They appeared after the Glacial period. They also manufacture there own tools and bones.
Humans started to migrate from Asia and Europe.
They were the first people to ever enter the American Contention.
It's a long term of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere.
The Nile River began in in Nubia.
The Savanna desert started to dry up. This could have been the start of the worlds largest desert (Sahara).
Egyptians were unified under on ruler called the " Pharaoh".
Giza, Egypt was built the Pyramids.
that we're living in the American Southwest started to grow squash and corn. Then eventually started to grow beans and they later relied on the indian's " Three Sisters" ( corn, squash, beans).
Olmec introduced there traditions and skills. Now there people influence Mesoamerica for centuries.
The entire population was 6.5 million people. Half of the the population lived in North Africa.
Nubians built their strongest and longest kingdom (Kush).
Senkamenisken ruled Nubia.
Aksum invaded Kush and later destroyed the kingdom.
attempt to destroy the worls trade center/twin towers.
This was called the "Middle Ages" also known as the Medieval Times. It separated from ancient time and modern time.
people from the north had successfully toppled the western part of the Roman Empire. That was called the "Germanic Invasion". There were new languages and new ways to take hold of Europe.
Islam was founded by Muhammed in Arabia. People that we're following Islam were called " Muslim" . They moved southward in the year 1000.
The Hopewell people took the hills and made big earth works for defense. Which means
Maya cities (the city) collapsed. Temples were burned down. Rulers were also burned at the stack. Scholars think the city was was destroyed by a revolution (there people).
were invaders that attacked from the north. They were called "Vikings". They raided, traded, and explored. They settled in wide areas like Asia, Europe, and north Atlantic islands.
Maya culture declined in Guatemala lowlands
The vikings adventurer explored the coast of North America. One group was lead by Leif Ericson. They set up outpost which is something to do with there settlement. Other Norths man settled in to the European Society and became Christians
In the early 1000's Ghana dominated West Africa.
The army of the Muslims (Northeastern Africa) conquered Ghana which was strange because Ghana was much more wealthier and powerful than they were.
The Aztecs invaders came from the north. They all went to the ballet of Mexico.
rights of Englishman were first written down in the Magna Carta (Great Charter)
The Hokoham and Anasazi cultures went into decline. Nobody knows why it did, some people that a drought happened and caused that to happened.
Mali's most famous ruler was " Mansa Musa" came to power. He made it one of the worlds largest Empires at the time. For all the his schools were all learning Muslim nothing else but that.
Mansa Musa (Pilgrimage-Sacred City/ Journey) it showed wealth in his journey. 60,000 people dressed up with him during this journey (Persian Silk). Also 500 slaves followed him each carrying 5 LBS of Gold. There camels also had bags on there backs.
Aztecs settled on a snake-infested island in Lake Texcoco. They ate snakes to survive, and they eventually built the city Tenochtitlán.
Renaissance spreade throughout Europe.
In the mid 1400's these two cities were apart of the richest and most powerful cities in Europe, for the Mediterranean sea( crossroads of the western world). The two cities were Vince and Genoa.
In the early 1400's Prince Henry became interested in the unknown ocean on Portugal's coastline. Many people thought that the sea boiled at the equator, filled with sea monsters, and ferocious.
In the late 1400's more groups of Indians were entering the Southwest included the following two ( Apache, Navajo).
In the 1400's Europe started ages of exploration that could carry voyagers to Africa, Asia, and America.
Portuguese started to grow Sugar Cane on the Cape Verde Islands off the African coast. Sugar cane is basically like sugar that is like a stick figure.
Portugal had enslaved Africans to work overseas on plantations and Spain followed them.
first time ordinary people could afford bibles.
Led my the Muslims Sunni Ali Songhai took control of Mali. He was the fist king of Songhai Empire which was located in West Africa. Many cities were captured and destroyed including Mali and many more.
voyagers had reached the mouth of the Senegal River.
The Portuguese first sailed across the equator.
