They appeared after the Glacial period. They also manufacture there own tools and bones.
Humans started to migrate from Asia and Europe.
They were the first people to ever enter the American Contention.
The ice age
It's a long term of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere.
The Nile River began in in Nubia.
3987 B.C - 2987 B.C
The Savanna desert started to dry up. This could have been the start of the worlds largest desert (Sahara).
Egyptians were unified under on ruler called the " Pharaoh".
Giza, Egypt was built the Pyramids.
that we're living in the American Southwest started to grow squash and corn. Then eventually started to grow beans and they later relied on the indian's " Three Sisters" ( corn, squash, beans).
Olmec introduced there traditions and skills. Now there people influence Mesoamerica for centuries.
The entire population was 6.5 million people. Half of the the population lived in North Africa.
Nubians built their strongest and longest kingdom (Kush).
The Ruler of Nubia
Senkamenisken ruled Nubia.
Aksum invaded Kush and later destroyed the kingdom.
patriot troops rowed across the icy river to New Jersey shore
December 25, 176
Al Qaeda/Osama Bin Laden
attempt to destroy the worls trade center/twin towers.
400 A.D - 1400 A.D
This was called the "Middle Ages" also known as the Medieval Times. It separated from ancient time and modern time.
people from the north had successfully toppled the western part of the Roman Empire. That was called the "Germanic Invasion". There were new languages and new ways to take hold of Europe.
Islam religion founded?
Islam was founded by Muhammed in Arabia. People that we're following Islam were called " Muslim" . They moved southward in the year 1000.
The Hopewell people took the hills and made big earth works for defense. Which means
Maya cities (the city) collapsed. Temples were burned down. Rulers were also burned at the stack. Scholars think the city was was destroyed by a revolution (there people).
were invaders that attacked from the north. They were called "Vikings". They raided, traded, and explored. They settled in wide areas like Asia, Europe, and north Atlantic islands.
Maya culture declined in Guatemala lowlands
In the early 1000's Ghana dominated West Africa.
The vikings adventurer explored the coast of North America. One group was lead by Leif Ericson. They set up outpost which is something to do with there settlement. Other Norths man settled in to the European Society and became Christians
Army Of Muslims
The army of the Muslims (Northeastern Africa) conquered Ghana which was strange because Ghana was much more wealthier and powerful than they were.
The Aztecs invaders came from the north. They all went to the ballet of Mexico.
The rights of englishman
rights of Englishman were first written down in the Magna Carta (Great Charter)
Hohokam And Anasazi
The Hokoham and Anasazi cultures went into decline. Nobody knows why it did, some people that a drought happened and caused that to happened.
Mali's Famous Empire
Mali's most famous ruler was " Mansa Musa" came to power. He made it one of the worlds largest Empires at the time. For all the his schools were all learning Muslim nothing else but that.
Mansa Musa (Pilgrimage-Sacred City/ Journey) it showed wealth in his journey. 60,000 people dressed up with him during this journey (Persian Silk). Also 500 slaves followed him each carrying 5 LBS of Gold. There camels also had bags on there backs.
Aztecs built Tenochtitlán
Aztecs settled on a snake-infested island in Lake Texcoco. They ate snakes to survive, and they eventually built the city Tenochtitlán.
In the 1400's Europe started ages of exploration that could carry voyagers to Africa, Asia, and America.
In the late 1400's more groups of Indians were entering the Southwest included the following two ( Apache, Navajo).
first time ordinary people could afford bibles.
Portugal had enslaved Africans to work overseas on plantations and Spain followed them.
Portuguese Started to Grow?
Portuguese started to grow Sugar Cane on the Cape Verde Islands off the African coast. Sugar cane is basically like sugar that is like a stick figure.
In the early 1400's Prince Henry became interested in the unknown ocean on Portugal's coastline. Many people thought that the sea boiled at the equator, filled with sea monsters, and ferocious.
Renaissance spreade throughout Europe.
