The Vedas show a very boisterous society where the Aryans and Dravidians did not get along with the other people of India either.The characteristics of the Vedas shows that the Aryans often fought with the Dravaidians attacking the Dravidian city and destroying their irrigation system.Even though these to societies fought it is also known that they had some peaceful encounters.Aryans learned about the land and used some of the Dravidian agriculture techniques.Even so the drive for more land caused tensions between the areas.The Aryans also fought themselves. This fighting was due to the fact that they didn't have 1 common government but instead had 100's of chiefdoms organized around the different agricultural villages. The Aryans search for more land made them set out for India.
By about 800 BCE many poleis had emerged as the political center of Greece. During the next century the population grew exponentially. There became so many people that the Greeks had to expanded onto islands of the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea.Later on they expanded to Sicly and southern Italy.The settlements on the Black Sea offered access to abundant resources such as grain, fish, fur, timber, honey, wax gold, and slaves that were captured in Russia.The Greek presence quickly quickened the tempo of social life in the Mediterranean.
Around 800 BCE Greek city-states, called polis or poleis(plural), began to form around the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The term polis originally referred to a fortified site that offered a safe haven for local communities during times of war and emergency. The Greek poleis took various political forms. Some of the differences show that each of the poleis emerged as independent city-states.A few poleis developed as small monarchies but most were ruled by oligarchs. A few of the poleis fell into the hands of tyrants which are generals or ambitious polititions who come into power by abnormal ways. The most important poleis were Athens and Sparta.
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings.Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. it is a religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul, some were extreme aesthetics.The influence of Jainism affected both Buddhism and Hinduism later on.
Greek thinkers in cosmopolitan cities were working with scientific and mathematical thinking processes. This knowledge reached for thousands of miles from places like Mesopotamia to China to Egypt. They did not accept greek myths for the explanation of worldly items. these people relied more on facts given to them by observable evidence, reasoning and thought.one of the first big scientific discoveries was made by Democratis who suggested that all physical matter was made up of little indivisible particles called atoms.the most distinctive expression of classical Greek thought is said to be philosophy. Philosophy brings the power of reason on human issues as well as problems the world faces. You will read throughout history about many life changing philosophers.
As Greece grew the need for more resources came up quickly. The need to trade was the only solution.People all around the Mediterranean Sea began sailing their goods around the world through the Mediterranean sea. For one of the first times in history cities had to begin to play a major role in their societies economic well being.
Solon was an aristocrat in Athens that served as a mediator between classes, and he figured out a solution to class tensions in Attica. Solons compromise between the classes consisted of him allowing aristocrats to keep their land rather than him take it and give it to the landless and the poor. Instead he canceled debt , forbid debt slavery, and freed those who were already enslaved for debt. Solon also provided representation for the common classes in the Athenian government by opening councils of the polis to any citizen rich enough to spend their time in public problems.Athenian leaders increased opportunities for commoners to participate in government.
According to Chinese tradition Laozi founded daoism when he was a sage. Daoism represented an effort to understand the fundamental character of the world and nature. The main concept of Daoism is dao. Dao means "the way" or more specifically "the way of nature" or "the way of cosmos". In the Daodejing dao figures as the original eternal and unchanging principle that governs how the world works. if these were the principles that ruled the world then it followed that us humans should change our ways to its nature. Early daoists recognized the cheif virtue of Wuwei. Wuwei is disengagement from the competitive nature and involvement in the issues of the world. this required that everyone try to prevent their learning of advanced knowledge and to prevent themselves from striving to be the best. The less educated people the fewer people able to govern the area. they believed the less government the better.
He is the first Chinese thinker who addressed the problem of political and social order in a self conscious way. He was Kong Fuzi or as known in English Confucius. He came from an aristocratic family. He was very strong willed and often didnt get along with other family members.Something that did not surprise the people was that he did not compromise his beliefs in the interest of politics.For about 10 years he traveled to courts throughout northern China but none were willing to take on this cantankerous worker. So he returned to Lu (in China) where he died 5 years later. While Confucius was alive he emphasized 3 qualities ren, li, and xiao. Ren is his belief that an attitude of kindness and benevolence would make a good human being. Li is the sense of propriety. Xiao is the belief of filial piety. Filial piety told children to respect their elders, look after them in their old age, and remember them and their ancestors after their death.
the conflict between the Ionian Greeks and the Persians expanded when the poleis of peninsular Greece sent ships to help their people in Ionia. Darius created an expedition to try and stop future problems. By creating this expedition to conquer the wealthier Greek poleis and absorb them into his empire. But he failed. Xerxes sent out another expedition 10 years later but in less than 18 months he lost his battles on land and on water. For almost 150 years afterword the Persian Empire fought with the Greek cities.
