Classical Era- Oliver


Zhou Dynasty

600 bc - 475 bc

Although it lasted from 1046 BC to 256 BC, the emperor was nearly powerless, real power lying in the hands of local warlords and kings.

Period of the Warring States

475 bc - 221 bc

A struggle for dominance between numerous Chinese kingdoms to rule all of China.


221 bc - 206 bc

The first dynasty after the period of the warring states, lasted only the lifetime of its founder.

Han Dynasty

206 bc - 220 ad

Took power after the Qin dynasty fell, in its early years brought stability and economic growth to China. In its later years it was brought down by political and social instability, including murderous Eunuchs.

Six Dynasties

220 - 581

A period of political chaos after the collapse of the Han dynasty, China was divided among several kingdoms each claiming to be emperor.


581 - 600

Lasting from 581 CE to 618 CE, China was united under the Sui dynasty for the first time in more than 350 years.



600 bc - 550 bc

The Median Empire controlled much of modern Persia, and was the first place to be taken over by Cyrus.

Achaemenid Empire

550 bc - 330 bc

The empire of Cyrus the Great, was the largest and most populated empire in the world for many years, its politics and cultures shaped the region for centuries.

Parthian and Seleucid Empires

330 bc - 224

The two empires that vied for control of Persia, the Seleucid Empire was ruled by Greeks, founded by one of Alexanders Generals. The Parthian Empire was ruled by native Persians, and eventually destroyed the Seleucids.

Sasanian Empire

224 - 600

The last non-Islamic empires to control Persia.


Roman Kingdom

600 bc - 509 bc

A kingdom consisting of little more than the city of Rome, founded by the legendary Romulus and Remus. Was overthrown by nobles who created the Republic.

Roman Republic

509 bc - 26 bc

A republic that put power in a senate full of aristocrats and nobles, with limited power going to plebeians. Saw the expansion of Rome from a city state to the dominant military and economic force in the Mediterranean.

Roman Empire

25 bc - 476

Formed when Augustus overthrew the Republic, the Roman Empire brought centuries of peace and prosperity in Pax Romania. Eventually split into two parts, and overthrown by barbarians.

Byzantine Empire

476 - 600

Also called the Eastern Roman Empire, proclaimed itself to be the true Roman Empire after the Western Roman Empire fell to barbarian invasion. It was ruled by Greeks and was the seat of the Orthodox church.



600 bc - 424 bc

A time period in early India which saw the creation of much of Indian culture and society. India was split between many small kingdoms and even some republics.

Nanda Empire

424 bc - 322 bc

An Empire which ruled all of North India until being overthrown by Chandragupta.

Maurya Empire

322 bc - 185 bc

Controlling all but the far south of India, the Mauryan Empire was the largest in Indian history. Ruled by Asoka, it saw centralization of trade and government.

Middle Kingdoms

185 bc - 320

A time in Indian history between Empires, when India was split between numerous small kingdoms.

Gupta Empire

320 - 600

An empire that all but the far south, it saw a golden age of Indian culture.


Archaic Greece

600 bc - 480 bc

A time period in which Greece saw the rise of the Polis, Athenian Democracy, and much of what we associate with Greek culture.

Delian League

480 bc - 404 bc

An alliance led by Athens who fought against the Persians and later against Sparta. The were disbanded after they lost the Peloponniesian war.


404 bc - 345 bc

A time when alternately Sparta or Thebes exercised Hegemony over the other Greek cities,


345 bc - 306 bc

When Greece was ruled by Phillip and Alexander of Macedon.

Antigonid Dynasty

306 bc - 146 bc

Was when Greece was ruled by the decedents of Antigonus, one of Alexander's generals.

Roman Greece

146 bc - 330

In 146 BC the Roman Republic conquered Macedonia and all of Greece and made it into a Roman Provence.

Byzantine Greece

330 - 600

After the Roman East-West split, Greece came under the rule of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine empire. After the fall of the western Roman Empire the Byzantine Emperors became ethnic Greeks.

Spice events

Green= Ecomomic

700 bc

Blue= Political

700 bc

Red= Social

700 bc

Yellow= Cultural

700 bc

Black= Interactions

700 bc


600 bc

Zoroaster founded the Zoroastrian religion, which was dominant in Persia until the Muslim conquest around 650 AD

First Gold and Silver Coins

600 bc

The first silver and gold coins were minted in the kingdom of Lydia, and adopted by Persia after they conquered Lydia.


563 bc - 483 bc

Buddha was an Indian prince that founded Buddhism, a religion that spread throughout India and southeast Asia. It is focused on eliminating suffering by eliminating desire.


558 bc - 530 bc

Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire of
Persia, one of the largest and most influential empires in the world for many years.


551 bc - 479 bc

Confucius spread his Philosophy of ethics and morality throughout China.

Athenian Democracy

550 bc

Around 550 BC, Athens and several surrounding cities adopted a system of representative democracy that would be the foundation of western democracy for thousands of years..

Roman Democracy

509 bc

Rome adopts a system of democracy and forms the senate.

Persian Wars

500 bc - 479 bc

A series of conflicts between the Persian Empire and Greek City states ending in Greek victory.

World population 100,000,000

500 bc

The world population is estimated to have exceeded one hundred million around 500 BC.

Persian tax system

500 bc

The tax system created by Darius I in 500 BC was one of the worlds most efficient, collecting taxes for a few Satrapys rather than individually. This tax system spread into India and Rome.