Two Richest Cities
In the mid 1400's these two cities were apart of the richest and most powerful cities in Europe, for the Mediterranean sea( crossroads of the western world). The two cities were Vince and Genoa.
Mali Is Taken Control Of
Led my the Muslims Sunni Ali Songhai took control of Mali. He was the fist king of Songhai Empire which was located in West Africa. Many cities were captured and destroyed including Mali and many more.
voyagers had reached the mouth of the Senegal River.
The Portuguese first sailed across the equator.
Cabot to England
! Cabot set out to from England with a crew of eighteen. He crossed the Atlantic in two months and reached the northeastern coast of North America.
West Coast Of Africa
built a fort on the West coast of Africa. During that time they would set up trading pots along the way, when they were making the fort. For the trading posts they would exchange goods at there local traders.
Columbus came to the king Portugal with a idea. The scientists (kings) thought that the math wasn't right at all. But Portuguese were making good progress exploring the African coast.
Bartolomaeu Dias sailed around the tip of Africa.
Three ships were sailed by Christopher Columbus that landed in America (U.S.A).
Three ships, The Niña, Pinta, and Santa Marie left the harbor on the southwest course, Columbus wanted to meet latitudes. But the wind blew them west. He re-stocked his ships with wood, water, and meat.
Ferdinand and Isabella
They sailed homeward with hopeful resorts for Ferdranand and Isabella.
He set out to establish a kingdom. Seventeen ships set out, they all carried stuff to re create Spain on the Hispaniola ( today what is known as Haiti and Dominican Republic)
Cabot From England
set out from England with a crew of eighteen. He crossed the Atlantic in two months he reached the Northeastern of North America.
Portuguese explorer Vasco De Gama sailed out to fulfill the King's hope. He followed the route of Good Hope,then traveled north along the eastern coast of Africa to Malindi ( present day Kenya).
Cabot Sails Again
Cabot again sailed west England hoping to reach Japan. He was never seen again.
Africans Were Brought To America
75,000 Africans were brought over to America to work as slaves.
Filipinos were brought to Mexico with a few Japanese, Chines, and Cambodians were also slave in Spain's American colonies. But the slave trade for the Asians were never really large.
Gold And Silver
American Gold/Silver made Spain a rich nation.
wars between Holland, France, and Germany.
Tensions With Catholics And Protestants
with the Catholics and the Protestants in France. The french king was Catholic, but a growing number of French people were starting to be Protestants.
The African trade was apart of the Atlantic World
Mariner explored South America's coast for Portugal. Amerigo Vespucci thought he saw Asia and wasn't. It was quoted another continent.
Columbus Died (treatment by the Monarchs).
The lookout on the Pinta sighted land. No one was sure where Columbus landed.
Leon led the first exploration to Puerto Rico. He found gold, Soon Indians were mad to mine streams for gold, grew food for Spaniards, and carried their burdens. Leon became the richest man in the west Indies.
The Spanish conquistadors invaded Jamaica.
Valazquez conquered Cuba. He terrorized and massacred the Arawak.
The Five Groups
(Five different groups) Iroquois- The Cayuya, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca all joined as a group.
Vasco Núñez had many of Spanish adventures with Columbus. They went to the settlement at Darien on the Atlantic side of Isthmus of Panama.There Balboa heard Indian reports of another ocean. To find it Balboa formed a expedition.
Las Casas freed his Indians and gave up his Island grant. For the next fifty years he fought against people that abused the Indians. They called him "Protector of Indians"
Johann Tetzel was a Roman Catholic monk. A crowd had gathered around him and he sold forgiven for sins.
The King Of Spain
The king of Spain was introduced to Ferinand Magellan who was born in Portugal. He was a navigator who had sailed with Portuguese ships to India and the the Spice Islands. He laid out a plan to sail west to the Indies. He told the king that there was or could find a underwater passage.
Cortes landed on the coast of Yucatan. There would be challenged by the Mayan army of 12,000. The mayans probably would have defeated if the Cortes had not sent out his small calvary.
