 25, 1787 - September 17, 1787

*They met to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain.
* The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention.
* The result of the Convention was the creation of the United States Constitution, placing the Convention among the most significant events in the history of the United States.

Ratification of the Constitution

June 21, 1788
  • Majority of the states had to ratify the constitution in order for it to be ratified

Judiciary Act of 1789

September 24, 1789

*Creates the Supreme court. The Court makes sure laws passed by congress are constitutional.
*1 chief justice with five associate justices.
*Creates 13 district courts to also make sure state laws were constitutional.

Bill of Rights

December 15, 1791

*The first ten amendments of the constitution.
*Considered to be the legacy of the Anti- Federalists

11th Amendment is ratified

March 4, 1794
  • Deals with each state's sovereign immunity

Jay's Treaty

February 29, 1796

*John Jay was sent to negotiate the return of American Goods.
*Hamilton was noted as mentioning that the U.S. would give in to negations easily, which the British found out.
*The treaty stated that the U.S. would pay for its revolutionary debt to the British.
*The British would return American goods and the troops would leave the territories.

Pinckney's Treaty

August 3, 1796

*Due to contracts with Britain the Spanish assumed that we were allying with Britain against them
*They than offered the US Envoy William Pickney a treaty
*The treaty gave us three things:
1. Strong control in the Mississippi Area
2. Settled the Florida Border at the 31st Parallel
3. Spain agreed to stop supplying the Native Americans

XYZ Affair

1797 - 1798

*The three delegates from the U.S. were not received well
*The delegates were expected to pay a bribe to French *Officials as well as a loan for millions
*When the information was relayed to congress the agents were known as Xyand Z
*This event only worsened tensions between Federalists and anti Federalists. Hamilton called for war with the French.

Alien and Sedition Act

1798 - 1801

*The federalist Majority decided that should try and quiet Republican dissent besides building a military.
*Congress would pass the Alien and Sedition act.
*The act allowed federal courts and the President to silence Republican dissent. As well as deport those of a foreign nature.
*The courts were stacked with Federalist representatives.
*Obviously many people were dragged into court.

Kentucky and Virginia Resolves

  • State legislatures in Virginia and Kentucky passed theKentucky and Virginia Resolves, proclaiming that states had the right to not enforce laws that were unconstitutional, such as the Sedition Act

Judiciary Act of 1801


*As Adams left he passed the Judiciary act of 1801
*It created 12 new circuit courts along with judges to fill them.
*Adams filled the judgeships with Federalist. (Midnight appointees)
*The new President Jefferson and Republicans railed against these judges. Stating they were unnecessary due to the lacking amount of cases they would hear.

12th Amemdment

June 15, 1804

*Presidential elections will have separate votes for President and Vice President.

Embargo Act of 1807

December 22, 1807

*The Embargo act was passed in 1807, again it was black on trade with the British and The French.
*Jefferson thought the people would support the act. *Reality people took their own chances and decided to smuggle goods any way.
*The government had to pass enforcement acts to try and keep people from smuggling.
*Eventually enforcing the Embargo act almost turned the government into a police state on the coast.
*The act hardly damaged the British economy.
*The act was repealed right before the election for Madison

Nonintercourse Act

March 1, 1809
  • The Act regulates commerce between Native Americans and non-Indians

Macon's Bill No 2

May 14, 1810

*Opening of trade by America with either Britain or France, dependent on which nation stopped blocking neutral trade first
*France begins to take interest in the bill
*Madison opens trade with France, but France decides not to trade with the US
*This makes the British think that the US joined France and began impressing even more American sailors

Hartford Convention

1814 - 1815

*The Hartford Convention is a meeting of Federalists, it is meant to rewrite the constitution
*They wanted to change the proportional representation in congress and even out the advantage of slave states
*It also listed grievances against the country and expressed a want for more laws that were in favor of the north
*This was delivered right after the treaty of ghent which made it come off as treasonous
*This basically ended the Federalist Party

Treaty of Ghent

24 December 1814

*The treaty said that the two countries would stop being at war, a buffer zone would be created to stop native fighting, and neutral trade rights would be determined at a later date

Monroe Doctrine

December 2, 1823

*Opposed further colonization of Americas
*America would not involve itself in European internal affairs
*Claimed all the countries near America were their own independent republics.
*North America being the head republic.

Corrupt Bargain


*Adams ,Crawford and Jackson enter into a final three to be selected by the house of representatives.
*Clay who is left out of the last three tells his supporters to push Adams
*Adams wins the election, Clay becomes secretary of state

Nullification Crisis

1828 - 1832

*John C. Calhoun emerges as the leader for states rights and begins to support nullification.
*Calhoun also moved against the Tariff abominations
*There was already a great rivalry growing between Jackson and Calhoun over the vice presidency.
*As well as the Peggy Eaton Scandal and Jackson punishment post his colonization of Florida
*Congress agreed to lower the tariffs but Carolina still intended to nullify it.

Peggy Eaton Affair

1830 - 1831
  • aka The Petticoat Affair
  • Scandal involving members of President Andrew Jackson's Cabinet and their wives.
  • Resulted in the resignation of all members of the Cabinet over a period of weeks in the spring of 1831 accept for the postmaster general

Indian Removal Act

May 28, 1830

*During and just after the election of Jackson Georgia Mississippi and Alabama were looking for government to move groups of Native American’s out of their borders
*Theses states passed laws against the Natives in their areas.
*Native American rights fell under federal jurisdiction
*Jackson supported the states
*1830 congress introduces a bill to implement the idea of Indian removal.
*Many claimed that this act was unconstitutional
*The bill would pass and Jackson would move into action to remove the Native Americans

Force Bill

March 2, 1833

*Jackson asked congress to pass the force bill allowing him to build an army and march into Carolina

Indian Intercourse Act

  • At the close of the Civil War Native American inhabited nearly half the U.S.
  • 2/3 of these groups lived on the great plains.
  • Many of which were nomadic and had some warlike tendencies
  • Before the civil war this are was known as Indian country
  • 1834 U.S. Government passes the Indian Intercourse act which prohibited whites from entering Indian country without license

Know-Nothing Party

1845 - 1860
  • The Know Nothing movement was an American political movement that operated on a national basis during the mid-1850s
  • It promised to purify American politics by limiting or ending the influence of Irish Catholics and other immigrants, thus reflecting nativism and anti-Catholic sentiment

Wilmot Proviso

August 8, 1846 - 1848

*Developed by David Wilmot, A democrat from Pennsylvania
*Originally the movement starts with an amendment that is will be added to a military bill
*Would ban slavery in any territory acquired by Mexico
*In the end the idea was blocked in the senate. In response southerners would attempt to extends the compromise borders, but this effort also failed.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

February 2, 1848

*The war lasted much longer than expected mostly due to the fact that Mexico was determined to win.
*By 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed seceding California and New Mexico.

Fugative Slave Act

September 18, 1850

*The strictness of the changes in the slave laws was outrageous.
*Fugitive slaves were unable to have Jury trial or testify on their own behalf.

Treaty of Kanagawa

March 31, 1854
  • The Event: President Fillmore forces trade with Japan.
  • Who is involved: President Fillmore, Matthew C. Perry.
  • What occurs: Perry arrives in Japan with four steam ships as a display of force.
  • Japan would sign the Treaty of Kanagawa
  • This treaty would allow the U.S. to trade in two ports. As well strike up peace between the U.S. and Japan.

Freeport Doctrine

August 27, 1858
  • Stephen A. Douglas responded to the Dread Scott decision with the Freeport Doctrine
  • The doctrine maintained that a territory could exclude slavery if the laws and regulations written made slavery impossible to enforce

Crittenden Compromise

December 18, 1860 - 1861
  • Many thought the succession crisis could be solved without violence.
  • John Crittenden of Kentucky would propose a Compromise: Looked to extend the Missouri Compromise , would protect slavery in southern states, Prohibit Federal Government from abolishing slavery.

Homestead Act of 1862

  • The U.S. Government owned 1 billion cares of land. It gave away 48 million acres in the homestead act of 1862
  • The rest was given out to small business.
  • The largest group that received land form the Government were the Railroads.
  • In a push to try and get people to settle west the U.S. government passed the Homestead act of 1862
  • It gave 160 acres of land to anyone who would pay registry fee of ten dollars as well as cultivate the land for five years.
  • There is a mass migration from Europe in the hope of getting this land
  • Between 1862-1900 600,000 families receive land.
  • The Homestead Act did not work exactly as the government planned.
  • Very few could afford to move out to the frontier, or they could not buy the equipment needed to farm.
  • It also took two years for a farm to sustain itself. Also most of the land bought by settlers was hard to farm. It was not like the land of the Louisiana purchase.
  • Many framers would need more land to be successful.

  • The government passed various acts to try and improve the situation out west while improving on the western lands.

Emancipation Proclimation

January 1, 1863
  • By 1862 Lincoln was looking for strategic means to win the war. He would propose his first draft of the Emancipation proclamation.
  • Bill was passed January of 1863. It stated that all slaves in the confederate states were free.
  • Lincoln made sure not to free slaves in the northern states for fear of angering southern allies.

Enrollment Act

March 3, 1863
  • In the North the Enrollment act passed Drafting white citizens. The act was unpopular and lead to violent revolts in New York
  • Martial law was used to quell the action.
  • But the copperheads, or militant anti-war protestors still existed in the North.

Ten Percent Plan

December 1863
  • Lincoln’s Plan for reconstruction: Have the South take oaths of loyalty to re join the union. When ten percent had taken the oath they could rejoin
  • Radical Republican’s Plan: favored the rights and protection of African Americans (including African American suffrage)
  • Radicals refused Lincoln’s plan believing they could not trust repentant confederates.

National Union Movement

1864 - 1868
  • With opposition from the Republican party Johnson planned to drop from the party

  • The President planned to create the National Union Movement: Which existed to push Johnson’s reconstruction laws.

Wade–Davis Bill

July 2, 1864
  • Many in congress believed that South had forfeited its right to be part of the union and congress would decide how they would come back in.
  • Congress passes the Wade Davis Bill: Stated that if 50 percent of a state swore loyalty their state could be re admitted but only those 50 could vote.
  • Lincoln vetoed this bill

13th Amendment

December 6, 1865
  • The abolishment of slavery in the United States.

  • This was important because originally the emancipation proclamation only freed slaves in the confederate sates.

Civil Rights act of 1866

  • As a means to counter the black codes congress passed the Civil Rights act of 1866.

  • It granted citizenship to all person born in the U.S. except Native Americans

  • It would not permit states to take rights from citizens.

Reconstruction Acts

March 2, 1867 - March 11, 1868
  • Radical Reconstruction: Represented as the general compromises between the radical and moderate Republicans.
  • Radicals such as Sumner and Stevens believed in period of regeneration in the south where military control was enforced to bring equality to African Americans.
  • Result the first reconstruction bill.
  • The first reconstruction bill did have the military in control.
  • From 1867to 1868
  • The region was reorganized into five military districts.
  • Ratifications of new constitutions were based on the idea that newly freed slaves could protect themselves in a vote.

Tenure of Office Act

March 3, 1867
  • The Tenure of office act required the Senate to approve the removal of any government
  • Johnson would test this act by removing Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton who supported programs put together by Republicans.

Impeachement of Andrew Johnson

February 24, 1868 - May 16, 1868
  • Within three days the house voted to impeach Johnson for refusing to uphold the Tenure of Office Act.
  • The Senate was eight votes shy of removing Johnson from office.

14th Amendment

July 9, 1868
  • Johnson planned to oppose the Republican’s passage of the 14th amendment.

  • Johnson miscalculated though as most of country was tired of seeing the violence against blacks.

  • Lead to congress becoming more Republican and passage of the 14 Amendment.

  • This Amendment would give equal rights to under the law to all Americans

  • It gave citizenship to all American born or naturalized within the U.S.

  • The states could not deny these citizens life liberty or property.

  • During the coming election Johnson would only weaken himself by opposing the Amendment

15th Amendment

February 3, 1870
  • 1869 Once the Republicans had retaken power by electing grant they would continue their reconstruction plans.
  • Why would the Republican’s pass the Fifteenth Amendment?
  • 1 They saw how the votes of former freed slaves could help the party.
  • 2 They worried about the south taking rights away
  • The amendment made it so you could not deny someone the right to vote based on race color or previous servitude.

Ku Klux Klan Act

April 20, 1871
  • The Klan grew throughout the south and began to drive out members of the Freedmen’s Bureau as well as terrorizing republican supporters
  • Grant was outraged by these actions and pushed congress to pass three different acts to stop the Klan
  • Under these acts U.S. Marshals started to bring clan members to justice but only a few were actually found guilty in the court of Law.

Credit Mobilier Scandal

  • A construction company Credit Mobiler became a major investor in the Union Pacific Railroad.
  • By doing so they were able to choose the construction company for the rail road.
  • They charged a large construction knowing that the railroad would have to pay no matter what.

Timber Culture Act of 1873

  • Timber Culture Act of 1873 : Settlers could gain 160 acres more land if they planted trees

Whiskey Ring Scandal

  • a scandal, exposed in 1875, involving diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors

Compromise of 1877

  • A committee of 15 was appointed by congress to solve the election issue.
  • The compromise that lead to election of Hayes was incredibly controversial.
  • Ther Republican party would remove union troops from the South in exchange for Hayes to become President.
  • (Clearly this would effect the rights of African Americans)

Desert Land Act of 1877

March 3, 1877
  • Desert land act of 1877: one could gain 640acres if they irrigated land.

Timber and Stone Act of 1878

  • Timber stone Act of 1878: took unlivable land and lowered the price to buy it. Many companies sent fake speculators to buy this land in the thought there could be high profit.

Chinese Exclusion Act

May 6, 1882
  • 1882 Congress passed this act to barred Chinese immigration for 10 yrs and prevented Chinese already in the U.S. from becoming citizens.

Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act

January 16, 1883
  • Civil service: A government position where a candidate is placed on their qualifications, than there status in the community.
  • James Garfield was killed by someone who was upset by not getting the position they wanted.
  • Pendleton Act: Requires that candidates for a position pass a written exam to qualify for a position.

Sherman Antitrust Act

July 2, 1890
  • Once the government made it illegal for monopolies to form businesses developed a new system around merging businesses.
  • A Trust is a way to merge businesses. It is a legal agreement that allows on person to manage another person’s property.
  • The Sherman Act prohibits certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be anticompetitive, and requires the federal government to investigate and pursue trusts.

Teller Amendment

April 20, 1898
  • As Americans were preparing for war with Spain over Cuba in 1898, this Senate measure stated that under no circumstances would the United States annex Cuba
  • The Amendment was passes as many of the muckraking press were suggesting that the Cuban people would be better off "under the protection" of the United States

Treaty of Paris(1898)

August 12, 1898
  • On August 12, 1898, the U.S. and Spanish representatives came together to sign the Treaty of Paris.
  • The end result left the U.S. in control of Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.
  • Besides the control of Spanish territory, the United States was able to enhance their image as an emerging world power by defeating one of the great empires of the world.