The Royal Road

500 bc

The Persian royal road connected the large empire, and allowed for Persian couriers to quickly deliver messages to even the most remote parts of the Empire.

Ionian Revolt

499 bc - 493 bc

The Ionian revolt was an uprising by Ionian Greeks against the Persian Empire. This would eventually lead to a cultural struggle between Greeks and Persians.

Secessio Plebis

494 bc

The secessio plebis was a conflict between the Plebeians and the Patritions in Rome leading to the creation of the tribune of the plebs.

Helot Revolt

465 bc

The oppressed Helots, a lower class than the Spartans that ruled over them, revolted.

Cast Iron

450 bc

Around the 5th century BC, the Chinese developed a new system of producing Iron, making warfare agriculture and construction more efficient.

The Twelve Tables

449 bc

The twelve tables were Rome's first code of law, and enforced social order by doing things such as banning marriage between patricians and plebeians, allowing for slavery, and implying men are better than woman.

Peloponnesian War

431 bc - 404 bc

A war for control of Greece between Sparta and Athens. Sparta Won.

The Plague of Athens

430 bc

An unknown and deadly plague the devastated Athens during the height of the Peloponnesian war.


428 bc - 348 bc

Plato was a Greek philosopher who wrote about Politics and Ethics among other things, who greatly affected Philosophical thought in classical Greece.


384 bc - 322 bc

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher, who was much more of a realist that Plato and believed in relying on your senses and exploring the nature of reality.


356 bc - 323 bc

Alexander the Great conquered everything from Macedonia to the Indus river, and paved the way for hundreds of years of Hellenic rule and spread Greek language and culture far and wide.


330 bc

In 330 BC, Alexander the great burned Persepolis, the cultural and architectural capital of the Persian Empire, and one of the greatest cities in the world at the time.

Via Appia

312 bc

In 312 BC, the Appian Way, the first major road in Rome was completed. A massive network of paved and well maintained roads connected all sides of the Roman Empire, allowing for easy trade.


300 bc

The Arthashastra was a economic paper written in Mauryan dynasty India, that had a major role in shaping Indian economics.

Unification of India

265 bc

During the reign of Asoka, all of India was either part of the Maurya Empire, or its vassal.

The Punic Wars

264 bc - 146 bc

A series of wars between Rome and Carthage ending with Roman conquest of Carthage.

Abolition of Feudalism In China

256 bc

China's feudal system was abolished almost as soon as the Zhou dynasty fell, leading so somewhat more freedom and equality for the peasant classes.

Unification of China

221 bc

In 221 BC, Qin declared himself Emporium of China, uniting the country for the first time since the period of the warring states began.


209 bc

With China unified, Qin took the opportunity to standardize weights, measurement, and currencies throughout the empire, allowing for more efficient trade and production.


200 bc

Around 200 BC, the Chinese invented paper, allowing for significantly more efficient writing and cartography.

Servile Wars

135 bc - 71 bc

The servile wars were a series of major slave revolts in Rome, showing the social instability between ruling classes and slaves in Rome.


106 bc - 43 bc

Cicero was a Roman politician and philosopher who had great effect on the Latin language and humanist philosophy.

The Silk Road

100 bc

Starting around 100 BC, the silk road was a vast trade network spanning across the most of the classical world, from China to Rome, and from India to Persia. Also Greece, although it was mostly a Roman province.


100 bc

Around 100 BC, Greeks invented the watermill, utilizing their environment to help them produce grain more efficiently.

Wang Mang

45 bc - 23 ad

Wang Mang was an emperor of China who implemented economic reforms to land distribution by taking all private land, and sweeping tax reforms.

Assassination of Julius Caesar

44 bc

Caesar's assassination, despite the fact that is was an attempt to save the republic, set off a coarse of events leading to the end of the Republic.


7 bc - 30 ad

Jesus of Nazareth spreads his teaching throughout Judea, which will eventually lead to the creation of the Christian religion.


0 ad

A holy Hindu text that dictates specific laws for the Indian caste system, furthering the social divide in India.


0 ad

The Indian Jāti system was a subdivision of the caste system, that divided castes into guilds, groups who had the same profession. They protected members of their own Jāti, making trade more easy.

Navigational Compass

75 ad

Around 75 AD the Chinese invented the compass, allowing for far safer and more efficient trade by sea.



Hippalus was a Greek merchant who discovered a route to India, increasing trade between the Hellenic world and the east.

Antonine Plague


A plague that killed millions across the Roman empire, brought from Persia by returning Roman troops.

Yellow Turban Rebellion

184 - 205

A bunch of peasants in Yellow Turbans rebelled against the Han Dynasty because the rich got all the land. Although they lost, it showed the instability of the later Han Dynasty.

Armenia converts to Christianity


In 301 AD, the king of Armenia became the first ruler to become Christian.

Constantine Converts to Christianity


Constantine the Great became the first Roman Emperor to be Christian, leading to the spread of the religion throughout the empire.

World Population 250,000,000


Around 350 AD the world population is estimated to be a quarter billion.

Sack of Rome


The sack of Rome by Vandals in 455 AD marked the beginning of the end for the Western Roman Empire.

Cotton Gin


Around 500 AD, Indians invented an early version of the cotton gin, greatly increasing productivity.

Plague of Justinian


A plague that started in the Byzantine empires, and killed tens of millions across Europe.