! Cabot set out to from England with a crew of eighteen. He crossed the Atlantic in two months and reached the northeastern coast of North America.
built a fort on the West coast of Africa. During that time they would set up trading pots along the way, when they were making the fort. For the trading posts they would exchange goods at there local traders.
Columbus came to the king Portugal with a idea. The scientists (kings) thought that the math wasn't right at all. But Portuguese were making good progress exploring the African coast.
Bartolomaeu Dias sailed around the tip of Africa.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain.svg After waiting six years Columbus was going to give up on Spain and offer his own service to France. Isabella's armies took Granada defeated them. The Monarchs achieved there goal/ dream. Now Spain was going to start to consider Columbus's dream.
Three ships were sailed by Christopher Columbus that landed in America (U.S.A).
Three ships, The Niña, Pinta, and Santa Marie left the harbor on the southwest course, Columbus wanted to meet latitudes. But the wind blew them west. He re-stocked his ships with wood, water, and meat.
They sailed homeward with hopeful resorts for Ferdranand and Isabella.
He set out to establish a kingdom. Seventeen ships set out, they all carried stuff to re create Spain on the Hispaniola ( today what is known as Haiti and Dominican Republic)
set out from England with a crew of eighteen. He crossed the Atlantic in two months he reached the Northeastern of North America.
Portuguese explorer Vasco De Gama sailed out to fulfill the King's hope. He followed the route of Good Hope,then traveled north along the eastern coast of Africa to Malindi ( present day Kenya).
Cabot again sailed west England hoping to reach Japan. He was never seen again.
wars between Holland, France, and Germany.
Filipinos were brought to Mexico with a few Japanese, Chines, and Cambodians were also slave in Spain's American colonies. But the slave trade for the Asians were never really large.
with the Catholics and the Protestants in France. The french king was Catholic, but a growing number of French people were starting to be Protestants.
75,000 Africans were brought over to America to work as slaves.
American Gold/Silver made Spain a rich nation.
Mariner explored South America's coast for Portugal. Amerigo Vespucci thought he saw Asia and wasn't. It was quoted another continent.
Columbus Died (treatment by the Monarchs).
The lookout on the Pinta sighted land. No one was sure where Columbus landed.
Leon led the first exploration to Puerto Rico. He found gold, Soon Indians were mad to mine streams for gold, grew food for Spaniards, and carried their burdens. Leon became the richest man in the west Indies.
The Spanish conquistadors invaded Jamaica.
Valazquez conquered Cuba. He terrorized and massacred the Arawak.
Vasco Núñez had many of Spanish adventures with Columbus. They went to the settlement at Darien on the Atlantic side of Isthmus of Panama.There Balboa heard Indian reports of another ocean. To find it Balboa formed a expedition.
(Five different groups) Iroquois- The Cayuya, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca all joined as a group.
Las Casas freed his Indians and gave up his Island grant. For the next fifty years he fought against people that abused the Indians. They called him "Protector of Indians"
Johann Tetzel was a Roman Catholic monk. A crowd had gathered around him and he sold forgiven for sins.
The king of Spain was introduced to Ferinand Magellan who was born in Portugal. He was a navigator who had sailed with Portuguese ships to India and the the Spice Islands. He laid out a plan to sail west to the Indies. He told the king that there was or could find a underwater passage.
Cortes landed on the coast of Yucatan. There would be challenged by the Mayan army of 12,000. The mayans probably would have defeated if the Cortes had not sent out his small calvary.
Magellan set off from Spain with five ships and two hundred and forty men. The ships crossed the Atlantic (rough) and turn south along the coast of South America.
Cortes set out to Tenochtitlan. Along the way he courted to the many Indian groups resented the Aztec ruler.
Ponce De Leon returned to Flordia with 200 men and he landed on the west coast.
Victoria and it's crew of Europeans and four Indians arrived home.
King Afonso, ruler of Kongo Kingdom. He protested the slave trade in a letter to the King of Portuguese.