Foraker Act

April 12, 1900
  • Like Cuba and the Philippines the U.S. also abused Puerto Rico.
  • The Foraker act was passed based around creating a governing body for the island
  • The law required a governor and executive councils appointed by the president
  • Puerto Rico would not elect their own government for thirty years.

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

18 November 1901
  • As American interest increased during the presidency of Teddy Roosevelt.
  • Secretary of state John Hay was able to negotiate America’s right to build a canal in Panama
  • The main problem was that Panama was protectorate of Colombia who did not want the colony built
  • America blockaded the Coast of Colombia and helped the countries people overthrow the Colombian presence

Square Deal

1902 - 1909
  • As Roosevelt entered the Presidency he declared that the people would receive a square deal.
  • Roosevelt would give all those equal opportunity.
  • Roosevelt would support unions but not to the detriment of business.

National Reclamation Act of 1902

  • Eventually the U.S. Govern meant began to fund efforts to build an irrigation networks for these farms with the National Reclamation Act.

Platt Amendment

May 22, 1903
  • As the U.S. obtains new territories it begins to re write the countries constitutions
  • With Cuba they develop the Platt amendment
  • The basis of the rules in the amendment is that Cuba exclusively trades with America

Roosevelt Corollary

  • An extension of the Monroe Doctrine, this policy was announced in 1904 by Theodore Roosevelt
  • It firmly warned the European nations against intervening in the affairs of the nations of the Western Hemisphere, and stated that the United States had the right to take action against any nation in Latin America if "chronic wrongdoing" was taking place. The Roosevelt Corollary was used to justify several American "interventions" in Central America in the twentieth century

Niagara Movement Founded

  • The Niagara Movement was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter
  • The Niagara Movement was a call for opposition to racial segregation and disenfranchisement, and it was opposed to policies of accommodation and conciliation promoted by African American leaders such as Booker T. Washington

Hepburn Act

  • Roosevelt also mangaed big business by looking the railroads affect on the average person.
  • The President passed the Hepburn Act , which strengthened the Interstate commerce commission.
  • This allowed the ICC to set Railroad Rates.

Meat Inspection Act

  • There was an overwhelming response to Sinclair’s book
  • Many were disgusted, some protested, and some became vegetarians
  • Roosevelt read the book at the time and shared many of these beliefs.
  • Congress would passed both the meat inspection and Pure Food and Drug Act.

Pure Food and Drug Act

June 30, 1906
  • There was an overwhelming response to Sinclair’s book
  • Many were disgusted, some protested, and some became vegetarians
  • Roosevelt read the book at the time and shared many of these beliefs.
  • Congress would passed both the meat inspection and Pure Food and Drug Act.
  • This act eventually lead to the creation of the FDA

Great White Fleet

16 December 1907 - 22 February 1909
  • The Great White Fleet was the popular nickname for the United States Navy battle fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the globe from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 by order of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt

NAACP founded

February 12, 1909
  • NAACP= National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
  • Created in part by W.E.B. Dubious the NAACP protest for African American rights, and fought court battles to end segregation.
  • Formed in 1909, this organization fought for and continues to to fight for the rights of blacks in America
  • The NAACP originally went to court for the plaintiff in the Brown V Board of Education case, and Thurgood Marshal, the NAAcP's chief counsel and later a Supreme Court Justice, was the main attorney in the case
  • The NAACP was constantly fighting to end segregation.
  • Their goal was to find a supreme court case that would make Segregation unconstitutional.
  • They thought parks case could end segregation which was based around the idea od separate but equal.
  • The Democratic party also grew during the 1930’s relying on support from African Americans.

Children's Bureau Founded

  • 1912 Taft established the agency which investigated an publicized problems of Child Labor.
  • The Agency still deals with issues such as child abuse prevention

Bull Moose Party

1912 - 1916
  • Roosevelt failed to capture the Republican nomination from Taft.
  • Roosevelt returned becoming the nominee to the progressive party, known as the bull moose party.
  • Taft ran on the Republican party
  • Wilson ran for the democratic party.
  • Roosevelt and Taft kept each other so busy that Wilson was able to win the election.

Ballinger Pinchot Controversy

  • Gifford Pinchot accused the new secretary of state Richard * Ballinger of trying to sell public forests for private development.
  • The attorney general found the claims to be groundless.
  • Pinchot allowed the story to leak to the papers and would be fired by Taft. This enraged progressives and Roosevelt.

16th Amendment

February 3, 1913
  • Amendment that instituted a federal income tax
  • In debate over this measure in congress, most felt that this would be a fairer tax than the national sales tax, which was proposed by some

17th Amendment

May 31, 1913
  • This amendment allowed voters to directly elect United States senators
  • Senators had previously been elected by state legislators
  • This change perfectly reflected the spirit of progressive-era political reformers who wanted to do all they could to put political power into the hands of the citizens

Zimmerman Telegram intercepted

March 1, 1917
  • The final outrage that brings the U.S. into the war was the Zimmerman Telegram.
  • The Zimmerman telegram was intercepted by British intelligence.
  • The telegram was an attempt to forge an alliance between Germany and Mexico
  • If Mexico aided Germany they would obtain some of their lost territory.

The 14 Points

January 8, 1918
  • The Plan Wilson presented to Congress before going to the conference
  • The goal: If all fourteen points were followed then it would be possible to have lasting peace in Europe.
  • Justice to all people
  • Free Trade, Freedom of the seas disarmament
  • National Self Determination: Borders of countries should be based on culture and ethnicity.

League of Nations Formed

  • The Final Point of Wilson’s Plan
  • A general association of Nations
  • The League would promote peace and help protect other nations borders.
  • Many European countries would accept this idea
  • When Wilson returned home though he found that Congress had rejected allowing the U.S. into the league

18th Amendment Ratified

January 16, 1919
  • Prohibited the sale, manufacture, and transportation of intoxicating liquors *Started the Prohibition

Treaty of Versailles

28 June 1919
  • Palace of Versailles near Paris
  • The “Big Four”
  • The U.S., France, Britain, Italy.
  • Russia is left out because the growing fears about socialism.

Tea Pot Dome Scandal

1920 - November 22, 1923
  • The most famous scandal of the Harding administration.
  • Albert B. Fall secretly allowed private interests to lease lands containing U.S Navy Oil reserves.
  • Fall received 300,000 dollars in bribes for this.
  • After an investigation and a Supreme Court ruling Fall was the first Cabinet member to be sent to prison.

19th Amendment Ratified

August 18, 1920
  • Catt eventually took over NAWSA and rallied the group for a final nation wide push.
  • This included putting support behind Wilson’s reelection.
  • June 1919 the Senate passed the 19th amendment by a slim margin. This amendment insured all women the right to vote.

Immigration Quota Act

  • was a United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890
  • The law was aimed at further restricting immigration of Southern Europeans, Eastern Europeans, and Jews, in addition to prohibiting the immigration of Arabs, East Asians, and Indians.

20th Amemdment Ratified

January 23, 1933
  • moved the beginning and ending of the terms of the President and Vice President from March 4 to January 20, and of members of Congress from March 4 to January 3. It also has provisions that determine what is to be done when there is no President-elect

First Hundred Days

March 4, 1933 - June 24, 1933
  • The new president sent bill after bill to congress
  • By the end of the first hundred days the president passed 15 bills to help the economy.

21st Amendment Ratified

December 5, 1933
  • repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol

Neutrality Act

  • Under the Neutrality act made it illegal to sell arms to any country at war.
  • It was the hope that this action would keep the United States out of any foreign war.

Wagner Act

July 6, 1935
  • As the New Deal expanded it continued to help certain groups such as labor groups
  • The Wagner act outlawed company unions and unfair labor practices to ensure collective bargaining.
  • This would lead to the national labor relations board and a fair labor and standards act passed in 1938

Social Security Act

August 14, 1935
  • When congress came together in 1935 congress was reminded that it had not provided a welfare system for its aged and disabled.
  • Eventually this would become the social security act
  • Provided old age pensions
  • Set up a system of unemployment
  • Provided federal grants for state welfare.

Houser of Un-American Activities

1938 - 1975
  • The program existed to screen government employees, in a n attempt to weed out spies.
  • Instead of calming Americans fears it only confirmed people fears of spies.
  • The director of the FBI J Edgar Hoover was not pleased with the simple screening of employees.
  • Hoover expanded the HUAC calling public hearings related to possible communists.
  • The committee focused on the film industry many member of Hollywood testified against their friends and neighbors.


1940 - 1957
  • Named after WI Senator Joseph McCarthy, the title given to the movement in the 1940s and early 50s in American politics to root out potential communist influence in the government, the military, and the entertainment industry
  • Harsh tactics were often used by congressional investigations, with a few actual communists ever discovered
  • This period is seen by many today as an era of intolerance and paranoia
  • Joseph McCarthy was a senator that looking to fast track his career by taking advantage of the red scare.
  • McCarthy became the head of the sub committee and built hearings based on flimsy evidence. This would damage the careers of possible opponents.
  • Joseph McCarthy continued to accuse citizens of being communist to rise in power.
  • McCarthy became less trusted though as he accused a close friend of President Eisenhower of being a communist.
  • The president and congress ordered an investigation of McCarthy ending his reign of terror.

Selective Service Act of 1940

September 16, 1940
  • the first peacetime conscription in United States history
  • This Selective Service Act required that men between the ages of 21 and 35 register with local draft boards. Later, when the U.S. entered World War II, all men aged 18 to 45 were made subject to military service, and all men aged 18 to 65 were required to register.

Lend Lease Act

March 11, 1941
  • As Britain fell farther into danger they asked America for help.
  • The U.S. passed the Lend Lease Act
  • The act stated the U.S. could lend weapons to any country vital to U.S. defense.
  • This allowed America to sell Britain weapons as long as they paid the money back.

The Atlantic Charter

August 14,1941
  • FDR also started an organization to assure peace after WWII. The Atlantic charter was meant to push free trade, freedom of the seas, and non aggression between countries.
  • 15 countries that were against the axis powers signed into the organization.

Manhattan Project

1942 - 1946
  • The U.S. only increased tension with their original use of the Atomic bomb.
  • It was originally kept a secret by the U.S. , Stalin only knew about the Manhattan project via espionage.

Congress of Racial Equality founded

March 1942
  • James Farmer and George Houser founded the Congress of Racial Equality. Or CORE
  • They attempted to desegregate places, such as: department stores, and Restaurants.
  • They practiced Sit-ins to protest, they would sit down in public places until they were given service in the “Whites only Section”

Yalta Conference

February 4, 1945 - February 11, 1945
  • the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization
  • After 1945 the Soviet Union and the U.S. try to rebuild Europe peacefully.
  • The disagreement was over how to run the elections of the post war Poland and the Balkans
  • The U.S. wanted free elections, The soviet Union wanted to institute a soviet sphere of influence.
  • After the Yalta Conference both Britain's and the U.S. declared that the countries being liberated should be allowed to decide on their own government. As well as elect their own leaders.

Berlin Declaration

June 5, 1945
  • The decision came about to split Germany into four territories.
  • France , Britain, America, and the Soviet Union each controlled a section
  • The Soviet Union wanted Germany to pay reparations. Put the U.S. and the Soviot Union at the brink of war

Potsdam Conference

July 14, 1945 - August 2, 1945
  • 1946 Germany collapsed and Truman replaced FDR
  • America wanted to industrialize Germany
  • Russia wanted to make it agricultural based.
  • Truman hinted at working Atomic bombe to force Russia to agree with industrialization of Germany after the war.
  • Allied leaders gathered to decide how to administer punishment to the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on 8 May

Paris Peace Conference (1947)

29 July 1946 - 10 February 1947
  • The victorious wartime Allied powers (principally the United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and France) negotiated the details of treaties with Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland
  • The settlement elaborated in the peace treaties included payment of war reparations, commitment to minority rights and territorial adjustments including the end of the Italian Colonial Empire in Africa, Greece and Albania and changes to the Italian–Yugoslav, Hungarian–Slovak, Romanian–Hungarian, Soviet–Romanian, Bulgarian–Romanian, French–Italian and Soviet–Finnish frontiers.

Treaty of Manila

22 October 1946
  • The United States granted the Philippines independence, and the treaty provided for the recognition of that independence

Cold War and the Iron Curtain

1947 - 1991
  • Cold War: An era of competition and confrontation between The U.S. and the Soviet Union. 1946-1990
  • Essentially for U.S. It was about containing communism.
  • Stalin sensing what he felt to be a betrayal began to set-up a set of Soviet satellite states from the Adriatic to the Baltic sea.
  • Germany which had been split into territories became the lynch pin
  • France Britain and America began to unify their territories and spread free elections
  • The Soviet pushed communism in the eastern block

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947
  • The first test of containment came with a request from Britain who had been supporting the Greek government in a civil war.
  • He asked Congress for 400 million to try and free the area from the Soviet Union.
  • This action would lead the Truman Doctrine, were the U.S. would provide aid to any country facing oppression or opposing communism.

Long Telegram

July 1947
  • The idea of containment was greed upon by then secretary of stat George C. Marshall Dean Acheson, and George Kennan
  • George Kennan was an ambassador to Moscow as tension began to sour.
  • The long telegram refers to 5,540 word telegram that explained his view on the Soviet Union
  • Kennan developed the idea of Containment which meant the U.S. needed to keep communism contained to the Soviet Union

CIA formed

September 18, 1947
  • Also created the Central Intelligence Agency(CIA)
  • As well as the nation security council
  • Found great support in the fall of 1949 when the soviets explode their first atomic bomb.

National Security Act

September 18, 1947
  • The government was looking to unite its military during cold war build up.
  • National Security Act: Established the department of defense. Headed by a civilian cabinet rank, presiding over the army, navy and air force.

Marshal Plan

April 1948 - 1952
  • The U.S. would continue to implement policies in an attempt to protect against communism.

  • Marshall plan: Developed by secretary of state George C. * Marshall the plan donated money to rebuild war torn Europe and Japan.

  • Originally was a gamble because the U.S. included Russia in those who would give aid.

Pumpkin Patch Papers

October 8, 1948
  • Alger Hiss served as a diplomat in the Roosevelt administration.
  • Hiss was accused by a another member of the Truman Administration Whittaker Chambers of being communist
  • Upon testifying Hiss lied under oath committing the crime of perjury when he stated that he did not know Chambers.
  • This was to dodge te communist accusation Chambers had stored papers proving Hiss guilt in pumpkin patch.

Mutually Assured Destruction introduced

  • Eisenhower could no longer use Massive retaliation as the soviets developed a Nuclear Bomb.
  • This lead to the U.S. being tied. Both of them new that use of nuclear of force against each other allies could lead to nuclear war.
  • Nuclear war could end the war as well as the destruction of both countries.

The Domino Theory

  • The idea of containment was based around the Domino theory.
  • Domino Theory: the idea that if communism could spread to the surrounding countries of USSR then it would eventually spread around the world.
  • Essentially countries would fall to communism like dominos.