Magellan set off from Spain with five ships and two hundred and forty men. The ships crossed the Atlantic (rough) and turn south along the coast of South America.
Cortes Set Out to Tenochtitlan
Cortes set out to Tenochtitlan. Along the way he courted to the many Indian groups resented the Aztec ruler.
Ponce De Leon
Ponce De Leon returned to Flordia with 200 men and he landed on the west coast.
Victoria and it's crew of Europeans and four Indians arrived home.
King Afonso, ruler of Kongo Kingdom. He protested the slave trade in a letter to the King of Portuguese.
A force of 400 set out with Narvaez to Rio Grande.
Naravaez divided his group
Narvaez divided his group but still went to Rio Grande. Narvaez's group headed inland and wandered for awhile.
80 Men Beached?
80 men beached near present day Galveston, Texas. By spring only 15 were alive. They spent years as slaves and Indians.
Marcos De Niza
He sent out a small group scouting party on the trail North. The head of this group is Marcos De Niza.
Francisco Pizzarro and 180 men set off to for the Northern part of Peru.
Lima was founded
They reached as a Spanish outpost welcomed as heros, The four survivors were soon in Mexico City.
He had landed at Tampa Bay with a force of 600 fighting men.
1539 - 1542
The three expeditions headed north, each hoped to find Cibola, Franciso and Vasques De Coronado.
Coronado was ready to head north. His expedition came from the north coast of Mexico. There were 300 soldiers, servants and there children took care of 5,000 sheep, 500 head of cattle, 600 pack mules, and 5552 horses.
1540 - 1541
Winter cornado first met the Plains Indians.
De Soto died of a fever along the lower Mississippi River to prevent the Indians to know about his death.
North Americas west coast Juan Rodriguez cabrillo set sail from Navidad, Mexico.
The Prodaim strict rules over how Indians should be treated. The new rules came to the Indians. But most of them were already been wiped out or from cruel treatmnts
Verrazano sailed westward to look for a Northwest passage.
Spanish plotted to return England Catholicism.
group of french colonists established Fort Caroline present day Jacksonville,Fl. Nobleman thought they would find gold.
Fort Caroline was destroyed by the Spanish.
ship sailed and had been attacked by Spanish sailors.
most famous accomplishment was when a ship sailed straight of Magellan.
England's first colony nagan
colonist thought that white should do a trip to England.
White Set Sail With His Daughter
set sailed with his daughter, son in-law, and more than 100 men/women. They repaired earlier settlers cottages in Roanoke.
summer time, The Armada of 130 ships sailed forth. It carried 8,000 sailors, 19,000 soldiers, and hundreds of Priest.
White Got Stuck!
got stuck in England. A relief ship was supposed to have come. But instead in every ship sailor had to fight against "Spanish Armada".
White finally reached Roanoke
of Africans n Virginia whether servants are free or remained small.
English stopped in the middle result of civil war turmoil
of immigrants came to tabocco farms for labor.
Many families went to backcountry to escape Agriculture
Mexico's population was 25 million in 1500 then shrunk to 2 million.
New England's minister was effected by Cotton Mather
Samuel De Canplain
Samuel De Champlain founded a french Captain.
The Southern colonies moved toward plaintations for Agriculture
The Spanish Divided
The Spanish divided the land into huge estates. The systems of Indians to the land was stopped.
were two clusters of English colonist in America.
James granted each company of charter to set up outposts in the north.
ships set sail with 100 men and boys=, who were all volunteers.
Jamestown was found
Virginia's population went to 2,500
sales went down.
The ships entered the Great Bay
Dutch Merchants hired an English man. Henry HUdson to find a route to China in a small ship called "Half Moon".
Smith was hurt in a Gunpowder explosion
Trip again to North America
Henry made another trip to North America. He sailed under banner of his own country (England).
Dutch ship carried 20 Africans as servants that were indentured. They were the first Africans to be brought to the colonies.