A force of 400 set out with Narvaez to Rio Grande.
Narvaez divided his group but still went to Rio Grande. Narvaez's group headed inland and wandered for awhile.
80 men beached near present day Galveston, Texas. By spring only 15 were alive. They spent years as slaves and Indians.
He sent out a small group scouting party on the trail North. The head of this group is Marcos De Niza.
Francisco Pizzarro and 180 men set off to for the Northern part of Peru.
Lima was founded
They reached as a Spanish outpost welcomed as heros, The four survivors were soon in Mexico City.
He had landed at Tampa Bay with a force of 600 fighting men.
The three expeditions headed north, each hoped to find Cibola, Franciso and Vasques De Coronado.
Winter cornado first met the Plains Indians.
Coronado was ready to head north. His expedition came from the north coast of Mexico. There were 300 soldiers, servants and there children took care of 5,000 sheep, 500 head of cattle, 600 pack mules, and 5552 horses.
Verrazano sailed westward to look for a Northwest passage.
The Prodaim strict rules over how Indians should be treated. The new rules came to the Indians. But most of them were already been wiped out or from cruel treatmnts
De Soto died of a fever along the lower Mississippi River to prevent the Indians to know about his death.
North Americas west coast Juan Rodriguez cabrillo set sail from Navidad, Mexico.
Spanish plotted to return England Catholicism.
group of french colonists established Fort Caroline present day Jacksonville,Fl. Nobleman thought they would find gold.
Fort Caroline was destroyed by the Spanish.
ship sailed and had been attacked by Spanish sailors.
most famous accomplishment was when a ship sailed straight of Magellan.
set sailed with his daughter, son in-law, and more than 100 men/women. They repaired earlier settlers cottages in Roanoke.
colonist thought that white should do a trip to England.
got stuck in England. A relief ship was supposed to have come. But instead in every ship sailor had to fight against "Spanish Armada".
summer time, The Armada of 130 ships sailed forth. It carried 8,000 sailors, 19,000 soldiers, and hundreds of Priest.
Samuel De Champlain founded a french Captain.
were two clusters of English colonist in America.
of immigrants came to tabocco farms for labor.
of Africans n Virginia whether servants are free or remained small.
Mexico's population was 25 million in 1500 then shrunk to 2 million.
The Spanish divided the land into huge estates. The systems of Indians to the land was stopped.
James granted each company of charter to set up outposts in the north.
ships set sail with 100 men and boys=, who were all volunteers.
sales went down.
Dutch Merchants hired an English man. Henry HUdson to find a route to China in a small ship called "Half Moon".
Henry made another trip to North America. He sailed under banner of his own country (England).
Dutch ship carried 20 Africans as servants that were indentured. They were the first Africans to be brought to the colonies.
Mayflower arrived off the cape Cod on the Massachusetts coast.
in in the fall there was the three day celebration (thanksgiving).
bay company had been given to a royal charter to settle in the land of New England.
of of Puritan families pored out of England America, who were emigrants (40,000).
migration started! A fleet ship II carried 400 passengers, 240 cows, and 60 horses. The arrival doubled the white population of New England.
and a small group was found colony and became Rhode Island.
left to Rhode Island (Rogue Island) by people in Massachusetts.
rebellion against Charles I
Dutch Ship arrived in New Amsterdam carrying a new governor.
Jewish settlers arrived in Stuyvesant and didn't allow them out. He wrote the West Indies a letter about what he should do.
wanted to expand New Netherlands attacked the neighboring colony of New Sweden.
Puritan Colonies went to war with New England Indians over land.
Pueblo Warriors encircled Santa Fe, demanding the Spanish leave.
The king of France began persecuting the French (aka Huguenots).
Crown Forced a new charter in Massachusetts. The governor was chosen by crown.
Some parts of Mississippian culture lasted till late 1700's. This culture included the Europeans in lower Mississippi. Later Indians couldn't say who built the mounds. But the Southeast Indian cultures were descendants to the mound builders.