McCarran Act

September 23, 1950
  • Known as the internal security act
  • Made it illegal to conspire against the U.S. government.
  • Required all communist parties to publish the names of their members. Any communist sympathizers could be arrested.
  • It was named after Senator Pat McCarren

Korean Armistice Agreement

July 27, 1953
  • By 1953 Eisenhower had decided to end the war in Korea, and signed a peace accord.
  • As China fell to the Communist the new soviet country began talks to invade Taiwan.
  • Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons ending the crisis.

Massive Retaliation introduced

January 12, 1954
  • Eisenhower thought communism could not be contained with small battles.
  • Instead he believed in threatening to use Nuclear Weapons. This was known as Massive retalation.
  • There critics to this idea calling it brinksmanship due to putting the world on the brink of war
  • Brinksmanship worked in only some scenarios.
  • Eisenhower decided to use the CIA or central Intelligence Agency to stop communism from growing in developing countries.
  • Many of these countries wanted to become communist because of imperialism and capitalism.

Geneva Accords

April 26, 1954 - July 20, 1954
  • Geneva Accords: When the French could no longer defeat Ho Chi Minh The U.S. and French decided to split the country North and South.
  • North being the communist strong hold of Minh.
  • South being protected by the U.S. government and lead by Ngo Dinh DIeam.
  • There was going to be free election but Diem cancelled them leading Minh to continue his revolt.

Civil Rights Movement

1955 - 1968
  • The true start is December 1955 in Montgomery Alabama.
  • It was based around Rosa parks
  • News of parks arrest reached E.D. Nixon who was then head of the NAACP
  • The National Association Advancement Colored People.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

December 1, 1955 - December 20, 1956
  • The true start is December 1955 in Montgomery Alabama.
  • It was based around Rosa parks
  • News of parks arrest reached E.D. Nixon who was then head of the NAACP
  • As the Brown ruling came to pass a number of African American leaders in Alabama organized a boycott of the bus system.
  • The group would continue to boycott the bus system until it was desegregated.
  • The group elected Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to lead the boycott.
  • The Boycott continued until the supreme court ruled segregation in Alabama to be illegal.

The Little Rock Nine

  • As America desegregated it’s school the governor of Arkansas sent the national guard to prevent African American students from entering the school.
  • Eventually President Eisenhower had to send in the U.S. military to make sure that the students would be allowed to enter.

Eisenhower Farewell Adress

January 17, 1961
  • As Eisenhower left the presidency he warned the American public that if citizens were not careful the country would always in be a state of war.
  • This was due to the idea the weapons producers could always make a profit by keeping country moving from conflict to conflict.
  • This was known as the military industrial complex.

Peace Corps founded

March 1, 1961
  • Along with financial aid the President also developed programs to assist less fortunate countries.
  • The most memorable being the Peace Corps.
  • An organization that sent Americans to provide humanitarian services in less developed nations.

The Great March on Washington

August 28, 1963
  • As Kennedy began to propose a major civil rights bill to congress, MLK knew it would be difficult for the President to pass the bill.
  • MLK marched with 200,000 African americns on the capital.
  • Over the next few days the crowds listened to speeches and sang.
  • It built momentum for the bill but some congressmen still opposed the bill.

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

October 10, 1963
  • After the close destruction during the Cuban missile crisis both sides decide to start consider the Nuclear crisis.
  • The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. sign the nuclear test ban treaty: Which stopped the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

July 2, 1964
  • As the senate debated the civil rights bill those opposed to filibustered.
  • Filibuster: when a small group of senators take turns speaking and refuse to stop the debate.
  • After Kennedy died Johnson lead a movemnt to pass the bill.
  • The most comprehensive civil rights bill ever enacted. It gave the Federal Government broad power to prevent racial discrimination.
  • Made segregation illegal in most public places.
  • Allowed the government to desgregate by using law suits.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

August 10, 1964
  • August 2, 1964 the Maddox was sunk by torpedoes. The ship was gathering information off the coast of North Vietnam.
  • Two ships investigated the issue resulting in U.S. airstrikes on two shipyards.
  • Johnson then asked congress to pass a resolution to authorize him to take all necessary measures to repel armed attacks on U.S. forces.
  • Lead to the escalation of the war.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

August 6, 1965
  • a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits discrimination in voting
  • Designed to enforce the voting rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, the Act allowed for a mass enfranchisement of racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South

Salt conference

November 1969 - 1979
  • The policy in which Nixon tried to relax tensions with communist countries Opened trade with China
  • Salt conference: Visit to Moscow agreed to arms control and reduction

Pentagon Papers Leaked in the New York Times

June 13, 1971
  • Pentagon Papers: a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.
  • The papers were discovered and released by Daniel Ellsberg, and first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of * The New York Times in 1971 the Pentagon Papers had demonstrated, among other things, that the Johnson Administration "systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress

Watergate Scandal

June 17, 1972 - August 9, 1974
  • Watergate: Nixon feared the failings that occurred during the pull out of Vietnam. Nixon hired a group of men to break in and tap the phone lines of the democrat’s headquarters across from the Watergate hotel.
  • The burglars were caught, Nixon paid them to lie so that he would not be caught.
  • Eventually the government investigated Nixon asking him to release tapes that had recorded information about the break in.
  • Nixon knew he would be impeached so he resigned in disgrace.

Paris Peace Accords

January 27, 1973
  • intended to establish peace in Vietnam and an end to the Vietnam War, ended direct U.S. military involvement, and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam
  • The governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries, signed the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam on January 27, 1973. The agreement was not ratified by the United States Senate

Saturday Night Massacre

October 20, 1973
  • the term given by political commentators[1] to U.S. President Richard Nixon's executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus on October 20, 1973 during the Watergate scandal

War Powers Act

November 7, 1973
  • War powers Act: intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress.
  • The resolution was adopted in the form of a United States Congress joint resolution; this provides that the President can send U.S. armed forces into action abroad only by declaration of war by Congress

Pardon of Nixon

September 8, 1974
  • President Ford issued Proclamation 4313 which fully and unconditionally pardoned former President Nixon of any and all crimes he may have comitted against the US

Camp David Accords

September 4, 1978 - September 17, 1978
  • The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following thirteen days of secret negotiations at Camp David
  • It was a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt about Israel's presence in the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula

Iran Hostage Crisis

November 4, 1979 - January 20, 1981
  • Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days, after a group of Iranian students, belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who were supporting the Iranian Revolution took over the US Embassy in Tehran
  • On July 27, 1980, the former Shah died; then, in September, Iraq invaded Iran. These two events led the Iranian government to enter negotiations with the U.S., with Algeria acting as a mediator. The hostages were formally released into United States custody the day after the signing of the Algiers Accords, just minutes after the new American president, Ronald Reagan, was sworn into office.

Iran–Contra affair

August 20, 1985 - March 4, 1987
  • Secret arrangement in the 1980s to provide funds to the Nicaraguan contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to Iran

Fall of the USSR

December 26, 1991
  • Marked the end of the Cold War

Whitewater controversy

March 1992 - 1994
  • began with investigations into the real estate investments of Bill and Hillary Clinton and their associates, Jim and Susan McDougal in the Whitewater Development Corporation, a failed business venture in the 1970s and 1980s

Lewinski Scandal

  • The Lewinsky scandal was a political sex scandal emerging in 1998, from a sexual relationship between United States President Bill Clinton and a 22-year-old White House Intern, Monica Lewinsky.
  • The news of this extra-marital affair and the resulting investigation eventually led to the impeachment of President Clinton in 1998 by the U.S. House of Representatives and his subsequent acquittal on all impeachment charges of perjury and obstruction of justice in a 21-day Senate trial.

Bush Doctrine

June 2001
  • a phrase used to describe various related foreign policy principles of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush
  • After 9/11 the phrase described the policy that the United States had the right to secure itself against countries that harbor or give aid to terrorist groups, which was used to justify the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan
  • it came to describe other elements, including the policy of preventive war, which held that the United States should depose foreign regimes that represented a potential threat to the security of the United States, even if that threat was not immediate; a policy of spreading democracy around the world, especially in the Middle East, as a strategy for combating terrorism; and a willingness to unilaterally pursue U.S. military interests

Tea Party Movement founded

  • The Tea Party movement is an American political movement known for advocating a reduction in the U.S. national debt and federal budget deficit by reducing U.S. government spending and taxes

Affordable Care Act

March 23, 2010
  • Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, it represents the most significant regulatory overhaul of the U.S. healthcare system since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965


Bacon's Rebellion

  • Bacon’s Rebellion: Stemmed from economic depression and political repression in the Virginia colony. Nathaniel Bacon capitalized on this rural unrest in leading an unsucessful rebellion against the government of Lord William Berkeley.

Leisler's Rebellion

May 31, 1689 - March 21, 1691

*Similar to Bacon but in Maryland, Leissler was successful merchant who hated the Dutch.
*Upon hearing about the Glorious revolution he lead a revolution of his own.
*Leisler seized local fort in the name of William and Mary, but achieved no political strength.
*He was later removed and killed by English official for not surrendering.

Salem Witch Trials

February 1692 - May 1693
  • Tensions developed between the Puritan ideals of small, tightly knit farming communities and the developing ideals of a colony based on trade and commerce, with less emphasis on strict Puritan beliefs.
  • The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693.

Stono Rebellion

September 9, 1739
  • Nearly 100 slaves took up arms and killed several plantation owners before they were killed or captured and executed

Boston Massacre

March 5, 1770

*Tensions were already high against British authority, but have the soldiers walking the streets only increased fears and anger.
*March 5, 1770 a small group of boys and street toughs begin to harass soldiers outside of a customs house.
*As the group rises into more of a mob the soldiers panic and fire into the group.

Boston Tea Party

December 16, 1773

*With the harbor filled with ships a plan came to action.
*Whether or not Sam Adams was directly behind it was unknown
*A group of men disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded the ships and dumped 360 of tea overboard.
*Strong support for in Boston not the case in England.

Shays' Rebellion

August 1786 - June 1787

*Shortly after scheduling the Philadelphia convention a rebellion started in western Massachusetts
*Lead by a war veteran Daniel Shays a group of indebted planters.
*As the peril grows the government does not have enough money to raise an army.
*Wealthy Bostonian were able to calm the insurrection

Whiskey Rebellion

1791 - 1794

*A small rebellion started due to an excise tax on grain distilleries, which hurt farmers and distilleries.
*Washington assembled an army with Hamilton to put down the rebellion. Upon the arrival the mob had already disbanded.
*Washington claimed that the rebellion was believed to be on par with the revolution.
*Republicans thought this was Hamilton using the military to scare Republicans.

Underground Railroad

1800 - 1860

*It is a network of safe houses organized by abolitionists (usually free blacks) to aid slaves in their attempts to escape slavery north to canada

Battle of Tippeconoe

November 7, 1811

*Tecumseh tried to preserve Native culture by promoting an isolationist lifestyle
*This attracts many native americans and causes many to fear about this
*The Battle of Tippeconoe is when William Henry Harrison attacks Tecumseh and his Natives
*Tecumseh survives and askes for British Assistance

Burning of Washington DC

August 24, 1814
  • an attack during the War of 1812 between British forces and those of the United States of America.
  • On August 24, 1814, after defeating the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, a British force led by Major General Robert Ross occupied Washington City and set fire to many public buildings, including the White House and the Capitol, as well as other facilities of the U.S. government.

Vesey Conspiracy

July 1822

*1822 Charleston South Carolina Vesey conspiracy discovered and stopped. The Conspiracy was based around a freed slave leading other slaves to raid weapons depot.

Nat Turner Rebellion

August 21 1831 - August 22 1831

*a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County , Virginia during August
*Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55–65 white people, the highest number of fatalities caused by slave uprisings in the South. The rebellion was put down within a few days, but Turner survived in hiding for over two months afterward.
*Overall: Only a small amount of the actual slave population chose violent uprising as form of resistance simply because the odds were so stacked against them.

Republic of Texas Declares its Independence

March 2, 1836
  • Texas revolts against Mexico
  • Santa Anna would send troops to enforce his idea
  • members of the American community of Texas vote for independence ,and form a constitution very similar to Americas

Bleeding Kansas

1854 - 1861

*Settlers in Kansas were mostly believers in the ideals of free soil
*A small scale civil war did occur when pro- slavery group attacked the free capital of Lawrence.
*Upon hearing of these events Reverend John Brown lead a group of followers killing five men in cold blood.

New York Draft Riots

July 13, 1863 - July 16, 1863
  • They were violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War.
  • The riots remain the largest civil insurrection in American history outside of the Civil War itself

Sand Creek Massacre

November 29, 1864
  • 1859 conflicts consist between gold miners and Natives
  • Chief Black Kettle lead a group to settle in the sand creek.
  • They were attacked and killed by the Colorado militia they were slaughtered as black kettle surrendered.
  • The tribes were forced to give up the land afterward.

Black Codes

1865 - 1877
  • Congress did not agree with Johnson’s choice and was fearful of the provisional governors.
  • These Fears were not helped by the passage of black codes.
  • Black codes: Subjecting former slaves to a variety of regulations and restrictions on their freedom
  • These acts mostly looked likely slavery by a different name.

  • Unemployment was viewed as a criminal action

  • The south attempted to segregate African Americans from whites

  • African Americans could not hold property.

Freedman's Bureau

March 1865 - 1872
  • Congress would pass a bill authorizing the Freedman’s Bureau.
  • This group took a part of the military and used it to support newly freed slaves
  • They provided labor contracts, some education, housing, and food.

Fighting from Civil War Stops

June 22, 1865
  • Fighting continued for some time in the South after Appomattox Courthouse
  • Rouge rebels would attack Union troops to try and revive the Confederacy

Fetterman Massacre

December 21, 1866
  • Gold settlers continued to move into the territory.
  • Sioux reaction by creating the Sioux war in 1865 due to to the Bozeman Trail which connected miner towns going through Sioux territory.
  • Attacked and killed General Fetterman and 82 soldiers.

Founding of The National Grange of The Order of Patrons of Husbandry

  • officially referred to as The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, is a fraternal organization in the United States that encourages families to band together to promote the economic and political well-being of the community and agriculture

Jim Crow Laws

1867 - 1964
  • Existed after Plessey ruling a series of laws know of Jim Crow Laws were put in place to continue segregation.
  • Laws like literacy test for African American’s to vote.
  • Theses were also known as de facto segregation.
  • Went from late 1867 to 1964.

Knights of Labor Founded

  • The Knights of Labor: Developed in 1869
  • The union itself did not believe in striking.
  • There belief was that they could achieve their goals by boycotting items. They also supported arbitration
  • Arbitration: Process in which a third party helps workers and owners reach an agreement.
  • Fought specifically for the rights of female workers, and preventing child labor.

National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union Founded

  • The Farmers' Alliance was an organized agrarian economic movement among American farmers that developed and flourished in the 1870s and 1880s

Founding of the American Federation of Labor

  • AFL: American Federation of Labor
  • Several trade unions come together to form it.
  • The union pushed for an eight hour work day
  • It also wanted factory owners to only hire union members
  • It continued the knights of labor trend of arbitration
  • Samuel Gompers was the leader of the AFL and the first President of the union

Haymarket Square Riot

May 4, 1886
  • The Haymarket Square Riot refers to the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration
  • It began as a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day and in reaction to the killing of several workers by the police, the previous day

Ocala Demands

December, 1890
  • The Ocala Demands was a platform for economic and political reform that was later adopted by the People's Party

The People's Party

  • The People's Party was a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891 during the Populist movement
  • Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas) and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally

Homestead Strike

July 6, 1892
  • What was the Homestead strike and who did it involve:
  • Owner: Carnegie, and Henry k. Flick
  • Frick attempted to cut wages by twenty percent and locked strikers out.
  • The government sent agents known as Pinkertons and strike breakers were sent leading to a number of deaths.