House of Burgesses was eastablished
Populations in Virginia was 600
New England Colony's population (500 settlers)
Mayflower arrived off the cape Cod on the Massachusetts coast.
in in the fall there was the three day celebration (thanksgiving).
Virginia's population 2,000
The Powhatan killed one third of Virginians colonist
bay company had been given to a royal charter to settle in the land of New England.
Great migration Begins
of of Puritan families pored out of England America, who were emigrants (40,000).
Settlers fled from New England due to problems
The Migration Stated
migration started! A fleet ship II carried 400 passengers, 240 cows, and 60 horses. The arrival doubled the white population of New England.
Harvard college was found
Williams and his group
and a small group was found colony and became Rhode Island.
Hutchinson left to Rhode Island
left to Rhode Island (Rogue Island) by people in Massachusetts.
All beaver in the Hudson were trapped
The civil war started
rebellion against Charles I
Dutch Ship arrived in New Amsterdam carrying a new governor.
Defeating and beheaded the king
First navigation Act
Jewish settlers arrived in Stuyvesant and didn't allow them out. He wrote the West Indies a letter about what he should do.
wanted to expand New Netherlands attacked the neighboring colony of New Sweden.
The French empire in the North America and the under the Great Lakes
La Salle took notes as the Seneca told about there homeland
1668 - 1669
First Charles town built
A missionary priest and fur trader (Louis Joilet) set out to find the truth
Marquette and Joliet explored Mississippi
Puritan Colonies went to war with New England Indians over land.
First challenge to English authority comes from Virginia
Leing of France gave Le Salle request
La Salle crossed the Great Lakes by boat
Pueblo Warriors encircled Santa Fe, demanding the Spanish leave.
La salle set out with 23 french colonist and 31 Indians
La Salle reaches Gulf Of Mexico
La Salle set out to France to establish Mississippi Delta
The kind of France
The king of France began persecuting the French (aka Huguenots).
Glorious revolution in England
The kind was making plans to return England and Cathlicism
English bill of rights
King Williams war begin
The conflict broadened in when France and England to war
The Crown Force
Crown Forced a new charter in Massachusetts. The governor was chosen by crown.
A believer in witchcraft caused a panic in Massachusetts
Salem witchcraft trails
!!The colonial governments are followed a similar pattern, each colony was ruled by a governor. They guy must be white and over 21.
Colonies, The Middle colonies, and The Southern Colonies
France held the two main access points to the interior
Languages you can study in New England
Some parts of Mississippian culture lasted till late 1700's. This culture included the Europeans in lower Mississippi. Later Indians couldn't say who built the mounds. But the Southeast Indian cultures were descendants to the mound builders.
More than 20% Southerners were black
New group of people came derectly from England
Population of France (1,500)
Shipbuilding and fishing mad Boston the richest and largest
There were few white servants on Plantations
had few rights. Men spoke for them, they had no independent status. Finally they made a law for freedom of womankind.
Queen Anne's War
1702 - 1748
Scotland merged with Scotland to make the United Kingdom
All of London were curious about royal visters (4 kings)
Christopher Hussey was caught in a storm and driven far out (Alantic)
More French settlements in Louisiana, and other forts along the Mississippi
25% of New Englanders belonged to chruches
Philadelphia had dozens of shipyards
Cotton Martger led the campaign in New England
Five nations put together
crown took over Caroline from proprietors. That were in divided colonies. Which were north and South Carolina.
One more colony
more colony, Georgia was founded. The English government found it as a military outpost.
The governor's supporters were defeated in a city election
America's bet Lawyer
best lawyer in Philadelphia defended in Zenger trial.
poem printed called for Equal Laws "More Freedom For Womankind" or give men kind less.
Ministers sent from house to house telling them to return to there faith
1744 - 1748
French colonist numbered barely 80,00, compared over 1,000,000
overturned after settlers complained. He outlawed trading with Indians. Limited how much land was owned and large slavery plantations, grew rapidly.