!!The colonial governments are followed a similar pattern, each colony was ruled by a governor. They guy must be white and over 21.
had few rights. Men spoke for them, they had no independent status. Finally they made a law for freedom of womankind.
Colonies, The Middle colonies, and The Southern Colonies
crown took over Caroline from proprietors. That were in divided colonies. Which were north and South Carolina.
more colony, Georgia was founded. The English government found it as a military outpost.
best lawyer in Philadelphia defended in Zenger trial.
poem printed called for Equal Laws "More Freedom For Womankind" or give men kind less.
overturned after settlers complained. He outlawed trading with Indians. Limited how much land was owned and large slavery plantations, grew rapidly.
He decided to leave 10,000 British soldiers behind.
That was for to keep communication.
They left on horseback for Massachusetts.
She was the wife of John Adams watched the British 170 ships, carrying 9,00 soldiers, and 1,000 American loyalist.
He presented the continental congress with several resolutions or proposals to be voted on.
He moved from nova scotia.First seaborne army ever launched.
He was a explorer who walked into the offices of Virginia's governor.
He is the Spanish governor of Louisiana captured British strongholds of Natchez and Baton Rouge.
-Impartial to both sides of war
-The task on Whisky
-They made there grain in
shows a battle during King Phillips War.
Government was encouraging Indians to move west of the Mississippi river.
The Cherokee went further. They adopted the constitution based on the US.
Washington, D.C was full of excitement because of Jackson being sworn into being president.
The settlers on banned the intro of more slaves
Teaching them to read had been illegal since Nat Turners Rebellion
Was caused by the panic.
Thousands of Irish's and Germans immigrants landed on American shores.
It was a issue because Harrison's dad owned a plantation when he was a young boy.
He chose William Henry Harrison of Ohio to tun for President and John Taylor of Virginia to tun for Vice president.
It was one of the biggest migrations.
The north had more wealth,factories,bigger cities, and more people than the south.
These cities were almost a quarter of Irish
That is known as New Mexico and Arizonio for 10 million dollars.
Slavery issue once more entered the halls of congress.
This group of antislavery northerns banded together and organized the Republican party in the sumer.
Congressional election , republicans defeated 35 of the 42 northerns democrats.
Kansas had two governments, official proslavery government, and official antislavery government.
A proslavery group attacked the Kansas town of lawrence. They burned homes and stores.
A landmark case in the slavery debate came before the supreme court. http://publications.newberry.org/lincoln/files/display/155/fullsize
Congressional election, the republicans again campaigned against northern democrats willing to make a deal with the souyh.
John Brown and 18 followers,13 whites, and 5 blacks attacked the the US arsenal at Harper's Ferry in Western Virginia.
The election could be seen as two different races, one in the North and one in the South.
South Carolina led the way, seceding from the union.
The union was completely unprepared for war.
The union troops in the west spent most of there time preparing for war.
Lincoln announced that he he was sending relief expeditions to both Fort Sumter and Fort Pickens.
The confederate congress voted to set-up its capital in Richmond, Virginia.!!
Union troops began the march of Manassas.
The union took most of the confederacy major harbors. For example important Atlantic Harbor.
Mcclellan finally made his move. He planned to attack Richmond by way of York Peninsula.
General Ulyaaes S. Grant made a bold move to take Tennessee.
Lincoln announced to free all slaves in rebelling states.
He had finally taken Vicksburg after a three month siege.
A union fleet led by David Farragut took New Orleans.
enter WWII following the attack on Pearl Harbor.
and their allies won.
Afghanistan (USA helps Afghanistan through Osma Bin Landin).
They withdraw from Afghanistan, it dissolves and becomes Russia, Taiban and Al Queda gain power in Afghanistan.
declare war against terrorism. USA and allies attack Allies attacked Al Qaeda In Afghanistan. USA Creates "Homeland Security"
attacked the USA by hijacking airplanes and using there missiles world trade center/twin towers- New York Ciy.
schedule to leave Afghanistan.