Pullman Strike

  • Who was involved in the Pullman strike and what was it about
  • Owner George Pullman of the Pullman rail company
  • Pullman paid his employees in a coin only minted by the rail road company which could only be used in the railroad’s company store.
  • Eugene V. Debs a popular labor leader at the time joined with the American Railway Union strike to deal with the company store issue.
  • The strike shut down the countries railroad system including stopping government postal trains.
  • Eventually an injunction was filed by government in attempt to end the strike. Debs did not end the strike and went to prison.

USS Maine explodes in Havana Harbor

February 15, 1898
  • As tension rose between the U.S. and Spain, the U.S. Navy sent ships to escort American citizens out of Cuba
  • Early in the morning the battleship the USS Maine exploded off the coast of Cuba
  • Pulitzer and Hearst wrote headlines claiming that the Maine was destroyed by a Spanish mine.
  • The American public believed that this was the last straw and the U.S. must deal with Spain.
  • April 20, 1889 McKinley receives approval from Congress to send military forces to fight Spain.

Coal Strike of 1902

  • After a group of cola miners saw their wages cut they went on strike.
  • The United Miner workers joined them shutting down much of the mines in the country.
  • The strike endangered many as winter came upon the country.
  • Roosevelt had the strike broken up, the President pushed for labor unions to use Arbitration over strikes.

The Great San Francisco Earthquake

April 18, 1906
  • The earthquake and resulting fire are remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in the history of the United States
  • Devastating fires broke out in the city that lasted for several days. As a result of the quake and fires, about 3,000 people died and over 80% of San Francisco was destroyed

Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy

1909 - 1912
  • Gifford Pinchot accused the new secretary of state Richard Ballinger of trying to sell public forests for private development.
  • The attorney general found the claims to be groundless. Pinchot allowed the story to leak to the papers and would be fired by Taft. This enraged progressives and Roosevelt.

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

March 25, 1911
  • The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire was one of the deadliest industrial disasters in the history of the city, and resulted in the fourth highest loss of life from an industrial accident in U.S. history

Sinking of the RMS Lusitania

May 7, 1915
  • The Germans make the mistake of sinking a tourist vessel the Lusitania.
  • Hundreds of civilians died, but there was contraband aboard the ship.
  • The U.S. would make Germany sign the Sussex pledge Which set certain rules about sinking civilian ships.

Chicago Race Riot

July 27, 1919 - August 3, 1919
  • During the riot, dozens died and hundreds were injured.
  • It is considered the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer, so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation.
  • The combination of prolonged arson, looting, and murder was the worst race rioting in the history of Illinois

Valentine's Day Massacre

February 14, 1929
  • The Saint Valentine's Day Massacre is the name given to the 1929 murder of seven mob associates of the North Side Irish gang led by Bugs Moran during the Prohibition Era by the South Side Italian gang led by Al Capone

Dust Bowl

1930 - 1940
  • The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion were major causes

Civilian Conservation Corps

1933 - 1942
  • CCC: The Civilian Conservation Corps: Gave young men age 18-25 the chance to work with the forestry service to plant trees and fight forest fires.

National Recovery Administration

1933 - May 27, 1935
  • NRA: National Recovery Administration: Lead by Hugh Johnson Business owners signed a pledge to sell government products that pushed fair labor environments.
  • Unfortunately the NRA was considered unconstitutional by the Supreme Court and was removed.

New Deal

1933 - 1938
  • 1932 the Republicans nominate Herbert Hoover
  • The Democrats Nominate FDR who proposes the new Deal in his acceptance speech
  • The New Deal: A name for the policies that Roosevelt would use to end the depression

Tennessee Valley Authority Founded

May 18, 1933
  • a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression

Works Progress Administration

April 8, 1935 - June 30, 1943
  • The Works Progress Administration: Headed by Harry Hopkins was the largest publics work program of the New Deal
  • Employed workers to build roads and highways.

War Production Board Founded

January 16, 1942
  • As the U.S. started to produce weapons government agencies began to argue about production.
  • To deal with this the U.S. develops the War Production Board.
  • Allowed the board to have authority over production and control distribution.

Zoot Suit Riots

  • Many teenage Mexican Americans had adopted the zoot suit.
  • Rumors were that these zoot suited teens were attacking sailors
  • 2,500 sailors stormed a local Mexican American neighbor hood and attacked the zoot suitors
  • The police did not intervene.

Space Shuttle Challenger disaster

January 28, 1986 11:39
  • Space Shuttle Challenger (mission STS-51-L) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the deaths of its seven crew members.
  • The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida

9/11 Attacks

September 11, 2001 8:46 AM - September 11, 2001 10:28 AM
  • a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks launched by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda upon the United States in New York City and the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed almost 3000 people and caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage
  • Four passenger airliners were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists so they could be flown into buildings in suicide attacks. Two of those planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City.
  • Within two hours, both towers collapsed with debris and the resulting fires causing partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the WTC complex, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
  • A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense), leading to a partial collapse in its western side.
  • The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was targeted at Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers

Department of Homeland Security created

November 25, 2002
  • a cabinet department of the United States federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, and with the primary responsibilities of protecting the United States and its territories (including protectorates) from and responding to terrorist attacks, man-made accidents, and natural disasters

Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster

February 1, 2003
  • The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when Columbia disintegrated over Texas and Louisiana as it reentered Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members

Hurricane Katrina

August 20, 2004 - August 30, 2004
  • Hurricane Katrina was the deadliest and most destructive Atlantic tropical cyclone of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States
  • total property damage was estimated at $81 billion

BP Oil Spill

April 20, 2010 - September 19, 2010
  • The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. It claimed eleven lives and is considered the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry, an estimated 8% to 31% larger in volume than the previously largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010. The US Government estimated the total discharge at 4.9 million barrels. After several failed efforts to contain the flow, the well was declared sealed on 19 September 2010. Some reports indicate the well site continues to leak

Superstorm Sandy

October 22, 2012 - October 31, 2012
  • was the deadliest and most destructive hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, as well as the second-costliest hurricane in United States history
  • Estimates as of March 2014 assess damage to have been over $68 billion (2013 USD), a total surpassed only by Hurricane Katrina. At least 286 people were killed along the path of the storm in seven countries

Boston Marathon Bombings

April 15, 2013 2:49 PM
  • On April 15, 2013, two pressure cooker bombs exploded during the Boston Marathon at 2:49 pm EDT, killing 3 people and injuring an estimated 264 others. The bombs exploded about 12 seconds and 210 yards (190 m) apart, near the finish line on Boylston Street


Harvard College founded


First Great Awakening

1720 - 1755
  • A great religious revival, the First Great Awakening, swept through the American colonies from the 1720s through the 1740s

Common Sense is published

January 10, 1776
  • The impact of Thomas Paine's Common Sense on colonial thought was immense. Paine was a printer and had only been in the colonies for two years when this pamphlet was published.

Second Great Awakening

1790 - 1840
  • Religious revival movement that began at the beginning of the nineteenth century
  • Revivalist ministries asked thousands of worshippers at revival meetings to save their own souls
  • This reflected the move away from predestination in Protestant thinking of the era

Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin

  • The invention of the cotton gin is considered to be the spark that launched the industrial revolution in the US

Hamilton-Burr Duel

July 11, 1804
  • It was believed that Hamilton had entered into negotiations with high up federalists, the plan was to have New York and New Jersey Succeed from the U.S.
  • Hamilton published a series of scathing pamphlets stating that Burr was “ A dangerous man who cannot be trusted”
  • Burr in return challenged Hamilton to a duel.
  • Hamilton though believing it to be silly did not want his on besmirched.
  • Hamilton met Burr in July 10, 1804 and was killed.
  • Burr was no longer allowed to step foot in New York and New Jersey.

Slave Trade Ended

  • President Jefferson ended the slave trade in the US

Overland Trail

1820 - 1869
  • a stagecoach and wagon trail in the American West during the 19th century. While portions of the route had been used by explorers and trappers since the 1820s, the Overland Trail was most heavily used in the 1860s as an alternative route to the Oregon, California and Mormon trails through central Wyoming

Erie Canal completed

  • The Erie Canal is a canal in New York that originally ran about 363 miles (584 km) from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie. It was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. The canal contains 36 locks and a total elevation differential of about 565 feet (172 m). It helped New York eclipse Philadelphia as the largest city and port on the Eastern Seaboard of the United States.

Oregon Trail

1836 - 1844

*As trade and settlement began to grow out west many people moved via the Oregon Trail
*The trail moved through the plains and the Rockies
*People would settle in both Oregon and California

Trail of Tears

  • The Trail of Tears is a name given to the ethnic cleansing and forced relocation of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830
  • The removal included many members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations, among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory in eastern sections of the present-day state of Oklahoma

Mormon Trek

1839 - 1846

*The Mormon religion was started by Joseph Smith, who had a series of revelations from God.
*Wanted to bring the pure religion back to America
*The group was harassed in the east so they moved west to Utah being lead by Brigham Young.
*Utah was apart of Mexico until 1848

Free-Soil Movement

August 1846

*Proposed that African Americans should be prohibited to settle areas that obtained from Mexico.
*Free soil movement believed that slaves would take away opportunity from free workers.
*When it came to a vote there was a clear split between North and South.

California Gold Rush

1849 - 1855
  • The original movement west was started by the California Gold rush of 1849.
  • It consisted of mostly wagon trains that hoped to make to California before snow fall.
  • Men normally hunted while women made improvements to clothing to deal with the changes in weather.

Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe published

  • an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War", according to Will Kaufman

Caning of Charles Sumner

May 22, 1856
  • In his "Crime against Kansas" speech on May 19 and May 20, Sumner attacked the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The long speech argued for the immediate admission of Kansas as a free state, and went on to denounce the "Slave Power"—the political arm of the slave owners. Their goal, he alleged, was to spread slavery through the free states that had made it illegal
  • Sumner then attacked authors of the Act, Senators Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and Andrew Butler of South Carolina
  • Representative Preston Brooks, Butler's nephew, was infuriated. He later said that he intended to challenge Sumner to a duel, and consulted with fellow South Carolina Representative Laurence M. Keitt on dueling etiquette. Keitt told him that dueling was for gentlemen of equal social standing, and that Sumner was no better than a drunkard, due to the supposedly coarse language he had used during his speech. Brooks said that he concluded that since Sumner was no gentleman, it would be more appropriate to beat him with his cane

Carpetbaggers and Scalawags

1865 - 1877
  • As Republicans work to rebuild the South a number of different social orders prevail.
  • First group consisted of Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
  • Carpetbagger: Northern businessmen that moved to the south hoping to gain government aid to start businesses
  • Scalawags: A mix of poor white farmers and former Whigs who saw this as their time to grow financially.
  • The last group were newly enfranchised black who the party hoped to support.

National Women Suffrage Association founded

May 15, 1869
  • After the formation of NAWSA the group still had trouble convincing women to be politically active.
  • Women began to lobby law makers and organize marches.
  • Alice Paul who was a congressional representative for NAWSA eventually left.

John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil

  • What is Rockefeller known for?
  • Rockefeller founded standard oil the largest oil refiner.
  • Rockefeller worked at making his company efficient through horizontal integration
  • Horizontal integration: The idea of combining firms in same business into one large corporation.
  • In other words he swallowed up his competition

J.P. Morgan & Co. Bank founded

  • J.P. Morgan was one of the biggest bankers in American history
  • His bank was the biggest for a majority of the 20th century
  • Roosevelt filed a law suit against Northern Securities. (J.P. Morgan’s trust) using the Sherman anti trust act.

Carnegie Steel Co. founded

  • What was Carnegie’s background before he started his company
  • Carnegie came to the U.S. with very little money.
  • He slowly worked his way up to place of power in the Pennsylvania Railroad.
  • He began to invest in companies that were part of the rail road industry
  • As his wealth grew Carnegie began to trips to Europe where he found a way to make cheap steel.
  • Using this idea Carnegie opened his own steel company, which grew strength through the use of vertical integration
  • Vertical integration: The company owns all the different businesses that it depends on for its operation

Alexander Gram Bell invents the telephone

June 2, 1875
  • Alexander Gram Bell was a Scottish immigrant who invented the first telephone.
  • He would go on to create the Bell telephone company, which would become AT&T.


  • African Americans moved from the East and the South heading for the west.
  • Mostly seeking better opportunities in life.
  • There was far less discrimination for African Americans, due to the mixed culture out west and people earning their keep through work.
  • Most African Americans worked as cowboys or farmers.

Thomas Edison invents the lightbulb

October 22, 1879
  • Thomas Alva Edison Was a well known inventor that had hundred of patents to his name.
  • His most notable invention the creation of light bulb, and the foundation of his company General Electric or GE.
  • He also improved on the telegraph and created the Phonograph, a device used to record sound

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain published

  • a novel by Mark Twain, first published in the United Kingdom in December 1884 and in the United States in February 1885. Commonly named among the Great American Novels, the work is among the first in major American literature to be written throughout in vernacular English, characterized by local color regionalism

Gospel of Wealth

  • Carnegie took the idea of Social Darwinism and adapted it to his own ideas about society.
  • It was his belief that those who were more fortunate should help the poor, instead of take advantage of them.

Ghost Dance Movement

  • Some Natives till tried to fight this.
  • Many tired natives in the black hills began what was known as the ghost dance. The dance song and customs were meant to bring revolutionary spirit that would rid Natives of the white man.
  • The military broke up the Ghost Dance killing Sitting Bull

Social-Justice Movement

1890 - 1900
  • movement to free people from impact of urban life. Lobbied against tenement housing, child labor, and survivor's insurance.

How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis published

  • One of the fore most Muckrakers wrote a book about the poverty, crime, and corruption of New York city.
  • The book was called. “How the other half lives.”
  • The upper class brought their concerns to city government and the slums of New York were torn down.

Ellis Island established

  • Many new immigrants were first taken to Ellis Island
  • The Island itself had a three story building that processed the new citizens.
  • Each immigrant would have to go through series health exams before moving on into the country.

Teddy Roosevelt forms the Rough Riders

  • Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough riders obtained great fame during the invasion of Cuba.

Anti-Imperialist League

June 15, 1898 - November 27, 1920
  • As the Treaty of Paris was being created a group with 30,000 member sprang up against the treaty. The group was centered in the New England area.
  • The group was opposed to the treaty with mixed ideas as to what countries should become protectorates. Some thing no country should be controlled by America.

Open Door Policy

  • As China opened it’s borders to the world other countries invested in it.
  • Spheres of Influence: Where a country invested in the development of china they would recive some control of that territory
  • Open Door policy: The U.S. was concerned that these spheres of influence might make it hard for the U.S. to trade, the open door policy was passsed giving trade in China to all nations.