The high point of Athenian power and prosperity came when Pericles ruled as a statesman.Even though he was born into an aristocratic family he was the most popular leader from 461 BCE-429 BCE. He held a lot of personal influence in the government. He supported building programs that provided employment for thousands of construction workers and various laborers.under his leadership Athens became the most sophisticated of all the poleis. Athens had a bright community of scientists, philosophers, poets, artists and so much more. Pericles believed that Athens was "the education of Greece"
The late centuries of the Zhoue dynasty brought political confusion to China and eventually led to the period of the warring states. The issues in the Zhou dynasty started long before the period of the warring states. In the early 8th century BCE the Zhou leaders began to face serious problems. In 771 BCE nomads from the east invaded China. They invaded during a time of weakness in the government. By 500 BCE territorial princes ignored the government and used their resources to build and expand their states.They fought hard to regain order off the state. The end of the Zhou dynasty was so violent that it became known as the period of they warring states.
Order returned to China after the emergence of a third school of thought.The legalist people promoted a practical and efficient way to approach statecraft. The legalists care nothing about the principles governing the world making them very diffreent from Daoists. Instead they devoted their attention to the state which they wanted to strengthen no matter what it cost. Shang Yang, Han Feizi, and other legalists figured out that the foundations of a strong government were agriculture and having a strong armed forces. Therefore they tried to force as many people as possible into the army and into farming.while they also discouraged them from becoming lawyers, entrepreneurs, scholars , educators, philosophers, poets, artists, since those lines of work did not directly improve the state. Legalists expected to follow strict laws that if broken resulted in extremely harsh punishment.
Philip of Macedon intended to use his conquering of Greece to launch his invasion to persia.When Philip was assassinated in 336 BCE the invasion of persia fell to his son Alexander of Macedon (Alexander the Great). At the age of 20 he began to create an army of about 48 thousand men to invade Persia. by 333 BCE he ruled Anatolia and Ionia. By the next year he ruled Palestine, and Egypt. In another year he ruled Mesopotamia and prepared to invade Persia. He took Pasagarde and burned down the Achaemenid palace in Persepolis. He was emperor of Persia by 330 BCE. In June of 323 BCE after a late night of partying and eating he suddenly fell ill and died suddenly at only 33 years old.
The Gupta Dynasty was risen on the foundations that Chandra Gupta. Chandra Gupta created alliances with powerful families in the Ganges region and began establishing a dynasty. This empire was smaller in size than the Mauryan dynasty.The Gupta's left the government and administration and even the hands of the various regions of their empire. Later in the 5th century BCE the empire split easily along the edges of the administrative boundaries. When the economy was stable there were many scholars that layed down the foundations for math and science discoveries today.The administrative talents and cultural creativity were not a good match for the invasions that destroyed their dynasty.
During Alexanders conquest he mixed cultures with that of his Greek soldiers. He built new cities which would serve as examples of Greek power and knowledge. These cities, most named Alexandria after Alexander of course, adopted many Greek patterns and customs. After Alexander died, Greek culture, trade and ideas continued to grow during the Hellenistic Age .Greece expanded greatly in culture, land ,population and culture during this time. This was the period with the most inventions that changed trade and how the economy worked forever.
Zoroastrianism rose as a result of Persia undergoing change where moral and religious thinkers set out to adapt their messages to the circumstances of a complex,cosmopolitan society. Zoroastrianism teaches semi-polytheistic beliefs. They believed that Ahura Mazda was the extreme deity who was an eternal and beneficial spirit who created all things that are good. Zarathustra also believed in 6 lesser deities who were represented in the Gathas. The Gathas are Zarathustra's hymns that he wrote in honor of the deities.
Inside the boundaries of the Roman empire a long time of peace came in the economic and political integration. Agustus brought peace to Rome by ending civil disturbances that had been ruining the city for hundreds of years he also destroyed the disturbances in other parts of the empire as well. his period as leader is now known as Pax Romana which means "Roman peace". This era lasted for almost 3 centuries.
Various people say that the Roman empire collapsed due to lead poisoning, radiation given off by bricks, immortality or the rise of Christianity. Although these were some of the causes the empire had much internal decay. In the empire there were 26 emperors,most of which lost power due to revolution by their own armys. divisions and factions caused some problems but since the Roman empire was so big it was hard to control the entire empire with only a few people.one of the military threats that Rome faced was the fact that Germany was getting to big and needed to expand into the existing empire causing war.
Hinduism is the main religion of India. It is a combination of early Aryan and Dravidian concepts. The goal of Hinduism is for the world to reach spiritual purity and be united with the worldly spirit.The concepts the believe are dharma(belief that obedience to religious and moral laws and order),karma (the belief that if you do unto others they will do unto you), and samsara (the cycle of death and rebirth to which life in the material world is bound).