The first powered flight is made by the Wright Bros. in Kittyhawk, NC

December 17, 1903
  • the first successful powered aircraft, designed and built by the Wright brothers. They flew it four times on December 17, 1903, near Kill Devil Hills, about four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, U.S

The Jungle by Uptonn Sinclair published

  • In 1904 Sinclair spent seven weeks in disguise, working undercover in Chicago's meatpacking plants to research his fictional exposé, The Jungle. When it appeared in 1906, it became a bestseller.

Ford Motors begins producing Model Ts

October 1, 1908
  • It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car that opened travel to the common middle-class American; some of this was because of Ford's efficient fabrication, including assembly line production instead of individual hand crafting

Angel Island Immigration facility opened

  • Until 1910 Asian immigrants arrived in San Francisco at a two story shed.
  • January 1910, California opened a barracks on Angel Island for Asian Immigration
  • Most were young men and teens or twenties, who awaited the results of their immigrations hearings
  • On the walls several immigrants wrote poems which have become known as angel Island poems

Founding of the National Woman's Party

June 5, 1916
  • Alice Paul Would go on to form the National Women’s party
  • Members of the group picketed the White House, Chained themselves to light posts and went on hunger strikes, all as a means to rally for women’s rights.

The First Red Scare

1917 - 1921
  • As the war kicked up many could not forget what had happened during the Russian Revolution.
  • The American public feared there may be communist trying to cause a revolution already in the country.
  • Specifically Labor unions were thought to be a hive of Communism.

Harlem Renaissance

1919 - 1935
  • The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the 1920s.
  • At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke.
  • The Movement also included the new African-American cultural expressions across the urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest United States affected by the Great Migration, of which Harlem was the largest.
  • Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, in addition, many francophone black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were also influenced by the Harlem Renaissance

Charles Lindberg make the first Trans-Atlantic flight

May 21, 1927
  • As a 25-year-old U.S. Air Mail pilot, Lindbergh emerged suddenly from virtual obscurity to instantaneous world fame as the result of his Orteig Prize-winning solo non-stop flight on May 20–21, 1927, made from Roosevelt Field in Garden City on New York's Long Island to Le Bourget Field in Paris, France, a distance of nearly 3,600 statute miles (5,800 km), in the single-seat, single-engine purpose-built Ryan monoplane Spirit of St. Louis. As a result of this flight, Lindbergh was the first person in history to be in New York one day and Paris the next.

Steamboat Willie Premeres

November 18, 1928
  • Steamboat Willie is a 1928 American animated short film directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. It was produced in black-and-white by Walt Disney Studios and was released by Celebrity Productions. The cartoon is considered the debut of Mickey Mouse,[2] and his girlfriend Minnie, despite both the characters appearing several months earlier in a test screening of Plane Crazy. Steamboat Willie was the third of Mickey's films to be produced, but was the first to be distributed
  • The film is also notable for being the first cartoon with synchronized sound. It was the first cartoon to feature a fully post-produced soundtrack which distinguished it from earlier sound cartoons

Television first introduced

  • TVs provided entertainment most families
  • Rock and Roll began to surface.

Empire State Building completed

May 1, 1931
  • It stood as the world's tallest building for nearly 40 years, from its completion in early 1931 until the topping out of the original World Trade Center's North Tower in late 1970

Second Red Scare

1950 - 1956
  • As the U.S. continues to try and stop the spread of Communism a spy defects on the Canadian border.
  • Lead to the second Red Scare.
  • The Search for spies increased greatly as the country began to fear a Communist subversion to weaken the U.S.

Rosenberg Trial

March 6, 1951 - April 5, 1951
  • Believed to be Communist spies the Rosenberg's sold government secrets to the Soviets.
  • After hearing testimony by scientist that had sold secrets the Rosenberg's were arrested.
  • Both of the Rosenbergs were condemned to death.

The Crucible by Arthur Miller is premiered

January 22, 1953
  • The play the crucible was meant to make a protest of McCarthyism, the play used the setting of the Salem Witch trail to hide it’s true message.

Space Race

October 4, 1957 - July 16, 1969
  • 1961 the Russian Cosmanaught Yuri Gagarin is the first person to orbit the earth.
  • Kennedy mad it a goal of the country to land a man on the Moon by the end of the decade.

The Launch of Sputnik-1

October 4, 1957 7:28:34 PM
  • As Eisenhower had work on project overseas the Russians Launched the first satellite into space.
  • The satellite was named Sputnik it terrified the American public. Part of it was a fear that the soviets were watching us.
  • They believed that for the first time America had fallen behind in the cold war.

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee founded

April 1960
  • As the 1960’s rolled around students became more active in the fight for civil rights.
  • The student Non violent Coordinating Committee was formed.
  • The group was made up of mostly black and white college students.
  • They sent students to register African Americans to vote.

The Freedom Ride

  • While had a laid back approach to achieving civil rights the movement itself would not accept his actions.
  • The congress of racial equality sponsored a freedom ride.
  • They attempted to test a supreme court ruling outlawing segregation in all bus and train stations.
  • When arriving in Alabama the riders were attacked by a mob of angry whites.
  • Kennedy sent a letter asking them to stop since he was busy with the Berlin crisis.
  • Eventually the interstate commerce committee banned segregation.

The Berlin Wall

August 13 1961 - November 9, 1989
  • Nikita Kruschev wanted to stop the Flood of Germans leaving East Germany.
  • He demanded that the allied group of France Britain and the U.S. remove themselves.
  • Kennedy decided to remain firm and try to help the East Germans
  • Kruschev built a wall separating the two territories that would stand for the next 30 years.

Students for a Democratic Society founded

  • Hawks: People that were pro Vietnam war.
  • Doves: People that were Anti-Vietnam war, like college students, and hippies. The war became a growing movement for youth protest .
  • Across the country starting college campuses students began to speak out against the war. Starting at Berkeley .
  • Full expression started in 1962 with Students for a democratic society.(Started in Port Huron Michigan)Group wanted to end poverty, violence, racism in the country.

Launch of Apollo 11

July 16, 1969
  • July 16 1969 the Saturn V rocket launches and will land on the moon.

Woodstock Festival

August 15, 1969 - August 18, 1969
  • a music festival, billed as "An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music"
  • During the sometimes rainy weekend, 32 acts performed outdoors before an audience of 400,000 young people.[2] It is widely regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history. Rolling Stone listed it as one of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock and Roll
  • The festival is also widely considered to be the definitive nexus for the larger counterculture generation


Navigation Act of 1660

September 13, 1660
  • Measures passed by Charles II that were designed to increase the dependence of the colonies on England for trade.
  • Charles mandated that certain goods produced in the colonies, such as tobacco, should be only to England,
  • These measures could have been devastating to the colonies; however, British officials in the colonies did not enforce them carefully

Navigation At of 1663

July 27, 1663
  • if the colonies wanted to sell anything to other countries it had to come through England first, and that would have to be done on English ships

Currency Act

September 1, 1764
  • The Currency Act of 1764 made it illegal to print paper money in the colonies

First bank of the United States chartered

February 25, 1791
  • a National Bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress
  • Hamilton believed a national bank was necessary to stabilize and improve the nation's credit, and to improve handling of the financial business of the United States government under the newly enacted Constitution

American System


*During the end of the Madison era Henry Clay developed as political player.
*He developed the American System.
*High protective Tariff
*Protection of the home market

Tariff of 1816

  • notable as the first tariff passed by Congress with an explicit function of protecting U.S. manufactured items from foreign competition

Second Bank of the United States Chartered

February 1816
  • President Madison had called for a second bank in 1815 as a way to spur national economic growth after the War of 1812
  • After an economic downturn in 1818, the bank shrank the amount of currency available for loans, an act that helped to create the economic collapse of 1819

Panic of 1819

  • caused by the shrinkage of the amount of currency by the Second Bank of the US

Tariff of Abominations

May 19, 1828
  • a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States, designed to protect industry in the northern United States. It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy

Bank War

1832 - 1841

*Due to the Panic of 1819 the bank was already unpopular and normally blamed for economic down turns.
*Biddle was brought in to solve the issues with national bank.
*He was a decent politician and understood banking.
*In spite of this Jackson still targeted the bank.
*Jackson promised veto a major bank funding bill.
The veto would close the bank.
*In the upcoming election Jackson ran as the defender of the people against the banks.

Creation of the "Pet Banks"


*After vetoing the bank bill he removed the federal deposits form the bank as well.
*The question was where the money would go.
*Jackson placed the money in twenty four state banks called pet banks. Mostly given this name because the banks were picked based on political reasons.

Specie Circular

July 11 1836

*As the west opened up land sales increased but there was no paper money for the sales. Banks were accepting payments in silver.
*Jackson gave into some criticism creating a hard silver currency to help with these payments known as specie.

Panic of 1837

  • Aside from the Scandal a serious economic recession occurred during Grant’s administration.
  • A series of bad Railroad investments forced a number of Railroad companies to go bankrupt.
  • After which people began to fear investing their money into projects.
  • Small banks collapsed, stocks fell, business closed, and unemployment was on the rise.

The Perry Expedition

July 8, 1853 - March 31, 1854
  • The Perry Expedition was a U.S. naval and diplomatic expedition to Japan, involving two separate trips to and from Japan by ships of the United States Navy, which took place during 1853–54. The expedition was commanded by Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry. It resulted in the opening of Japan to American and international trade, and the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and the western "Great Powers"

Panic of 1857

  • The Panic of 1857 was a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy.


1862 - 1865
  • Both sides had trouble supplying troops.
  • Both sides relied on private industry.
  • Neither side believed in paying high taxes to pay for the war.
  • Depositories printed paper money known as greenbacks lead to runaway inflation

Enforcement Acts

1870 - 1871
  • They were criminal codes which protected African-Americans’ right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws.
  • The laws also allowed the federal government to intervene when states did not act. These acts were passed following the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, which gave full citizenship to anyone born in the United States or freed slaves, and the Fifteenth Amendment, which banned racial discrimination in voting

Farmers' Alliance

1870 - 1890
  • The alliance forms as Granges collapse Consists of around 3 million members.
  • The plan was to build large groups of farms to try and force the price of goods to increase, and obtain loans.

Panic of 1873

  • The American economy suffered a deep depression when Great Britain reduced the amount of credit it offered the United States
  • American merchants and industrialists had to use their available cash to pay off debts, thus causing businesses to cut production and lay off workers

Discovery of the Comstock Lode

March 3, 1873
  • The Comstock Lode is a lode of silver ore located under the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range in Nevada. It was the first major discovery of silver ore in the United States.
  • After the discovery was made public in 1859, it sparked a silver rush of prospectors to the area, scrambling to stake their claims. The discovery caused considerable excitement in California and throughout the United States, the greatest since the discovery of gold in California eleven years earlier

Specie Payment Resumption Act

January 14, 1875
  • The Specie Payment Resumption Act of January 14, 1875, was a law in the United States which restored the nation to the gold standard through the redemption of previously unbacked United States Notes and reversed inflationary government policies promoted directly after the American Civil War.
  • The decision further contracted the nation's money supply and was seen by critics as an exacerbating factor of the so-called "Long Depression" which struck in 1873

Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act

February 28, 1878
  • The Bland–Allison Act was an 1878 act of Congress requiring the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars.
  • Though the bill was vetoed by President Rutherford B. Hayes, the Congress overrode Hayes' veto on February 28, 1878 to enact the law

Founding of the Interstate Commerce Commission

4 February 1887
  • The agency's original purpose was to regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers, including interstate bus lines and telephone companies

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

July 14, 1890 - 1893
  • The measure did not authorize the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted; however, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase on a recurrent monthly basis to 4.5 million ounces

Panic of 1893

  • The Panic of 1893 was a serious economic depression in the United States
  • Similar to the Panic of 1873, it was marked by the overbuilding and shaky financing of railroads, resulting in a series of bank failures
  • Compounding market overbuilding and the railroad bubble was a run on the gold supply. The Panic of '93 was the worst economic depression the United States had ever experienced at the time

Dingley Tarrif Act

July 24, 1897
  • Following the election of 1896, McKinley followed through with his promises for protectionism. Congress imposed duties on wool and hides which had been duty-free since 1872. Rates were increased on woolens, linens, silks, china, and sugar (the tax rates for which doubled)

Gold Standard Act

March 14, 1900
  • established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism (which had allowed silver in exchange for gold)
  • One of the first things Roosevelt did was end the Gold standard
  • The gold standard equated an once of gold to a certain amount of dollars.
  • As the dollar value dropped the people began to cash their money in for gold
  • Roosevelt ended the Gold standard and began to collect people’s gold.
  • This was to increase the value of the dollar.
  • It was illegal to have more than a certain amount of Gold.

Payne-Alreitch Tariff Act

  • Taft believed that high Tariffs limited competition, hurt consumer, and protected trusts.
  • Taft was warned by Roosevelt to stay away from Tariff reform, because it might split the Republican party.
  • Taft allowed the Payne Aldrich Tariff to pass, which hardly reduced tariffs and outraged progressives.

Underwood Tarif Act

October 3, 1913
  • To reform Tariffs Wilson passed the Under Wood Tariff Act, which lowered them .
  • It was the hope that this would improve life for manufactures and average Americans.
  • The tariff also allowed an income tax to be levied .
  • 1913 the 16th amendment was passed allowing the Government to collect an income tax.

Federal Reserve Act

December 23, 1913
  • Created twelve regional banks to be supervised by a board of governors appointed by the President.
  • This allowed national supervision of the banking system.
  • The board could raise interest rates, Which eventually would allow them to control the circulation of money.

Federal Trade Commission

September 26, 1914
  • The FTC monitored American Businesses and were allowed to issue cease and desist orders if the company practiced unfair trade practices.

The Great Depression

October 29, 1929 - 1940
  • The twenties saw a boom in consumer spending.
  • As people began to but more durable good such as cars, and refrigerators production began to peter off.
  • Due to the fact that people did not need multiples of these items.
  • Causing a brief recession in 1920s
  • Not heeding these signs the government continued to make it easier for banks to take out loans.
  • The hope was to stimulate the economy
  • Individuals with excess cash began investing in stock.
  • During the time the market moved in spurts of success.
  • By the late 1920s, problems with the economy emerged
  • Speculation: Too many Americans were engaged in speculation – buying stocks & bonds hoping for a quick profit
  • Margin: Americans were buying “on margin” – paying a small percentage of a stock’s price as a down payment and borrowing the rest

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929
  • In September the Stock Market had some unusual up & down movements
  • On October 24, the market took a plunge –”Black Thursday” the worst was yet to come
  • On October 29, now known as Black Tuesday, the bottom fell out
  • 16.4 million shares were sold that day – prices plummeted
  • People who had bought on margin (credit) were stuck with huge debts

Hawely-Smoot Tariff

June 17, 1930
  • This law raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels

Embargo on the Empire of Japan

  • Following Japan's joining the Axis Powers, the US placed a trading embargo on the Empire of Japan
  • This also included an oil embargo following Pearl Harbor

Berlin Airlift starts

November 30, 1945
  • To deal with the Soviet Union the U.S. merged their territories with their allies.
  • The Soviet Union decided to cut ties with Western Germany, almost preparing for an invasion.
  • The U.S. sent planes full of supplies to Western Germany to support them.

NATO Formed

April 4, 1949
  • As the Soviet Union blockaded off Berlin from the countries were looking for some security from the U.S.
  • NATO: stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
  • Twelve countries who agreed to militarily support any country attacked.
  • 1st it committed the U.S. to the defense of Europe
  • 2nd The U.S. would honor this agreement, Dwight D. Eisenhower was put in charge.

OPEC founded

September 10, 1960
  • OPEC is an intergovernmental organization that was created at the Baghdad Conference on 10–14 September 1960, by Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela
  • Later it was joined by nine more governments: Libya, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Indonesia, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Angola, and Gabon

Equal Pay Act

June 10, 1963
  • Kennedy was able to strengthen the economy through deficit spending.
  • Kennedy also focused on the rights of women with a Presidential commission. Eventually it would lead to the equal pay act.

Economic Opportunity Act of 1964

August 20, 1964
  • Kennedy had made plans to help the impoverished along with a civil rights bill.
  • Johnson continued the plans
  • Johnson had seen poverty first hand being a teacher in a poor area.
  • By late 1964 Johnson passed the Economic opportunity act.
  • This bill went after what was believed to be the cause of poverty.
  • Inadequate public services, illiteracy, and unemployment.
  • Would lead to the establishment of VISTA: Put people with skills to work in impoverished areas.


1981 - 1989
  • Reaganomics refers to the economic policies promoted by U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s and still widely practiced. These policies are commonly associated with supply-side economics, referred to as trickle-down economics by political opponents and free market economics by political advocates

Tax Reform Act of 1986

October 22, 1986
  • Part of the "Reagan Tax Cuts" of Reaganomics

NAFTA Formed

January 1, 1994
  • Ratified in 1994 by the US Senate, this agreement established a fee trade zone between the US, Mexico, and Canada
  • Critics of the agreement claim that many jobs have been lost in the US because of it


Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire

1520 - August 8, 1521
  • Conquistadores were men eager for personal glory and material gain.
  • After Columbus's journey their imaginations could only run wild.
  • 1518 Cortez a court clerk would lead small army to verify Stories of treasure in Mexico. He would scuttle his own ships to make sure his men would not retreat.
  • Cortez had clear technological superiority of the Aztecs.
  • It would only help that the Aztecs had never seen horses or men in armor. They also believed Cortes and his men were sent by the Gods.
  • This victory plus the Spanish success in South America temporarily made Spain the wealthiest European country.

King Phillip's War

June 1675 - April 1678
  • King Phillips War was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day New England and English colonists and their Native American allies in 1675–78. The war is named after the main leader of the Native American side, Metacomet, known to the English as "King Philip".

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689
  • The Glorious Revolution in England removed James II from the throne and replaced him with William of Orange, and Mary, who pledged their support to a parliamentary system

King William's War

May 1689 - 1697
  • aka The War of the League of Augsburg
  • Troops in England fought with allies from the Iroquois tribe against French soldiers, who were allied with the Algonquins

Queen Anne's War

1702 - 1713
  • aka War for the Spanish Succession
  • A war between England and the alliance between France and Spain

French and Indian War

28 May 1754 - 10 February 1763

*A series of wars are fought between Britain and France. *The First Between William the Third and Louis the XIV.
*The Second part known as Queens Anne’s war also found a front in the colonies.
*The Third King George’s War.
*During this period the colonists had some role in each particularly King George’s War.

*The Seven Years war takes form in the Americas as the French and Indian War.
*During this period we see a military stalemate between Britain and France.
*William Pitt who is a minister to King George takes point on the war.
*Pitt who was confident in his opinions in the war felt that the war front should shift from Europe to the colonies
Pitt but a lot of risky maneuvers but the key point to remember is that Pitt built up a large debt over the course of the war.
*By 1759 with the cutting of a prominent Canadian supply line we see victory come to Britain

Pontiac's Rebellion

1763 - 1766
  • Pontiac's Rebellion was a war that was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes primarily from the Great Lakes region who were dissatisfied with British government British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War

Battles of Lexington and Concord

April 19, 1775
  • At dawn, several hundred British soldiers ran into 75 colonial militiamen on the town green in Lexington. *The British ordered the colonists to disperse; in the confusion , shots rang out, with eight colonists killed and ten wounded.
  • The British marched on Concord, where a larger contingent of militiamen awaited them. The British destroyed military stores and food supplies and were ready to return to Boston when the colonists opened fire, with three British soldiers killed and nine wounded.
  • The British were attacked as they retreated to Lexington; they lost 275 men, compared to the 93 colonial militiamen killed.
  • At Lexington, the British were saved by the arrival of reinforcements

Revolutionary War

April 19, 1775 - September 3, 1783

Battle of Bunker Hill

June 17, 1775
  • The Battle of Bunker Hill in Boston was a bloody battle
  • The colonists were defeated, but at the expense of nearly 1,000 British dead or wounded

Battle of Trenton

December 26, 1776
  • On christmas night, Washington boldly lead the Battle of Trenton against the Hessian allies of the British, defeating them
  • On January 3, Washington defeated a small British regiment at Princeton.
  • These victories bolstered the morale of the Colonial Army greatly

Valley Forge

December 1777 - February 1778
  • Despite a victory at the Battle of Saratoga, the winter of 1777-78 was the low point for the Continental Army
  • The British camped for the winter in Philadelphia, while Washington's Army stayed at Valley Forge
  • Starvation, disease, and exposure killed nearly 2,500 American soldiers by the end of February 1778

Siege of Yorktown

September 28, 1781 - October 19, 1781
  • Cornwallis decided to abandon the southern strategy and went into Virginia, where he was ordered to take up a defensive position at Yorktown
  • Cornwallis tried to break the siege; on October 17, 1781, he finally surrendered. Fighting continued in some areas,
  • March 4, 1782, Parliament voted to end the British military efforts in the former colonies

Barbary War

May 10, 1801 - June 10, 1805

*Another issue facing the new Jefferson Presidency was the threat of pirates
*More specifically the Barbary pirates that were stationed in Tripoli.
*The band had terrorized much of the United states and European trade.
*Eventually the band of pirates seized American ships taking their crew hostage.
*The band expected payment from the United States.
*Jefferson was unwilling to do so.
*Jefferson used the military force of marines to retake the hostages.
*Though attack by sea was a success the marines were not prepared for the natural environment of Africa.
*This was the first successful outing for the America military.
*Many Americans would hail this success as an action that America took that other European empires had never dreamed of.

War of 1812

June 18, 1812 - February 18, 1815
  • The War of 1812 was a two and a half-year military conflict between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies and its Indian allies
  • The outcome resolved many issues which remained from the American War of Independence, but involved no boundary changes. The United States declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions brought about by Britain's continuing war with France, the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, outrage over insults to national honour after humiliations on the high seas, and possible American interest in annexing British North American territory (part of modern-day Canada) which had been denied to them in the settlement ending the American Revolutionary War
  • This was the only war fought in American history where the result was status quo antebellum, or resulting in no transfer loss or gain of territories as a result of the war

Battle of New Orleans

January 8, 1815
  • American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, prevented an invading British Army, commanded by General Edward Pakenham, from seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.
  • While the Treaty of Ghent had been signed on December 24, 1814, hostilities would continue until mid-February when official dispatches announcing the peace reached the combatants, finally putting an end to the War of 1812

Texas Revolution

October 2, 1835 - April 21, 1836
  • In 1820 Mexico obtained its freedom from Spain.
  • Mexico began to encourage people to settle within the area of Texas
  • Friction developed Mexico and Texas setlers over weather slavery should be allowed in the new Texas colonies
  • Mexico would pass a law freeing slaves
  • Texan colonists upheld to their idea of holding slaves.
  • 1834 General Santa Anna overthrows and abolishes the Federal system in Mexico
  • Rumors begin to surface that Texas immigrants might be forced out
  • Texas revolts against Mexico
  • Santa Anna would send troops to enforce his idea
  • 1836 members of the American community of Texas vote for independence ,and form a constitution very similar to Americas *Houston would go on to the first President of Texas.
  • Texas was a Republic for ten years taking in many Americans.
  • It was not annexed right away because the Jackson administration feared the war with Mexico.

Battle of the Alamo

February 23, 1836 - March 6, 1836
  • Days after Texas’s independence Mexican troops in San Antonio would face off with the rebels at the Alamo
  • 187 rebels fought against a much larger Mexican force for a week
  • Among the men captured and killed were Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie
  • After he Alamo another detachment of Texas soldiers were captured and marched to Goliad where 350 men were executed.

Battle of San Jacinto

April 21, 1836
  • Within the next month Sam Houston would raise an army and face Santa Anna near the San Jacinto River leading to a great victory

California Republic Revolt

  • a period of revolt by American settlers in the Mexican territory of Alta California against Mexico
  • Revolt was initially proclaimed in Sonoma on June 14, 1846, before news of the outbreak of the Mexican–American War had reached the area.
  • Although participants declared independence from Mexico, they failed to form a functional provisional government.
  • Thus, the "republic" never exercised any real authority, and it was never recognized by any nation. In fact, most of Alta California knew nothing about it.
  • The revolt lasted 26 days, at the end of which the U.S. Army arrived to occupy the area.
  • Once the leaders of the revolt knew the United States was claiming the area, they disbanded their "republic" and supported the U.S. annexation of Alta California.

Mexican-American War

April 25, 1846 - February 2, 1848

*Mexico began to speak out against Texas’s claims to between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande
*Polk placed troops on alert in Louisiana and sent John Slidell to try and negotiate terms, who was refused by Mexico.
*Polk sent General Zachary Taylor and his men to encroach on Mexican territory.
*Eventually Taylor would attack Mexican soldiers posted across the Rio Grande
*By the time this had happened Polk had already delivered his message to Congress hoping a short war would gain him California and New Mexico

Fall of Fort Sumter

April 1861
  • Fort Sumter was off the coast of South Carolina a key succession state
  • Lincoln refused to turn over Ft. Sumter
  • Jefferson Davis ordered the attack the fort.
  • On April 15, Lincoln then called for 75,000 troops from the states to recapture the fort and other federal property. 
  • Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas elected to join them in secession.
  • North and South the response to Ft. Sumter was an overwhelming demand for war to uphold national honor.

American Civil War

April 12, 1861 - May 10, 1865

First Battle of Bull Run

July 21, 1861
  • Considered to be a blunder for union forces.
  • General Winfield Scott lead a poorly trained group of Union soldiers against General Thomas J. Jackson.
  • Jackson with highly trained troops won the day.
  • The loss lead to the firing of General Scott for George McLellan

Battle of Shiloh

April 6, 1862 - April 7, 1862
  • The incredibly bloody but inconclusive Battle of Shiloh was fought
  • Up until this point, it was the bloodiest battle ever fought in America

Second Battle of Bull Run

August 28, 1862 - August 30, 1862
  • The Confederacy won several more battles in 1862, including the Second Battle of Bull Run, General George McClellan was named commander of the Union army and began formulating a plan to attack the Confederacy from the west

Battle of Antietam

September 17, 1862

*Robert E. Lee decided to invade the Maryland going for Washington D.C.
* He met the forces of McLellan, it lead to the bloodiest day and Civil war history and a draw.
* Lee’s forces returned to the South
* McLellan was fired and replaced by Ambrose Burnside.
* McLellan also ran for President against Lincoln and lost.

Battle of Fredericksburg

December 11, 1862 - December 15, 1862
  • the first of series of major Union losses in 1863

Battle of Chancellorsville

April 30, 1863 - May 6, 1863
  • Another major Union loss in the 1863

Siege of Vicksburg

May 18, 1863 - July 4, 1863
  • Grant continued to have a successful series of battles.
  • Eventually after a drawn out siege hew would take the strategic point of Vicksburg of Mississippi.
  • During the siege the confederacy sent Lee to invade Pennsylvania in hope it would stop Grant’s assault

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1, 1863 - July 3, 1863
  • The battle lasted three days
  • By the end Lee had lost a significant amount of his forces
  • Lee would never get a chance again to march on Washington.
  • After this point we see Sherman’s march to the sea and the Union’s push into the south.

Siege of Petersburg

June 9, 1864 - March 25, 1865
  • Union forces commanded by Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant assaulted Petersburg unsuccessfully and then constructed trench lines that eventually extended over 30 miles (48 km) from the eastern outskirts of Richmond, Virginia, to around the eastern and southern outskirts of Petersburg
  • Petersburg was crucial to the supply of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army and the Confederate capital of Richmond. Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the railroad supply lines through Petersburg to Richmond, and many of these caused the lengthening of the trench lines, overloading dwindling Confederate resources.

The Sioux Wars

1865 - 1867
  • The Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people that occurred in the later half of the 19th century. The earliest conflict came in 1854 when a fight broke out at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, when Sioux warriors killed several American soldiers in the Grattan Massacre, and the final came in 1890 during the Ghost Dance War.

Battle of Appomattox Court House

April 9, 1865
  • The Union army caught up to General Lee, and finally surrendered at the courthouse in Appomattox, Virginia
  • By the first week of June, all other confederate forces also surrendered and began to return to oftentimes devastated homelands

The Battle of Little Bighorn

June 25, 1876 - June 26, 1876
  • A young Band of Sioux tribal leaders still refused to move into reservations.
  • Native leader Rain in the face teamed with medicine man Sitting Bull to continue rebellion against the Federal government.
  • George Custer tracked down the band. Full of pride Custer charged in with 250 soldiers to fight 2500 Native Americans. Custer before his attack thought he had trapped the group.
  • Eventually the U.S. Army would track down and crush the band after Custers death.

Wounded Knee Massacre

December 29, 1890
  • The remainder of the Ghost Dance were marched to military camp.
  • One day a shot was fired believed to be by Native American. The Military turned a new invention the Machine gun on the remaining tribe tearing apart human being and tepees.
  • 200 men women and children were killed.

Spanish-American War

April 25, 1898 - August 12, 1898
  • The War itself only lasted 4 months .
  • It was a two front war: Cuba and the Philippines.
  • The U.S. was highly successful; most forces only suffered a few casualties.

Philippine–American War

June 2, 1899 - April 16, 1902
  • The same idea as the Platt Amendment was brought to the other countries the U.S. Gains control.
  • In the Philippines this a problem for former leader Emilio Aguinaldo.
  • Aguinaldo originally assisted the U.S. in freeing the Philippines
  • Aguinaldo leads an uprising in the Philippines that takes almost 8 years to suppress

World War I

28 July 1914 - 11 November 1918

US Joins WW1

April 6, 1917
  • Wilson hoped to keep the U.S. out of the war. He declared that U.S.’s stance would be neutral.
  • The American public on the other hand wanted to take Triple Entant’s side in the war.
  • The U.S. Would be able to remain neutral for two years.

  • Germans angered by the U.S. sending contraband goods began to patrol the waters around Britain with subs.
    contraband: Goods prohibited from shipment to Germany and its allies.

  • Germany would either inspect the ships or sink them.

Battle of Argonne Forrest

26 September 1918 - 11 November 1918
  • Argonne Forest marks the break in the German war machine
  • After this loss Germany will struggle to continue fighting the war.
  • November 1918 Germany signs an Armistice Armistice: A truce or an agreement to stop fighting.

World War II

1 September 1939 - 2 September 1945

Bombing of Pearl Harbor, HI

December 7, 1941

Bataan Death March

April 9, 1942
  • The remaining soldiers on the Bataan Peninsula were forced to surrender, a total of 78,000 soldiers
  • These troops are forced to march to a prison camp 65 miles away.
  • 10,000 men died of sickness and exhaustion.

The Battle of Coral Sea

4 May 1942 - 8 May 1942
  • The Japanese believed they could make two successful attacks due to their secrecy.
  • Unknown to them pearl Harbor code breakers found out about the attack.
  • The U.S. would send the Lexington and the York town. Both ships were sake but this attack kept U.S. territories safe.

Battle of Midway

4 June 1942 - 7 June 1942
  • The Pearl Harbor code breakers learned of another attack on Midway Island.
  • The U.S. was able to set-up an ambush for the unsuspecting Japanese Navy.
  • Considered to be the turning point in the war of the Pacific, with the destruction of four Japanese battleships.


June 6, 1944
  • The allies decided to invade France
  • They decided to fool the Germans by setting up dummy equipment.
  • The actual attack would occur further south the where the Germans expected.
  • The term D-day refers to the actual day that the invasion of Normandy would begin.
  • The U.S. forces luckily had a strategy that worked and attacked where the German forces were weakest.
  • Nearly 2,500 Americans were killed.

Battle of Leyte Gulf

23 October 1944 - 26 October 1944
  • The U.S. would send a substantial invasion force to retake the Philippines.
  • MacArthur and his forces march onto the Island with no resistance at all.
  • The Japanese sent a force to defend the Philippines. The Americans were unaware as their battleships were ambushed.
  • This attack would be known as the battle of Leyte Gulf.
  • This is the battle is where we would see the introduction to the Kamikaze attack.
  • Kamikaze means “Divine Wind”
  • This was the act of crashing planes into U.S. battleships.

Battle of the Bulge

16 December 1944 - 25 January 1945
  • The Battle of the Bulge: refers to period when the allied forces began to move. In response the German forces rushed west bulging their forces.

Battle of Iwo Jima

February 19, 1945 - March 26, 1945
  • Back in the Pacific it was felt the bombing of Tokyo was not going well
  • The decision was to invade the small island of Iwo Jima and turn it into an air strip.
  • The invasion was long drawn out and bloody endeavor.

Battle of Okinawa

1 April 1945 - 22 June 1945
  • The U.S. invaded Okinawa Island to make it into a supply depot. The Japanese had dug into the mountains and the fighting took months.

VE Day

May 8, 1945
  • The Soviets made it to Germany first, and the American forces were close behind.
  • When Hilter saw the end was near he trapped himself in a bunker committing suicide.
  • May 8 1945 was known as VE day or victory in Europe day.

Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

August 6, 1945 - August 9, 1945
  • After successful testing of the bombs the U.S. would drop the first Atomic bomb.
  • The first was dropped on Hiroshima the second on Nagasaki.

VJ Day

August 14, 1945
  • The Empire in Japan surrendered five days after the bombs were dropped

Korean War

25 June 1950 - 27 July 1953
  • North Korea crosses over what is known as the 38th parallel.
  • Brings the U.S. forces lead by Douglas MacArthur into action.
  • U.S. and U.N. forces pushes the North Koreans to the border of China.
  • China feeling threatened attacks and pushes U.S. forces back to South Korea.

Battle of Dien Bien Phu

March 13, 1954 - May 7, 1954
  • In the interior of Northern Indo-China 10,000 French troops had been surround by the Vietnamese.
  • The French turned for support from America
  • As the U.S. lingered on action the French were pushed out of North Vietnam
  • The U.S. would later take over for the French in south Vietnam

Vietnam War

December 1956 - 30 April 1975
  • The original plan was to use bombing and troop movements to cut off supplies to North Vietnamese rebels.
  • Johnson was warned that he may be getting into something that can’t be finished in two t three years.
  • The main supply line was known as the Ho-Chi- Minh trail. That ran through Laos and Cambodia.
  • The U.S. bombed this area constantly but saw little results.
  • In the south the search and destroy programs of General Westmorland went no better, as the Vietcong were supported by the North Vietnamese.
  • The war became a growing movement for youth protest. Across the country starting college campuses students began to speak out against the war. Starting at Berkeley.
  • Full expression started in 1962 with Students for a democratic society.(Started in Port Huron Michigan)Group wanted to end poverty, violence, racism in the country.
  • By 1966 1967 protest became only more tense.
  • The students did not end the war but atleast gave protestors a voice.
  • Credibility Gap: As more soldiers were called up to serve and were drafted people started to feel the government might be not telling the truth about the Vietnam war, and that the U.S. might be losing the war

Bay of Pigs Invasion

17 April 1961 - 19 April 1961
  • 1959 Fidel Castro overthrew Fulgencio Batista
  • He quickly established ties wit the Soviet Union and Nikita * Khrushchev the Prime Minister, this was viewed as too close to home for many Americans
  • As well creating drastic land reform and seizing U.S. businesses.
  • Eisenhower authorized the CIA to train La Brigada to invade the Island.
  • As Kennedy came into to power he authorized this movement.
  • The group landed off a same island off the coast of Cuba called the bay of pigs.
  • Kennedy cut air support to operation leading to it’s failure and Castro uncovering the plot

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14, 1962 - October 28, 1962
  • The U.S. continued to take aerial surveillance of Cuba after the Bay of pigs failure.
  • Eventually Kennedy announced to the world that the Soviet Union was placing nuclear weapons in Cuba.
  • Kennedy pushed for a naval blockade to stop any other nuclear materials from entering CUba
  • If the soviet Union would have broken the Naval blockade created by the U.S. it could have possibly started a Nuclear war.
  • Eventually both sides agreed to remove missiles from Cuba and Turkey in a secret meeting.

Operation Rolling Thunder

March 2, 1965 - November 2, 1968
  • Nixon had a three scale tactic to end the war
  • 1st renewed bombing including a secret order to bomb Cambodia
  • 2nd slowly reducing troops:
  • Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration during the Vietnam War to end the U.S. involvement in the war and expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops
  • 3rd Secret talks in Hanoi about ending the war

Tet Offesive

January 30, 1968 - September 23, 1968
  • By 1968 the Tet Offensive would break the stalemate and drive Johnson from office.
  • During the holiday known as Tet there was normally a lull in fighting.
  • The Vietcong considered this a perfect time for a surprise attack.
  • The attack struck 36 of the 40 important provincial cities including the capital Saigon
  • 6 hours were caught on film.

Mai Lai Massare

March 16, 1968
  • While Public relations with the war continued to go down hill events during the war got worse.
  • Liutetenant William Calley kills a wipes out a village of women and children.
  • The main point is that soldiers had trouble seeing who the enemy was.

Fall of Saigon

April 30, 1975
  • The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period leading to the formal reunification of Vietnam into a Socialist Republic governed by the Communist Party

Gulf War

2 August 1990 - 28 February 1991

AKA: Operation Desert Storm
* a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

Operation Desert Shield

August 7, 1990
  • One of the West's main concerns was the significant threat Iraq posed to Saudi Arabia. Following Kuwait's conquest, the Iraqi Army was within easy striking distance of Saudi oil fields
  • Soon after his conquest of Kuwait, Saddam began verbally attacking the Saudis. He argued that the U.S.-supported Saudi state was an illegitimate and unworthy guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. He combined the language of the Islamist groups that had recently fought in Afghanistan with the rhetoric Iran had long used to attack the Saudis

War in Afghanistan

7 October 2001 - Present
  • The War in Afghanistan refers to the intervention by NATO and allied forces in the ongoing Afghan civil war. The war followed the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, in an effort to dismantle al-Qaeda and eliminate its safe haven by removing the Taliban from power

Iraq War

20 March 2003 - 15 December 2011

AKA: Operation Iraqi Freedom
* The Iraq War[nb 1] was an armed conflict in Iraq that consisted of two phases. The first was an invasion of Iraq starting on 20 March 2003 by an invasion force led by the United States
* It was followed by a longer phase of fighting, in which an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the newly formed Iraqi government
* The US completed its withdrawal of military personnel in December 2011

Capture of Saddam Hussein

December 13, 2003

AKA Operation Red Dawn
* Operation Red Dawn was an American military operation conducted on 13 December 2003 in the town of ad-Dawr, Iraq, near Tikrit, that led to the capture of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein

Death of Osama Bin Laden

May 2, 2011

AKA Operation Neptune Spear
* The operation, code-named Operation Neptune Spear, was carried out in a Central Intelligence Agency-led operation
* Osama bin Laden, the founder and head of the Islamist militant group al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan


Chisholm V. Georgia

February 5, 1793 - February 18, 1793
  • Resulted in the passing of the 11th Amendment

Marbury V. Madison

2/11/1803 - 2/24/1803

*Marbury was one of the federalist appointed judges.
*Then secretary of state James Madison refused to give Marbury the papers that would give him authority of a judge. (Madison believed him to be corrupt.
*Marbury requested that the case be heard by the supreme court.
*The new chief justice Marshall would preside over the case.
*His ruling stated that the court didn not have jurisdiction some these matters. But the argument used Marbury to file the case could be linked to the unconstitutionality of the Judiciary act
*This meant that the judiciary act was unconstitutional

McCulloch V Maryland

February 22, 1819 - March 6, 1819
  • This case established two important principles in constitutional law. First, the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. Second, state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.

Gibbons V Ogden

February 5, 1824 - March 2, 1824
  • a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution

Cherokee Nation V Georgia

March 18, 1831
  • The Cherokee Nation sought a federal injunction against laws passed by the state of Georgia depriving them of rights within its boundaries, but the Supreme Court did not hear the case on its merits. It ruled that it had no original jurisdiction in the matter, as the Cherokee was a dependent nation, with a relationship to the United States like that of a "ward to its guardian."

Worcestor V. Georgia

February 20, 1832 - March 3, 1832

*case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Indians from being present on Indian lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.
*This was the decree from John Marshall
*Jackson took Georgia’s side and told Marshall to defend his ruling.

Dred Scott v. Sandford

February 11, 1856 - March 6, 1857

*Buchannan hoped to end the slavery debates quickly, which lead to him pushing the supreme court to a decision in Dred Scott V. Sandford
*The Case revolved around the fact that a slave was suing for his freedom being he lived in a state where slavery was outlawed by the Missouri Compromise
*First African America neither free nor slaves counted as a U.S. citizen
*Second more importantly the court stated that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. That congress could not pass laws based on slavery in the states.
*This took away from the Republican platform that was discussing laws to repeal slavery.

Civil Rights Cases

October 1883
  • a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court to review. The Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments

United States V. E.C. Knight and Co.

October 4, 1894 - January 21, 1895
  • AKA The Sugar Trust Case
  • a United States Supreme Court case that limited the government's power to control monopolies

Plessy V. Ferguson

April 13, 1896 - May 18, 1896
  • This is the court case that created segregation in the first place.
  • Daniel Plessy a light skinned African American sat in a white only section of a train. He was asked to move to the black only. He refused and kicked off the train.
  • The question was could that train company separate black and white passengers.
  • The supreme court stated that areas could be segregated if they were “Separate but Equal”

Williams V. Mississippi

1898 - April 25, 1898
  • a United States Supreme Court case that reviewed provisions of the state constitution that set requirements for voter registration. The Supreme Court did not find discrimination in the state's requirements for voters to pass a literacy test and pay poll taxes, as these were applied to all voters

Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education

October 30, 1899 - December 18, 1899
  • a class action suit decided by the Supreme Court of the United States. It is a landmark case, in that it sanctioned de jure segregation of races in American schools. The decision was overruled by Brown v. Board of Education

Muller V. Oregon

January 15, 1908 - February 24, 1908
  • a landmark decision in United States Supreme Court history, as it justifies both sex discrimination and usage of labor laws during the time period
  • The case upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health

Scopes Monkey Trial

July 21, 1925
  • Tennessee V Scopes
  • a famous American legal case in 1925 in which a substitute high school teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school
  • The trial was deliberately staged in order to attract publicity to the small town of Dayton, Tennessee, where it was held. Scopes was unsure whether he had ever actually taught evolution, but he purposely incriminated himself so that the case could have a defendant.

Brown V. Board of Education

December 9, 1952 - May 17, 1954
  • The Case takes place in Topeka Kansas
  • It is based around a girl named Linda Brown
  • Brown was denied access to the local Public school due to being African American
  • The NAACP pooled their money to Hire Thurgood Marshall for their legal defense of the case.
  • The Court Ruled that segregation was illegal because most establishments did not achieve the standard of separate but equal.
  • Essentially segregation would continue to deprive African Americans of status.

Warren Court

1953 - 1969
  • Besides Kennedy’s attempt to change society the supreme court changed the U.S. society in their rulings.
  • The most important dealt with what would be known as Due Process
  • Due process: means the law cannot treat individuals unfairly.

Roe V. Wade

December 13, 1971 - January 22, 1973
  • a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion. Decided simultaneously with a companion case, Doe v. Bolton, the Court ruled 7–2 that a right to privacy under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that this right must be balanced against the state's two legitimate interests in regulating abortions: protecting prenatal life and protecting women's health


Christopher Columbus lands in America

October 12, 1492
  • Columbus originally offered his plan to the Portuguese who turned him down.
  • Instead Spain accepted his proposal envious of Portugal.
  • In search for Asia Columbus stumbled upon the Bahamas
  • Two years after Columbus's discovery Portugal and France would fight over owner ship of this area ending in the Treaty of Tordesillas.

Treaty of Tordesillas

5 September 1494
  • The treaty itself divided the entire world along a line.
  • Anything west of that line became Portugal’s including Brazil. While the rest was left to Spain.
  • This did not discourage the French and English colonists.

John Cabot lands in the New World

March 1497
  • 1497 Cabot Arrives in the New World becoming the first Englishmen to enter the new land mass.
  • Shortly after Martin Luthor starts the protestant reformation. Casuing many to take sides againt the Catholic faith.
  • Spain was the largest catholic nation. Therefore England thought it would be important to begin compete tin in the new world against the Spanish.

Juan Ponce de León lands in Florida

March 27 1513
  • In 1512 Juan Ponce de León, former governor of Puerto Rico, received royal permission to search for land north of Cuba.
  • On March 3, 1513, Juan Ponce de León organized and equipped three ships for an expedition departing from Punta Aguada, Puerto Rico
  • In late March he spotted an island, almost certainly one of the Bahamas, but did not stop. Early in April, Ponce de León reached the northeast coast of the Florida peninsula, which he assumed was a large island.
  • He claimed the 'island' for Spain and named it La Florida, because it was the season of Pascua Florida ("Flowery Easter") and because much of the vegetation was in bloom.
  • He then explored south along the coast, around the Florida Keys and north on the west coast of the peninsula, before returning to Puerto Rico.

Jaques Cartier discovers the Gulf of Saint Lawrence

  • French interest in the new world grew slowly.
  • The original idea was the search for a short water route to china via the north west passage.
  • First man to be sent was Giovanni da Verrazano.
  • 1534 Cartier was sent who found a promising water way. He would travel from Gulf of the Saint Lawrence to modern day Montreal.

Hernando de Soto discovers the Mississippi R.

  • On May 8, 1541, de Soto's troops reached the Mississippi River after a two year journey through the various rivers and lakes of the south
  • De Soto would die thirteen days later of a fever, the rest of his crew sailed his body down the river in a canoe before continuing down the river and sailing to a Spanish outpost in Mexico

The Spanish Colony of St. Augustine is founded

August 28, 1565
  • First European colony in the new world

The Roanoke Colony is founded

April 1587
  • The Roanoke colony was a late 16th-century attempt by Queen Elizabeth I to establish a permanent English settlement in North America
  • On March 25, 1584, Queen Elizabeth I granted Raleigh a charter for the colonization of the area of North America.
  • This charter specified that Raleigh needed to establish a colony in North America, or lose his right to colonization

The Roanoke Colony is found deserted

August 15, 1590
  • After the first colony failed, Sir Walter Raleigh received a charter to attempt another colony at Roanoke Island
  • In 1587, Raleigh dispatched a new group of 115 colonists to establish a colony. They were led by John White, an artist and friend of Raleigh who had accompanied the previous expeditions to Roanoke.
  • Fearing for their lives after a large amount of indian attacks, the colonists persuaded Governor White to return to England to explain the colony's desperate situation and ask for help.[9]:120–23 Left behind were about 115 colonists – the remaining men and women who had made the Atlantic crossing plus White's newly born granddaughter Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the Americas.
  • Because of the continuing war with Spain, White was unable to mount another resupply attempt for three more years. He finally gained passage on a privateering expedition that agreed to stop off at Roanoke on the way back from the Caribbean. White landed on August 18, 1590, on his granddaughter's third birthday, but found the settlement deserted. His men could not find any trace of the 90 men, 17 women, and 11 children, nor was there any sign of a struggle or battle.
  • The only clue was the word "Croatoan" carved into a post of the fence around the village

The Jamestown Colony is founded by John Smith

May 14, 1607
  • 1606 James issues the first Virginia Charter
  • The Goal was to establish plantations in Virginia.
  • 1606 the Susan Constant and GodSpeed set sail. Who made up the crew?
  • 104 men and boys
  • Without consulting residents colony leaders selected a location thirty miles south of the James river.
  • The low lying ground water was disease ridden .
  • The colonists working in James town were to adjusted to a full days work.
  • While some tirelessly farmed others simply sat around.
  • Other men instead of assisting in the work sought out their own interests.
  • During this time starvation was always an issue.

Samuel de Champlain founds the colony of Quebec

July 3, 1608
  • Champlain would then be sent to investigate which led to the founding of Quebec.
  • The French came to America looking for wealth, as well as spreading Christianity to Native Americans.
  • In contrast to the British the French saw the Native Americans as an asset instead of an obstacle.

Dutch explorer Henry Hudson discovers the Hudson R.

  • The Dutch were largely interested in the commercial possibilities that the Americas offered them *In 1609, Henry Hudson discovered and named the Hudson River and proceeded to establish trading settlements in present-day New York

The Dutch colony of New Netherlands is founded

October 11, 1614
  • New Netherlands was a Dutch colony founded by explorer Henry Hudson after his exploration of what is now the Hudson River and the discovery of the fertile grounds on Manhattan Island

Province of Carolina is Founded

  • Originally given to those who had been loyal to English Royalty during the Civil War.
  • The founders learned from Virginia and did not look for instant wealth.
  • They charged rent for those who lived in the colony, and selected ideal citizens to live in the colony.
  • Split into the North and South in 1712

Massachusetts Bay Colony is founded

March 4, 1629
  • The Massachusetts Bay Colony was established by a group of Puritans
  • It was established as a location on earth where the will of God could be truly manifested *The colony was established as a commonwealth and was based on Calvinist view of man's relation to God

Providence of Maryland is founded

June 20, 1632
  • The colony was originally the idea of the first Lord Baltimore or Calvert.
  • Calvert came out as a catholic, which was frowned upon in the English Society.
  • Calvert wanted to build a refuge for oppressed Catholics.
  • Cecilious the second Lord Baltimore would take over and make the dream a reality.

The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations is founded

January 1636
  • Roger Williams believed that the Puritans in Massachusetts were still too lose to the ways of the Church of England, and he preached on the necessity for the total separation of church and state
  • This was obviously not being practiced in the Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Williams was finally asked to leave Massachusetts, and he settled in what is now Providence, Rhode Island
  • Anne Hutchinson claimed to have received special revelations from God; as a result, she was invited to leave and founded Portsmouth near Narragansett Bay.

The Connecticut Colony is founded

March 3, 1636
  • Thomas Hooker was a dissenter who was hounded out of the colony; he ended up settling near present day Hartford, Connecticut *John Davenport and other Puritans founded a colony in New Haven
  • In 1662, Hooker's colony combined with Davenport's to create the colony of Connecticut

Swedish Colony of New Sweden founded

  • The members of an expedition by Sweden, aboard the ships Fogel Grip and Kalmar Nyckel, sailed into Delaware Bay, which lay within the territory claimed by the Dutch, passing Cape May and Cape Henlopen in late March 1638,[2] and anchored at a rocky point on the Minquas Kill that is known today as Swedes' Landing on March 29, 1638. They built a fort on the present site of the city of Wilmington, which they named Fort Christina, after Queen Christina of Sweden.

Province of Maine is made a part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

  • In 1691 William and Mary issued a charter for the new Province of Massachusetts Bay that encompassed (in addition to other territories) the former claims of the Massachusetts Bay Colony on the areas between the Kennebec and St. Croix Rivers. This region, which had previously been called the Territory of Sagadahock (forms the eastern portion of the present day state of Maine), and those of the Duke of York.

Province of Pennsylvania is founded

  • The Quakers are known as the founders of Pennsylvania.
  • One man’s interpretation is as good the next.
  • They practiced humility and preached conversion.
  • William Penn was awarded the property in the new world from Charles the second.
  • Penn guaranteed freedom from persecution, no taxation without representation, and due process law.
  • Used the ideas of James Harrington.
  • This colony would attract more than just Quakers.

Delaware Colony founded

  • Delaware Colony in the North American Middle Colonies was a region of the Province of Pennsylvania although never legally a separate colony. From 1682 to 1776 it was part of the Penn proprietorship and was known as the lower counties. In 1701 it gained a separate Assembly from the three upper counties but had the same Governor as the rest of Pennsylvania.

Northwest Ordinance

July 13, 1787

*Congress decided that they had to something with the lawlessness of the West.
*The North west ordinance was passed. It provided structure to the new territory.
*Created three to five territories controlled by a governor, judges, and secretary appointed by congress.
*Contained certain measures a bill of rights, freedom of religion, due process law , outlaws slavery.

The Original 13 States Ratify the Constitution

December 7, 1787 - May 29, 1790

The Vermont Republic ratifies the Constitution

March 4, 1791

Kentucky County, VI became the fifteenth state

June 1, 1792
  • It separated from Virginia and ratified the Constitution

Tennessee County, NC gains Statehood

June 1, 1796
  • Separated Tennessee from North Carolina and ratified the constitution

Ohio gains statehood

March 1, 1803

Louisiana Purchace

July 4, 1803

*Monroe expected for relations to go poorly, but was surprised by how eager the French were to sell the land.
*The French in reality had growing financial issues under the Napoleon reign.
*In the end America would buy the territory, for 15 millions dollars Jefferson was able to double the size of the country.

Lewis and Clark Expedition

1804 - 1806
  • In 1804, the Lewis and Clark Expedition began
  • This expedition of nearly 50 men took two years to complete
  • Despite Hardships, they crossed the Rockies and eventually made it to the Pacific Ocean
  • The information they brought back about the possibilities of further expansion in the West intrigued many

Louisiana gains statehood

April 30, 1812

Indiana gains statehood

December 11, 1816

Mississippi gains Statehood

December 10, 1817

Oregon Crisis

1818 - June 18, 1846
  • arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Pacific Northwest of North America in the first half of the 19th century
  • The British knew the region as the Columbia District, a fur-trading division of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), while Americans referred to it as the Oregon Country

Treaty of 1818

  • also known as the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, was a treaty signed in 1818 between the United States and the United Kingdom. It resolved standing boundary issues between the two nations, and allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country

Illinois gains statehood

December 3, 1818

Adams–Onís Treaty

February 22, 1819
  • a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain

Alabama gains statehood

December 14, 1819

Missouri Compromise


*As Missouri entered as a state it created the problem of throwing off the balance of slave state vs free.
*North feared Southern presidents
*South feared the growing populations in the North.
*The compromise created Missouri as slave state, Maine Free
*Created the 36 30 latitude border in any territory North of Missouri.

Maine gains statehood

March 15, 1820

Missouri gains statehood

August 10, 1821

Creation of Liberia by the ACS

  • American colonization society: stated slavery was evil but rooted in society, emancipation would take time
  • The society pushed to pay for sending emancipated slaves back to Africa.
  • Started the colony of Liberia

Arkansas gains statehood

June 15, 1836

Michigan gained statehood

January 26, 1837

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

August 9, 1842
  • a treaty resolving several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies.
  • It resolved the Aroostook War, a nonviolent dispute over the location of the Maine–New Brunswick border.
  • It established the border between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, originally defined in the Treaty of Paris, reaffirmed the location of the border at the 49th parallel, in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains defined in the Treaty of 1818, defined seven crimes subject to extradition, called for a final end to the slave trade on the high seas, and agreed to shared use of the Great Lakes

Annexation of Texas


*Tyler enlisted to the help of John C. Calhoun to try and annex Texas.
*Calhoun saw annexing Texas as means to unite the south and take on the abolitionists.
*Tyler began to run Propaganda stating Britain might have in an interest in Texas
*A treaty was a agreed upon and when Calhoun presented it he dammed the British for trying to use Texas as an Anti Slavery tool
*The Whigs in congress hearing this would reject Calhoun’s proposal.
*With Tyler's misstep on Texas he had very little to structure to work with for the next election
*Tyler would win the election of 1844 narrowly
*Soon after a new treaty to annex Texas was approved

Florida gains statehood

March 3, 1845

Texas gains statehood

December 29, 1845

Oregon Treaty

June 15, 1846

*Oregon at the time was jointly owned by Britain and the U.S. The 49th parallel the dividing line between the two countries was constantly argued.
*When Britain asked to strike a new border deal Polk refused them. The British sent a new treaty and warships.
*After a number of botched treaties until America received control of Puget South its first deep water port.

Iowa gains statehood

December 28, 1846

Salt Lake City Established by the Mormons


Wisconsin gains statehood

May 29, 1848

Compromise of 1850


*Seeing that Taylors plan might go through the south begins to propose ideas that can at least give them some benefits
*Proposed by Henry clay there were a number on concessions California would become a free state. While there was no prohibition of slavery in the Mexico Territories
*Eventually the compromise would pass with some changes. One was the death of Zachary Taylor the other were the changes made by Stephen A. Douglass and the support of Millard Fillmore.
*The original problem with the 1850 compromise was that it was attempted to be pass ass one large Bill.
*When President Fillmore entered he broke the bill down into smaller parts.
*The ending compromise brought Texas in as a slave state, California as free, and New Mexico and Utah to be determined by popular sovereignty
*Added to the bill were stricter fugitive slave laws.

California gains statehood

September 9, 1850

Gadsden Purchase

December 30, 1853
  • American diplomats negotiated the Gadsden Purchase with Mexico, which gave America an additional southern route for trade (and territory for a proposed transcontinental railroad)

Kansas-Nebraska Act


*1854 Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois proposed a bill to organize the territory west of the Missouri and Iowa territory
*Douglass knew he would have a lot of angry southerners to deal with if he built more free states
*To deal with this Douglas tried to ignore the compromise line and tried to quickly establish governments based on popular sovereignty
*Eventually an addition to the act would be made that would essentially repeal the Missouri Compromise
*The bill would pass splitting the Democratic party and sectional harmony.

The Utah Territory is established


The Lecompton Controversy

November 7, 1857

*With the Dread Scott decision the proslavery groups of Kansas felt it was time to draft a constitution and become a slave state.
*Though the area was strongly free the pro slavery side rigged the election, this lead to the free side rejecting the election all together.

Minnesota gains statehood

May 11, 1858

South Carolina Secedes

December 24, 1860
  • The election of Lincoln in 1860 lead to the succession of seven deep south states.
  • Originally the decision occurred December 20, 1860 in Charleston South Carolina.
  • The Capital was in Montgomery Alabama, but moved to Richmond Virginia.
  • The major statement at the meeting was that “The Union had dissolved.”

Kansas gains statehood

January 29, 1861

The Confederacy is Formed

February 4, 1861
  • The original confederacy was made up of: South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas.

West Virginia seceedes from Virginia and gains statehood in the Union

June 20, 1863

Nevada gains statehood

October 31, 1864

The Confederacy is Dissolved

May 5, 1865

Nebraska gains statehood

March 1, 1867

Alaska Purchase

October 18, 1867
  • The Alaska Purchase was the acquisition of Russian America by the United States from the Russian Empire in the year 1867 by a treaty ratified by the U.S. Senate

Trans-continental Railroad completed

May 10, 1869

Colorado gains statehood

August 1, 1876

Dawes Severalty act

  • A fatal blow to the remaining land owned to Native-American tribes was the Dawes Act of 1887
  • This act was passed int he spirit of "civilizing" the Native Americans and was designed to give them their own plots of land to farm on
  • The real intent of the legislation was to attempt to destroy the tribal identities of the Natives

North and South Dakota, Montana, and Washington gain statehood

November 2, 1889 - November 11, 1889

Idaho and Wyoming gain statehood

July 3, 1890 - July 10, 1890

Utah gains statehood

January 4, 1896

Annexation of Hawaii

July 7, 1898
  • Hawaii was known to be a good location for sailors to resupply their ships on journeys.
  • Overtime we see that many U.S. farmers begin to farm sugar cane on the Island
  • These farmers become powerful enough that they want the king of Hawaii to sign a treaty limiting his power.
  • When Liliuokalani takes the throne she wants to get rid the influence of white Planters.
  • She tries to put in place a new constitution.
  • Sanford B. Doles with the support of U.S. marines over throws the queen
  • In five years the U.S. would annex Hawaii.

Puerto Rico Guam and American Samoa acquired as a territories

1899 - 1900

Panama Canal Zone acquired

May 4, 1904

Oklahoma gains statehood

November 16, 1907

New Mexico and Arizona gain statehood

January 6, 1912 - February 14, 1912

US Virgin Islands acquired as a territory


Alaska and Hawaii gain statehood

January 3, 1959 - August 21, 1959

Northern Mariana Islands acquired as a territory